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Full text of "Family records [microform] : containing memoirs of Major General Sir Issac Brock, K.B., Lieutenant E.W. Tupper, R.N. and Colonel William de Vic Tupper, with notices of Major-General Tupper and Lieut. C. Tupper, R.N., to which are added, the life of Te-cum-seh, a memoir of Colonel Havilland de Mesurier, &c. &c. &c."

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M  E  M  O  1  H  S 





WITH    NOIICKS    or 
MAJOR-GENEHAI.   Tl  PPER    AND    LIKIT.    (      Tll'l'IlH,    |{.  \ 

TO   WIIICK    \ni;   ADDKI) 



\c'.     kf.     \c. 

BY    FEKDINAXD    BROCK    TL'PJM']!;,    KS'J. 

'  1  cannot  but  rcmcinhcr  such  things  were, 
That  wi'ie  most  iirocious  to  nic, " 

•-Ft.xKsi'i-.  Mil; 



MAV    ALSO    UK    HAI»    OK 


I  I 





<7'^<^/   // 


C  O  N  T  E  N  T  S . 

Memoir  (.f  Sir  Isaac  lirock ''"^'j 

. Lieutenant  E.  W.  Tapper j  | 

-  Colonel  Tnpi)er ,- 

Notice  of  Major- (Jeneral  'i'upper ,„j, 

Lieutenant  Carre  Tupper j  13 

N'isit  of  Indian  Chiefs  to  (ieorire  I\-  , ,  - 

"         I  lit 

Appendix  A.— Sir  Isaac  Tirock. 
Section  I.— British  Authors. 

1.  Military  F:xccution  at  Quebec ]23 

2.  Extract  from  Sir  G.  Prevost's  General  Order 121 

.'{.  Extracts  of  a  letter  from  Major  Glcjrg 12.-, 

4.  Extract  from  Quebec  Gazette ." jo^; 

'>.   Indian  Council  of  Condolence  at  Fort  Geor^re |-jh 

[J.  Verses  on  the  Death  of  Sir  Isaac  Urock .  ]2!) 

7.  Extracts  from  James's  INIilitary  Occurrences '  l;jO 

"^  •  ' Quarterly  Review |,j() 

^-  ~ Lieutenant  F.  Hall's  Travels 114 

^^-  ■" Howison's  Upper  Canada 117 

^  '• De  Roos'  Travels '  .  .'  i.-,|, 

'-• various  Authors i/j 

^'^-                            ^«'evv  Monthly  Mairazine.  K,'^ 

'  "•• Talbot's  Canada n, 

15.  Description  of  xMonument  in  St.  Paul's  Cathedral! .  1;)3 

16.  Re-interment  of  Sir  Isaac  Brock n, 

Section  II.— American  Authors. 

1.  Extracts  from  Niles'  Weekly  Register J58 

2.  Revolutionary  Services  of  General  Mull l()2 

."'.   Letter  from  Captain  Wool |(j^ 

4.  Extract  from  Jelferson's  Correspondence ](;; 





Appciiilix  li.  —  Lii'iiti'uiiiil  Iv  W .  'I'uppiT. 

I .  PoststTipt  oi'  the  (.DuricT I()8 

■J. (luernst'v  -^ilar ib. 

',i.  Extract  from  Whychcoltc  of  St.  John's Kiy 

1.  relative  to  Captain  Edward  Gordon 1"! 

."».  from  a  Portsmouth  Newspaper ib. 

(i.  Transcript  of  a  Letter  from  (i.  li.  Hamilton,  Esq..  .  172 

Appendix  C. — Colonel  'I'upper. 

1.  Certificate  relatinj;  to  a  Fire  at  Barcelona 173 

2.  Extracts  from  Lieut.  Bowers  Naval  Adventures.  .  .  .  ib, 

3. Kot/ebucs  Voyage 175 

-1.  Manifesto   (in  Spanish)    "del  Batallon  I'udeto".  ...  i7G 

.").  Extracts  from  (iencral  jNIiller's  Memoirs i/>. 

(i. relative  to  Colonel  Tupper 177 

7. (in  Krencii)  from  "  Le  Semeur" 17^ 

S. (in  Spimish)  from  (ieneral  Frcire's  pam])lilt't, 

with  translation I  79 

!).  Attack  on  brig  Achilles  by  Colonel  Tupper 180 

Appendix  1). — Coinciderces  relative  to  Sir  Isaac  Brock,  &c.  . .  1H2 

Appendix  E. — Speech  of  Sir  John  Doyle,  ^c 18j 

Appendix  F. — Life  of  Te-cum-seh,  with  various  extracts 188 

Supplement. — Memoir  of  Colonel  PL  Le  Mesuricr 211 


Brock's  Monument to  front Title  Page. 

Ooorl  Harbour Pa^e  ;i:i- 

.Mcilal I'agc  48, 

C  O  li  R  I  G  !•:  N  n  A  . 

Page  103.— Note  *.—Fiir  No.  0,    ft'iiil  No.  7. 

Page  I'.'H.— Line  :t.— Ktic  Potawatiniics,  reuri  Potawatiniie'. 

l','i|fe  ;gi,— Line  y.—  lu  ^ome  copies.;  For  liosoni,   'etui  bosom. 



J  fiy 



:s(,...  172 


s.  .  .  .  ib. 


....  176 


.    . . ] 77 
....  1 7^ 
. ...  1 79 

c.  .  .  ]  H'J 

....  18.3 

1 88 




11  IE  I..V1'E 

atajoii-ge:>tjial  sir  isaac  brock,  k.  b. 

.loy's  l)Uistiim-  slioiit  ill  whcliiiiiitc  grief  was  dniwiiil. 
And  Victory's  self  iiinvilliiiff  audience  found  j 
On  every  hrou-  the  cloud  (jf  Miilncss  hunir,— 
'I'lii"  simmN  of  triuiuiih  died  on  every  tonune ' 

This  officer  was  born  in  Guernsey  on  tlie  Gth  of 
October,  1700,  and  was  the  eiglitli  son  of  Jolni 
Brock,  Esq.,  wbo  by  bis  wife,  Ebzabetb  De  Lisle, 
daugbter  of  Daniel  De  Lisle,  Esq.,  Lieutenant  Bailitt', 
had  fourteen  cbildren.  His  family  was  nearly  con- 
nected by  marriage  with  those  of  De  Beauvoir,  Le 
Marcbant,  and  Saumarez,  some  of  the  most  ancient 
in  this  island.*  One  of  his  brothers,  John,  a  lieuto-- 
nant-colonel,    was   killed,    in    1802,    at  the  Cape  of 

Good  Hope,  in  a  duel  with  Captain  M ,  the  son 

of  a  baronet :  as  steward  of  a  public  ball,  he  very  pro- 
perly resi.^ted  the  introduction,  by  his  antagonist, 
of  a  female  of  a  disreputable  character,  and  the  result 
was  his  melancholy  fall.  Another  brother,  Ferdinand, 
a  subaltern  of  the  (iOth  regiment,   was  slam  in  the 

*  .Afajoi-Cnicral  T.c  ^iliirctiaiit  and  liis  oldest  son,  a  captain  in  the  Foot 
Guards,  wlio  both  toll  in  Spain  during'  the  lato  war;  and  Cai.tain  Sanmaic/, 
uho  was  Lord  Anson's  (irst  lieutenant  in  the  Centurion, and  was  slain  in  17 1?) 
while  eommandinj?  the  Nottingham,  of  ()4  guns  were  menihcrs  of  these 
families,  as  is  the  present  Admiral  Lord  De  haiimarez,  ennobled  for  his 
:listin;juished  naval  services, 

MK.MOIU    OK    SIU     ISAAC     lUlOCK. 

(lercncc  ol"  IJiitoii  llou2;e,  on  tlic  Mississippi,  in  the 
first  American  war.  The  subject  of  tiiis  memoir  [mr- 
chased  an  ensigncy  in  the  8th  regiment  shortly  after 
the  termination  of  tliat  war,  and  at  the  age  of  twenty- 
one  he  obtained  an  independent  company,  by  raising 
the  rc(|uisite  number  of  men  to  com])lete  it.  Kx- 
clianging  iuunediately  after  into  the  49th,  he  j)roceeded 
witli  liis  regiment  to  Jamaica,  but  was  compelled  to 
retiu'n  to  Rn2:hind  very  suddenly ,  liavina;  nearly  fallen 
a  victim  to  the  pestilential  efl'ects  of  the  climate,  and 
an  immediate  embarkation  being  pronounced  his  only 
chance  of  recovery.  Another  near  relative,  Lieute- 
nant Brock,  who  was  ill  with  him,  died  of  the  fever, 
and  the  survivor  always  thought  that  he  was  indebted 
for  his  life  to  the  aflectionate  attentions  of  his  servant, 
whom  he  afterwards  ever  treated  with  the  kindness  of 
a  brother,  until  he  died  in  his  service,  sliortly  before 
himself,  in  Canada.  Having  purcliased  the  succeed- 
ing steps  with  unusual  rapidity,  he  became  lieutenant- 
colonel  commanding  tlie  49tli  regiment,  on  the  25th 
October,  1797,  just  after  he  had  completed  his  twenty- 
eighth  year.  Owing  to  gross  mismanagement  and 
peculation  on  the  part  of  his  predecessor,  who  was  in 
consequence  recommended  privately  to  sell  out  if  he 
did  not  wish  to  stand  the  ordeal  of  a  court  martial, 
the  regiment  was  sadly  disorganised  ;  but  the  late 
Duke  of  York  was  heard  to  declare  that  Lieut.- 
Colonel  Brock,  from  one  of  the  worst,  had  made  the 

49th  one  of  the  best  regiments  in  the  service. 


the  campaign  in  Holland,  in  1799,  he  distinguished 
himself  at  the  head  of  his  regiment ;  a  horse  was  shot 
under  him,  and  his  life  w^as  in  all  probability  pre- 
served in  action,  on  a  very  cold  day,  by  his  wearing 
several  black  silk  cravats,  which  were  all  perforated 

,  in  the 
oir  [)iir- 
tly  after 
■  raisiiifr 
t.  Ex- 
elled  to 
y  fallen 
ite,  and 
lis  only 
e  fever, 
11  deb  ted 
Iness  of 

le  25th 
it  and 
I  was  in 
if  he 

ie  late 


le  the 

MKMOIR    OF    SIR    ISAAC     13U0CK. 









by  a  bullet,  and  ubicb  prevented  its  entering  his  neck. 
lie  was  second  in  connnand  of  the  land  forces  at  the 
memorable  attack   of  Co))enbagen   by   Lord   Nelson, 
in    ISOI,   and    was   aj)p()inted    to   lead    the    4!)th    in 
storming  the  principal  of  the  Treckroner  batteries,  in 
conjunction  with  five  hundred  seamen  under  C'ai)tain 
Fremantle ;    but   the    jjrotracted   and   heroic  defence 
of  the   Danes  rendering   the   attcfnpt   imj)raeticable, 
Lieut. -Colonel  Jirock,  during  this  hard-fought  battle, 
continued  on  board  the  Ganges,   of  74  guns,   com- 
manded by  that  excellent  officer,  the  late  Vice-Admiral 
Sir  Thomas   Fremantle.      Another   of   his  brothers, 
Savery,    served  under  him  in  the  49th  in  Holland, 
and  at  Copenhagen.      AN  bile  in  the  act  of  pointing 
one  of  the  guns  of  the  Ganges,  his  cocked  hat  was 
torn  from  his  head  by  a  cannon  or  grape  shot,  and  a 
naval  officer,  who  was  present,  recently  described  the 
scene  which   followed   this  narrow   escape  in   these 
W'ords :    "I  now  hear  Sir  Isaac  exclaim.  Ah!   poor 
Saverv  is  dead  !     ]^ut  Saverv  was  not  an  instant  on 
his  back;    in  the  same  moment  he  rubbed  bis  head, 
assured   his  brother  that   he  was   not   injured,   and 
fired  the  gun  with  as  much  coolness  as  if  nothing 
had    happened."*      In    the   following   year    Lieut. - 
Colonel  Brock  proceeded  to  Canada  w  ith  his  favorite 
49th,  and  there  remained,  with  only  one  intermission, 
wiien  he  returned  on  leave  to  Europe,  until  the  period 
of  his  death.     In  1803  or  1804,  he  quelled  a  serious 
mutiny  which  was  on  the  point  of  breaking  out  in 
the  regiment,  part  of  which  was  in  garrison  at  Niagara, 
under  the  command  of  the  junior  lieutenant-colonel, 
while   the   head   quarters   were   fixed   at   York,    the 

*  The  effect  of  tlie  i)all  passing  so  near  him  was  such,  that  altlioimh  a 
reniarkahly  tall,  athletic;  youtij^  man,  he  was  knocked  down  and  stunned 
for  a  moment. 


4  MKMOIR    OF    SIR    ISAAC    BROCK. 

cai)ital  of  the  U})ptM'  IVoviiicc.  This  otlicer,  it  seems, 
more  hy  useless  annoyance  tlian  by  actual  severity, 
had  exasperated  the  men  to  tliat  degree,  that  at  length 
they  formed  a  plot  to  rise  on  their  ofHcers,  and  to 
avenge  themselves  on  the  few  who  had  incurred  their 
resentment.  Far  be  it  from  us  to  justify  the  attempt, 
which  indeed  was  highly  criminal,  hut  in  all  such 
extreme  cases  we  hold  that  a  sad  abuse  of  power,  or 
a  gross  want  of  tact,  must  be  the  predominant  cause, 
and  that,  even  in  the  passive  obedience  of  a  military 
life,  there  may  be  a  limit  to  human  endurance.  The 
proximity  of  the  United  States  rendered  this  plot  a 
very  feasible  one,  as  the  men  in  a  body  could  have 
crossed  the  river  without  molestation  or  difficulty. 
Colonel  Brock  was  privately  informed,  it  appears,  by 
one  of  the  men,  of  the  conspiracy,  and  he  inmiediately 
proceeded  in  an  open  boat  from  York  to  Fort  George. 
On  his  arrival  he  ordered  the  detachment  under  arms, 
and  walking  up  to  a  sergeant,  whom  he  knew  to  be 
the  ringleader,  commanded  him  to  lay  down  his  pike. 
The  sergeant,  taken  by  surprise,  mechanically  obeyed, 
and  those  most  culpable  were  fortunately  secured 
without  the  slightest  resistance,  although,  we  believe, 
the  plot  was  to  have  been  carried  into  effect  that  very 
day.  On  being  tried  by  a  court  martial  four  were 
condemned  to  suffer  death,  and,  with  three  deserters, 
were  shot  early  in  the  month  of  March,  in  presence 
of  the  garrison  at  Quebec.  A  most  awful  and  affect- 
ing sight  it  was :  the  wind  was  easterly,  strong,  and 
cold, — a  thick  drift  of  snow  added  to  the  gloom, — and, 
as  if  to  increase  the  horror  of  the  scene,  a  few  of  the 
firing  party,  fifty -six  in  number,  instead  of  advancing 
to  within  eight  yards  of  the  prisoners  as  was  intended, 
owing  to   some  mistake,  commenced  firing  at   the 


to  be 










f  the 



MEMOIR    OK    SIR    ISAAC    BROCK.  5 

distance  oi  at  least  filty  yards,  Tlic  consequence 
was,  that  the  unliappy  wretclies  were  only  partially 
wounded,  and  dropped  one  after  another.  Nearly 
forty  shots  were  fired  before  one  poor  lellow  in  the 
centre  fell,  although  he  was  wounded  throui^h  the 
abdomen  at  the  tirst  discharge.  The  men,  who  had 
reserved  their  fire,  were  at  length  ordered  up,  and, 
lodging  the  contents  of  their  muskets  in  the  breasts 
of  the  culprits,  by  that  means  put  them  out  of  torture. 
The  unfortunate  sufferers  declared  publicly  that,  had 
they  continued  under  the  command  of  Colonel  Rrock, 
they  would  have  escaped  their  melancholy  end  ;  and, 
as  may  be  easily  conceived,  he  felt  no  little  anguish 
that  those,  who  had  so  recently  and  so  bravely  fought 
under  him,  were  thus  doomed  to  end  their  lives,  the 
victims  of  their  unruly  passions  infiamed  by  vexatious 
authority.  He  was  now  directed  to  assume  the  com- 
mand at  Fort  George,  or  Niagara,  and  all  complaint 
and  desertion  instantly  ceased. 

The  following  are  extracts  from  two  of  his  private 
letters,  bevond  which  few  or  none  have  unfortunatelv 
been  preserved :  — 

"  Quebec,  September  5,  1808. — I  have  been  here 
but  a  few  days,  having  been  superseded  at  Montreal 
by  Major- General  Drummond.  I  do  not  approve 
much  of  the  change.  Being  separated  from  the  49tli 
is  a  great  annoyance  to  me.  But  soldiers  must 
accustom  themselves  to  frequent  movements  ;  and  as 
they  have  no  choice,  it  often  happens  that  they  are 
placed  in  situations  little  agreeing  with  their  inclina- 
tions. My  nominal  appointment  has  been  confirmed 
at  home,  so  that  I  am  really  a  brigadier.  Were  the 
49th  ordered  hence,  the  rank  would  not  be  a  sufficient 

*  Appendix  A,  Section  1,  No.  1. 


■  •'i 




inducement  to  keep  me  in  this  country.     In  such  a 
case  I  would  throw  it  up  wilHngly." 

"  Quehec,  June  8,  1810. — It  was  my  decided  inten- 
tion to  have  asked  for  leave  to  go  to  England  this  fall, 
but  I  have  now  relinquished  the  thought.  Several 
untoward  circumstances  combine  to  oppose  my  wishes. 
The  spirit  of  insubordination  lately  manifested  by  the 
French  Canadian  population  of  this  colony  naturally 
called  for  precautionary  measures,  and  our  worthy 
chief  is  induced  in  consequence  to  retain  in  this 
country  those  on  whom  he  can  best  confide.  I  am 
liighly  flattered  in  being  reckoned  among  the  number, 
whatever  inward  disappointment  I  may  feel.  Some 
unpleasant  events  have  likewise  happened  in  the 
Upper  Country,  which  have  occasioned  my  receiving 
intimation  to  proceed  thither,  whether  as  a  permanent 
station,  or  merely  as  a  temporary  visit.  Sir  James 
Craig  has  not  determined.  Should,  however,  a  senior 
brigadier  to  myself  come  out  in  the  course  of  the 
summer,  I  shall  certainly  be  fixed  in  the  Upper 
Province,  and  there  is  every  probability  of  such  an 
addition  very  soon.  Since  all  my  efforts  to  get  more 
actively  employed  have  failed ;  since  fate  decrees 
that  the  best  portion  of  my  life  is  to  be  wasted  in 
inaction  in  the  Canadas,  I  am  rather  pleased  with  the 
prospect  of  removing  upwards." 

Brigadier-General  Brock  was  accordingly  soon  after 
detached  to  the  Upper  Province,  and  continued  to 
command  there  with  the  exception  of  a  short  period, 
during  which  he  returned  in  June,  1811,  to  Quebec, 
to  act,  we  believe,  as  temporary  governor-general, 
Sir  James  Craig  having  proceeded  to  England  pre- 
viously to  the  arrival  of  his  successor,  Sir  George 
Prevost.     During  his  brief  residence  in  Quebec  he 


MEMOIR    OF    Sill    ISAAC    BUOCK. 


1  such  a 

;d  inten- 
tliis  fall, 

f  wishes. 
[1  by  the 


in   this 

.     I  am 



in  the 
r  James 
[a  senior 

of  the 

such  an 
et  more 

isted  in 
vith  the 

3n  after 
lued  to 
id  pre- 
bee  he 


obtained  his  promotion  as  a  major-general,  and  he  at 
the  same  time  anxiously  repeated  his  a[)plication  to 
the  commander-in-chief  for  more  active  employment 
in  Europe.  At  the  close  of  that  year  His  Royal 
Highness  at  length  expressed  every  inclination  to 
gratify  his  wishes,  and  Sir  George  Prevost  was  autho- 
rised to  replace  him  by  another  officer ;  but  when  the 
permission  reached  Canada,  a  war  with  the  United 
States  of  America  was  evidently  near  at  hand,  and 
Major- General  Brock,  with  such  a  pros})ect,  was 
retained  both  by  honor  and  inclination  in  the  country. 
At  the  commencement  of  the  second  American 
war,  in  June,  1812,  Great  Britain  having  long  been 
engaged  in  an  arduous  struggle  in  Europe,  was  totally 
unprepared  to  protect  the  Canadas  with  that  force 
which  an  extended  frontier  of  eight  hundred  miles* 
demanded  ;  and  Major-General  Brock,  who  was  admi- 
nistering the  civil  as  well  as  the  military  government 
of  the  Upper  Province,  could  scarcely  collect  fifteen 
hundred  regular  troops  for  its  immediate  defence. 
With  this  very  inadequate  force,  it  was  the  opinion  of 
the  highest  authorities  that  the  Province  could  not 
be  maintained  ;  but  fortunately  the  major-general  had 
so  gained  on  the  affections  of  all  within  his  control, 
that,  in  the  trying  period  of  invasion,  the  Upper  Cana- 
dians, with  few  exceptions,  displayed  a  zealous  and 
even  enthusiastic  loyalty,  which  surprised  those  most 
who  believed  they  knew  them  best.  These  excep- 
tions occurred  in  the  western  districts,  far  removed 
from  the  seat  of  government,  and  which  were  the 

*  From  Qiiel)ec  to  Aiiilierstl)iir;?li,  at  the  head  of  Lakft  Erie. 

At  the  opening  of  the  war  in  .July,  1HI2,  the  regular  force  in  the  Canailas 
consisted  of  s('V(!n  resinicnts  of  infantry,  tiuce  of  wliich  were  fencihlc  hat- 
tahons,  one  of  veterans  or  invalids,  and  a  dptuhinint  of  artilli'ry,  anioiinting 
in  all  to  less  than  four  thousand  five  hundred  miii.  The  incorporated  uulitiaof 
the  two  provinces  probably  amounted  to  an  ((luai  number.— ^^udWtr///  Uevicw, 


MEMOru    OF    SIR    ISAAC    BROCK. 

more  subject  to  hostile  influence,  as  the  population 
was  partly  composed  of  natives  of  the  United  States, 
or  their  descendants ;  but  there  the  machinations  of 
the  evil-disposed  were  quickly  counteracted  by  that 
good  spirit  which  animated  the  people  generally,  and 
Major-General  Brock  soon  experienced  the  gratifica- 
tion of  receiving  voluntary  offers  of  service  from  the 
militia  most  easily  embodied.  In  the  attainment  of 
this  important  object  gentlemen  of  the  first  character 
and  respectability  eagerly  came  forward  ;  and  no 
sooner  had  the  British  commander  reached  Amherst- 
burgh,  than  he  was  joined  by  the  Indian  warriors 
in  considerable  numbers,  among  whom  the  gallant 
Te-cum-seh  was  conspicuous.  The  Americans  com- 
plained loudly  of  the  employment  of  men  whom  they 
termed  savages ;  but  the  major-general,  with  his 
limited  means,  could  not  consistently  refuse  the  assist- 
ance of  such  willing  and  useful  auxiliaries,  the  more 
particularly  as,  in  compliance  with  his  wishes,  they 
submitted  in  some  degree  to  the  restraints  of  discipline, 
and  promised  to  treat  their  prisoners  with  huma- 
nity,— a  promise  which  they  faithfully  performed. 

The  American  government,  previously  to  its  decla- 
ration of  w^ar,  had  detached  to  the  Michigan  territory 
an  army  of  about  two  thousand  five  hundred  men, 
under  the  command  of  Brigadier-General  Hull,  who, 
said  the  president  in  his  message  to  congress,  "pos- 
sessing discretionary  authority  to  act  offensively, 
passed  into  Upper  Canada  with  a  prospect  of  easy 
and  victorious  progress."  The  enemy  evidently  con- 
fided in  the  very  limited  defensive  means  of  the 
Province,  and  in  the  impossibility  of  its  receiving 
early  assistance  from  the  mother  country.  They 
relied  also  on  the  supposed  disaffection  of  many  of 




tions  of 
by  that 
11  y,  and 
'om  the 
neiit  of 
and   no 
s  com- 
im  they 
ith    his 
5  assist- 
e  more 
s,  thev 

)f  the 
ny  of 




its  inhabitants,  and  they  anticipated  confidently  that, 
weak  and  divided,  it  would  fall  an  easy  prey  to  the 
invaders  ;  but  they  were  soon  undeceived.  Having 
reached  the  village  of  Sandwich,  Brigadier- General 
Hull  issued  on  the  12th  of  July  an  ably  written 
proclamation  to  the  Canadians,  from  which  the  fol- 
lowing extract  deserves  to  be  recorded  here.  "  Had 
I,"  he  observed,  '*  any  doubt  of  eventual  success, 
I  might  ask  your  assistance ;  but  I  do  not.  I  come 
prepared  for  every  contingency.  I  have  a  force  which 
will  look  down  all  opposition,  and  that  force  is  but 
the  vanguard  of  a  much  greater.  If,  contrary  to 
your  interest  and  the  just  expectation  of  my  country, 
you  should  take  part  in  the  approaching  contest,  you 
will  be  considered  and  treated  as  enemies,  and  the 
horrors  and  calamities  of  war  will  stalk  before  you. 
If  the  barbarous  and  savage  policy  of  Great  Britain 
be  pursued,  and  the  savages  be  let  loose  to  murder 
our  citizens  and  butcher  our  women  and  children, 
this  war  will  be  a  war  of  extermination.  The  first 
stroke  of  the  tomahawk,  the  first  attempt  with  the 
scalping  knife,  will  be  the  signal  of  one  indiscriminate 
scene  of  desolation.  No  white  man  found  fighting  by 
the  side  of  an  Indian  will  be  taken  prisoner, — instant 
destruction  will  be  his  lot.  If  the  dictates  of  reason, 
duty,  justice,  and  humanity,  cannot  prevent  the  em- 
ployment of  a  force  which  respects  no  rights  and 
knows  no  wrong,  it  will  be  prevented  by  a  severe 
and  relentless  system  of  retaliation."  Major-General 
Brock,  in  a  counter  proclamation,  assured  the  inha- 
bitants **  that  Great  Britain  would  consider  the  execu- 
tion of  this  inhuman  threat  as  deliberate  murder,  for 
which  every  subject  of  the  offending  power  must 
make  expiation  ;"  and,  alluding  to  the  Indians,  added  : 





**  By  what  ne\y  principle  are  they  to  be  prevented 
from  defending  tlieir  property  ?  If  their  warfare, 
from  being  different  to  that  of  white  people,  be  more 
terrible  to  the  enemy,  let  him  retrace  his  steps.  They 
seek  him  not,  and  cannot  expect  to  find  women  and 
children  in  an  invading  army ;  but  they  are  men,  and 
have  equal  rights  with  all  other  men  to  defend  them- 
selves and  their  property  when  invaded." 

The  deeds  of  the  American  general,  however,  but 
ill  accorded  with  his  boasted  and  real  superiority  of 
force ;  and  as  his  threats  had  not  the  effect  which  he 
intended,  it  had  been  better  in  him  to  have  withheld 
them.  After  wasting  nearly  a  month  in  preparjitions 
for  .the  siege  of  Fort  Amherstburgh,  and  not  meeting 
with  the  welcome  from  the  inhabitants  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood which  he  had  fondly  anticipated,  he  retraced 
his  steps  precipitately  to  Fort  Detroit,  whither  he 
returned  with  his  army  on  the  8tli  of  August.  Major- 
General  Brock  reached  Amherstburgh  by  water  on 
the  13th,  with  a  reinforcement  of  three  hundred  men, 
chiefly  militia,  having  traversed  Lake  Erie  in  open 
boats,  when  he  immediately  determined  on  following 
the  enemy  into  his  own  territory,  and  on  attempting, 
by  a  sudden  and  resolute  attack,  the  annihilation  of 
his  power  in  that  quarter.  With  this  view  the  troops 
marched  with  the  utmost  expedition  to  Sandwich, 
where  a  few  guns  were  placed  in  battery,  from  which 
a  fire  was  opened  against  Fort  Detroit  on  the  1 5th  of 
August.  On  this  day  Major- General  Brock  trans- 
mitted a  summons  to  his  adversary,  in  which  he 
declared,  "  that  the  force  at  his  disposal  authorised 
him  to  require  the  immediate  surrender  of  Fort 
Detroit,  and  that  he  was  disposed  to  enter  into  such 
conditions  as  would  satisfy  the  most  scrupulous  sense 






be  more 
,  They 
len  and 
I  en,  and 
d  them- 

rer,  but 

ority  of 

hich  he 





e  traced 

her  he 


ter  on 





ion  of 




5th  of 


ch   he 





of  honor."  Brigadier-General  Hull  rejihed,  on  the 
same  day,  that  he  was  prepared  to  meet  any  force 
which  might  be  at  the  disposal  of  the  British  general ; 
•who,  nothing  daunted,  and  contrary  to  the  opinion  of 
the  next  in  command,  issued  orders  to  cross  the  strait, 
or  river,  which  is  here  about  three  fourths  of  a  mile 
in  width,  on  the  following  morning,  in  the  liope  of 
inducing  the  enemy  to  meet  his  little  force  in  the 
field.  Accordingly,  at  the  first  blush  of  dawn,  on 
Sunday  the  IGth  of  August,  thirty  men  of  the  royal 
artillery,  two  hundred  and  fifty  of  the  41st  regiment, 
fifty  of  the  Newfoundland  regiment,  together  three 
hundred  and  thirty  regulars,  with  four  Imndred  militia 
and  about  six  hundred  Indians,  were  embarked,  with 
five  pieces  of  light  artillery,  in  boats  and  canoes  of 
every  description,  and  soon  effected  a  landing  without 
opposition ;  the  white  troops  at  Springwell,  three 
miles  below  Detroit,  and  the  Indians  two  miles  lower 
down.  The  former  marched  tow'ards  the  fort,  along 
the  banks  of  the  river,  while  the  latter  moved  forward 
through  the  woods,  and  covered  the  left  flank.  We 
learn  from  Morse's  American  Geography,  on  the 
acknowledged  authority  of  Governor  Hull,  that  Fort 
Detroit,  in  1810,  was  a  regular  work  of  an  oblong 
figure,  "covering  about  an  acre  of  ground.  The 
parapets  were  about  twenty  feet  in  height,  built  of 
earth  and  sods,  with  four  bastions,  the  whole  sur- 
rounded with  pallisadoes,  a  deep  ditch,  and  glacis.  It 
stood  immediately  back  of  the  town,  and  had  strength 
to  withstand  a  regular  siege,  but  did  not  command 
the  river."  And  as  the  American  government  had 
been  for  some  time  secretly  preparing  for  war,  it  may 
be  safely  inferred,  that  in  the  mean  while  this  fort 
had  been  rather  strengthened  than  permitted  to  fall 





t  i 

to  decay,  and  that  it  was  at  least  as  tenable  in  1812 
as  when  Governor  Hull,  two  years  before,  gave  the 
preceding  description  of  its  defences.  The  enemy's 
effective  force  was  estimated  at  nearly  two  thousand 
five  hundred  men,  and,  supported  as  they  were  by  a 
neighbouring  fortress,  it  required  no  little  daring  to 
pursue  them  on  their  own  ground  with  such  unequal 
numbers.  Having  received  information  on  landing 
that  a  detachment  of  three  hundred  and  fifty  men 
had  left  the  garrison  a  day  or  two  previously,  and 
learning  soon  after  that  this  detachment  had  been 
seen  that  morning  within  a  few  miles  on  its  return, 
Major-General  Brock  decided  on  an  immediate  attack. 
Contrary  to  his  expectation,  the  Americans  abandoned 
a  favorable  position  strengthened  by  pickets  and  two 
twenty-four  pounders,  and  retreated  into  the  fort  on 
the  advance  of  the  British.  Ascertaining  that  the 
enemy  had  taken  little  precaution  on  the  land  side, 
the  major-general  resolved  on  attempting  to  carry  the 
fort  by  assault.  While  the  various  columns  were 
forming  for  that  purpose,  a  flag  of  truce,  borne  by 
Captain  Hull,  was  unexpectedly  seen  emerging  from 
the  fort, — Lieut. -Colonel  M'Donell  and  Captain  Glegg 
accompanied  him  back  ;  and  shortly  after  the  British 
troops  marched  in  with  Major-General  Brock  at  their 
head,  the  American  general  having  assented  to  a 
capitulation,  by  which  the  Michigan  territory.  Fort 
Detroit,  with  thirty -three  pieces  of  cannon,*  the 
Adams  vessel  of  war,  and  about  two  thousand  five 
hundred  troops,  including  one  company  of  artillery, 
some  cavalry,  and  the  entire  4th  U.  S.  regiment  of 
infantry,  were  surrendered  to  the  British  arms.     To 

*  Incliidin^i;  six  or  pight  brass  field  pieces,  captured  with  General  Burgoyne 
at  Saratoga,  in  1777 ;  some  of  whicli  were  retaken  by  the  Americans  at  the 
battle  of  the  Thames,  in  October,  1SI3. 






to  a 
nt  of 

at  the 

this  surrender  the  after  preservation  of  Upper  Canada 
at  least,  may  in  a  j^reat  measure  be  ascribed,  as  it 
caused  a  delay  of  nearly  a  whole  year  in  the  meditated 
invasion,  imparted  confidence  to  the  Canadian  miUtia, 
and  secured  the  support  of  some  of  the  Indian  tribes, 
who  were  wavering  as  to  the  side  they  should  espouse. 
The  conduct  of  Brigadier -General  Hull  is  almost 
inexpHcable,  and  can  only  be  accounted  for  by  the 
supposition  that  the  boldness  of  his  adversary's  move- 
ments led  him  to  believe  he  had  to  contend  with  far 
greater  numbers  ;  or,  that  having  threatened  to  refuse 
quarter  to  the  wliite  man  found  fighting  by  the  side 
of  the  Indian,  he  was  apprehensive,  in  the  event  of 
defeat,  that  this  threat  would  be  visited  with  severe 
retaliation,  particularly  by  the  Indians,  whose  fury, 
in  a  successful  assault,  it  might  have  been  very  diffi- 
cult to  restrain.  To  their  honor,  however,  be  it 
said,  that  although  they  took  a  few  prisoners  on  the 
advance,  the  enemy  sustained  no  loss  of  life  beyond 
that  caused  by  the  British  batteries ;  and  in  general 
orders  at  Detroit  they  were  told,  that  in  nothing  could 
they  testify  more  strongly  their  love  to  the  king, 
their  great  father,  than  in  following  the  dictates  of 
honor  and  humanity  by  which  they  had  hitherto 
been  actuated.  Leaving  a  small  force  in  the  captured 
post  to  keep  tlie  inhabitants  in  awe,  Major-General 
Brock  hastened  to  Niagara,  a  command  he  had  only 
relinquished  for  the  purpose  of  undertaking  an  achieve- 
ment which  his  energy  and  decision  crowned  with 
such  unqualified  success.  His  services,  on  this  occa- 
sion, were  on  the  10th  of  October  rewarded  with  the 
order  of  the  Bath  ;  but  he  lived  not  long  enough  to 
learn  that  he  had  obtained  so  gratifying  a  distinction, 
the  knowledge  of  which  would  have  cheered  him  in 









his  last  moments.  Singularly  enough  his  dispatches, 
accompanied  by  the  colours  of  the  U.  S.  4th  regi- 
ment, reached  London  early  on  the  morning  of  the 
Gtli  of  October,  the  anniversary  of  his  birth.  One  of 
his  brothers,  who  was  residing  in  the  vicinity,  was 
asked  by  his  wife  why  the  park  and  tower  guns  were 
saluting.  "For  Isaac,  of  course,"  he  replied;  "do 
you  not  know  that  this  is  his  birth-day  ?"  And  when 
he  came  to  town  he  learnt,  with  emotions  which  may 
be  easily  conceived,  that  what  he  had  just  said  in  jest 
was  true  in  reality,  little  thinking,  however,  that  all 
his  dreams,  all  his  anticipations  of  a  beloved  brother's 
increasing  fame  and  prosperity  would  that  day  week, 
one  short  week,  be  entombed 

"Where  Niagara  stuns  with  tluind'ring  sound." 

The  unfortunate  General  Hull,  on  his  return  to  the 
United  States,  was  tried  by  a  court  martial  and  con- 
demned to  death ;  but  the  sentence  was  remitted  by 
the  president,  in  consideration  of  his  age  and  services 
during  the  war  of  independence.*  His  name  was, 
however,  struck  off  the  rolls  of  the  army.  His  son, 
and  aid-de-camp  at  Detroit,  Captain  Hull,  was  killed 
in  July,  1814,  in  the  hard-fought  battle  near  the  falls 
of  Niagara. 

The  successful  commander,  in  transmitting  his  dis- 
patches to  the  governor-general  at  Montreal,  expressed 
his  intention  of  proceeding  immediately  with  his  gal- 
lant little  army  to  Kingston,  and  from  thence  to  the 
attack  of  the  naval  arsenal  at  Sackett's  Harbour, 
on  Lake  Ontario.  Had  its  destruction  been  accom- 
plished,— and  no  one  can  doubt  that  this  was  the 
proper  period  to  attempt  it,  as  the  enemy,  dispirited 
by  the  capture  of  Detroit,  would  probably  have  offered 

*  For  his  revolutionary  services,  see  Appendix  A,  Section  2. 




th  regi- 
;  of  the 
One  of 
ity,  was 
ms  were 
d;  "do 
nd  when 
ich  may 
I  in  jest 
that  all 
y  week, 

1  to  the 
nd  con- 
tted  by 
le  was, 
is  son, 
5  killed 
he  falls 

lis  dis- 
lis  gal- 
to  the 
as  the 

hut  a  feeble  resistance, — the  Americans  couhl  nol, 
witliout  much  additional  dithcultv,  have  built  and 
equipped  the  fleets,  which  subsequently  gave  them 
the  naval  ascendency  on  those  waters.  But  unhap- 
pily for  the  interests  of  his  country  and  for  the 
credit  of  his  own  fame.  Sir  George  Prevost,  whose 
civil  administration  was  as  able  as  his  military  one  in 
Canada  was  inefficient,  disapproved  of  the  contem- 
plated enterprise,  and  commanded  Major-General 
Brock  to  remain  on  the  Niagara  frontier.  We  seek  not 
to  impugn  his  motives,  as  they  doubtless  originated 
in  a  sense  of  duty,  however  mistaken,  and  evidently 
from  an  impression  that  to  attack  the  Americans  again 
on  their  own  territory  would  be  to  render  the  contest 
more  popular  among  them.*  Forbearance  in  war, 
when  success  is  probable,  is  a  positive  evil  that  a  very 
doubtful  good  may  ensue, — it  is  seldom  properly 
appreciated  ;  and  the  governor-general  appears  to 
have  seen  his  error  when  too  late,  as  in  the  following 
year  he  was  himself  somewhat  ignobly  foiled  in  an 
attack  on  Sackett's  Harbour.  At  the  same  time  it  is 
due  to  the  memory  of  this  unfortunate  officer  to  add, 
that  although  his  conduct  on  two  or  three  occasions 
was  the  subject  of  much  and  just  animadversion  in 
England  J  yet  he  acquired  the  attachment  of  the  French 
Canadians,  who  speak  highly  of  him  to  this  day. 
Certain  it  is,  on  the  other  hand,  that  Major-General 
Brock,  thus  frustrated  in  his  intention  and  restricted 
to  defensive  warfare,  felt  the  disappointment  most 
acutely  ;  and  subsequent  events  too  truly  proved  that 
had  he  been  permitted  to  pursue  that  course  which  his 
zeal  and  foresight  dictated,  his  valuable  life  might 
have  been  spared,  and  a  very  different  series  of  inci- 

•  Appendix  A,  Section  1,  No.  2. 



MEMOIH    OF    SlU     ISAAC      HROCK. 

dents  ill  that  war  claimed  the  attention  of  the  liistorian. 
rhe  hiij;h-ininded  soicher  (.'oiild  not  hrooU  a  state  ol 
inaction  with  sucii  promising  j)rosi)ects  before  him. 
His  best  feelinii;s  revolted  at  being  comi)elled  to  lan- 
guish witiiin  the  strict  pale  of  military  obedience, 
when  so  rich  a  field  for  doing  good  service  presented 
itself;  and  in  place  of  becoming  the  assailant,  he  was 
soon  doomed,  by  awaiting  the  attacks  of  his  oppo- 
nents, to  sacrifice  not  only  life,  but,  what  is  far  dearer, 
the  opening  prospects  of  honorable  ambition. 

The  Americans,  burning  to  wipe  away  the  stain  of 
their  recent  discointiture,  and  apparently  determined 
to  penetrate  into  Upper  Canada  at  any  risk,  concen- 
trated with  those  views,  along  the  Niagara  river,  an 
army,  by  their  own  account,  of  about  six  thousand 
men,  partly  militia,  under  the  command  of  Major- 
General  Van  Renssalaer.  To  oppose  this  force  Major- 
General  Brock,  whose  head  quarters  were  at  Fort 
George,  had  under  his  immediate  orders  part  of 
the  4 1st  and  49th  regiments,  a  few  companies  of 
militia,  and  from  two  to  three  hundred  Indians,  in  all 
about  fifteen  hundred  men,  but  so  dispersed  in  different 
posts  at  and  between  Fort  Erie  and  Fort  George,* 
(thirty-four  miles  apart,)  that  only  a  small  number 
was  quickly  available  at  any  one  point.  Under  these 
circumstances  it  was  impossible  to  prevent  the  landing 
of  the  hostile  troops  when  favored  by  the  obscurity  of 
the  night ;  they  crossed  over  from  Lewistown  in  a 
considerable  body  before  daybreak,  on  the  13tli  of 
October,  and  after  some  loss,  gained  possession  of  the 
shore  near  Queenston,  a  pretty  village,  seven  miles 
from  Fort  George.     The  cataract  of  Niagara  is  sup- 

*  On  the  opposite  or  American  shore  stands  Fort  Niagara, '.vliicli,  while  in 
the  hands  of  tlie  Froncii,  was  the  scene  of  so  many  coiitlicts.  Tiie  -liUh  regi- 
ment assisteil  at  the  rediictinn  of  this  fort,  in  Jnly,  17)9  ! 




])osed  to  have  commenced  on  the  adjacent  heights, 
and  to  have  gradually  receded,  or  worn  its  way  back- 
wards to  its  present  site  seven  miles  above,  the  banks 
of  the  river  on  both  sides  between  the  two  spots  being 
precipitous,  chietly  of  solid  rock,  and  of  the  same 
height  as  the  fall.  For  some  days  the  British  com- 
mander suspected  that  the  enemy  meditated  an  attack, 
and  the  evening  previously  he  called  his  staff  together, 
and  gave  to  each  the  necessary  instructions.  Agree- 
ably to  his  usual  custom  he  arose  before  daylight, 
and,  hearing  the  report  of  cannon  and  musketry, 
H  directed  Major-General  Sheaffe  to  bring  up  the  troops 
as  soon  as  they  were  assembled.  He  then  galloped 
eagerly  from  Fort  George  to  the  scene  of  action,  and, 
on  his  arrival  there  at  a  quarter  before  seven,  found 
the  flank  companies  only  of  the  49th  regiment,  w4th 
a  few  of  the  militia,  warmly  engaged  with  the  enemy. 
The  light  company,  under  Captain  Williams,  was  on 
the  road  leading  up  the  heights  watching  the  enemy 
below,  and  the  grenadiers,  under  Captain  Dennis,  the 
senior  officer,  were  guarding  the  village  and  covering 
two  three  pounders,  whose  fire  swept  the  banks  of 
the  river.  The  general  rode  up  the  hill  in  front  of 
the  light  company  under  a  tremendous  fire  of  artillery 
and  musketry  from  the  American  shore.  Soon  after 
the  enemy  gained  possession,  by  a  fisherman's  path- 
way, of  the  summit  of  the  heights,  and  the  light 
company  was  compelled,  by  dint  of  numbers,  to 
retreat  slowly  down  the  hill  into  the  village  of  Queen- 
ston,  where  they  formed  across  a  street,  while  the 
grenadiers  came  up  with  the  three  pounders,  and 
formed  on  the  right  of  the  enemy.  Sir  Isaac  Brock, 
observing  the  Americans  to  waver,  ordered  a  charge, 
which  he  personally  accompanied,  but,  as  they  gave 


I      »    !l 



MEMOIU    OF    SilK     ISAA(      MU()(  K. 

way,  the  result  was  not  c([ual  to  liis  expectations. 
Retreating  on  their  main  l)ody,  the  whole  o|)ene(l  a 
heavy  tire  of  musketry ;  and  conspicuous  from  his 
dress,  liis  heigiit,  and  the  enthusiasm  with  whicli  he 
animated  his  little  band,  the  British  commander  was 
soon  singled  out  by  their  ritlemen,  whose  celebrity  for 
unerring  aim  was  never  more  cruelly  justified.  While 
within  pistol  shot  of  the  American  lines,  about  an 
hour  after  his  arrival,  the  fatal  bullet  entered  his  right 
breast,  and  passed  through  his  left  side.  He  lived 
only  long  enough  to  utter  this  dying  exhortation : 
"My  fall  must  not  be  noticed,  or  impede  my  brave 
companions  from  advancing  to  victory !"  and  then  to 
express  a  wish  that  some  token  of  remembrance, 
which  could  not  be  distinctly  understood,  should  be 
transmitted  to  his  sister.  On  the  same  day,  a  week 
previously,  he  had  completed  his  forty-third  year. 
The  lifeless  corpse  was  immediately  conveyed  into  a 
house  at  Queenston,  where  it  remained  until  the 
afternoon  unperceived  by  the  enemy.  His  provincial 
aid-de-camp,  Lieut. -Colonel  M'Donell,  of  the  militia, 
a  fine  promising  young  man,  and  the  attorney-general 
of  Upper  Canada,  was  mortally  wounded  nearly  at  the 
same  instant  as  his  chief,  and  died  the  next  day  at 
the  early  age  of  twenty-four.  Although  one  ball  had 
passed  through  his  body,  and  he  was  wounded  in  four 
places,  yet  he  survived  twenty  hours,  and,  during  a 
period  of  excruciating  agony,  his  words  and  thoughts 
were  constantly  occupied  with  lamentations  for  his 
deceased  commander  and  friend. 

The  flank  companies  having  suffered  considerably, 
and  both  their  captains  being  severely  wounded,  the 
disputed  ground  was  lost  soon  after  the  fall  of  the 
general.     The  Americans  remained  in  quiet  possession 



peiu'd  a 

mm   his 

hicli  he 

idcr  was 

brity  for 


bout  an 

lis  right 

le  lived 

rtation  : 

ly  brave 

then  to 


lould  be 

a  week 

d  year. 

1  into  a 

itil   the 




at  the 

day  at 

)all  had 

in  four 

iring  a 


for  his 

d,  the 
of  the 




of  tlie  heights  and  village  if  Quoenston  for  some 
hours,  during  which  they  were  hut  partially  reinforced, 
as  their  militia  could  not  be  iiuhiced,  either  bv  threat 
or  entreaty,  to  cross  the  liver.  In  the  mean  while 
Major-General  Sheaffe*  collected  a  force  from  Fort 
George  and  Chippewa,  and  in  the  afternoon  com- 
menced an  attack  on  the  enemv.  The  Jiiitish,  now 
equal  in  number,  and  superior  in  discipline,  easily 
drove  the  invaders  from  their  })osition  at  the  point  of 
the  bayonet.  Pressed  to  the  edge  of  the  precii)icc 
which  overhangs  the  river,  they  fought  with  despe- 
ration for  a  moment,  but  quickly  discovering  that 
resistance  was  hopeless,  the  greater  part  threw  down 
their  arms,  and  called  for  quarter.  Of  those  who 
attempted  to  escape  into  the  woods,  some  were  soon 
driven  back  by  the  Indians  ;  while  others,  cut  off  in 
their  return  to  the  main  body,  and  terrified  at  the 
sight  of  these  exasperated  warriors,  flung  themselves 
wildly  over  the  cliffs,  and  endeavoured  to  cling  to 
the  bushes  which  grew  upon  them,  but  many,  losing 
their  hold,  were  dashed  frightfully  on  the  rocks 
beneath ;  and  several  who  reached  the  river  perished 
in  their  attempts  to  swim  across  it.  Such,  alas,  are 
the  dreadful  horrors  too  often  arising  from  human 
warfare !  Few  returned  to  tell  the  tale  of  their 
disaster,  and  upwards  of  nine  hundred  men,  with 
their  commander,  Brigadier-General  Wadsworth,  re- 
mained as  prisoners.  The  death  of  the  British 
general  is  said  to  have  cost  the  invaders  many  a 
life  on  that  day  which  otherwise  had  been  spared. 
The  detachment  of  the  49th  above  all,  in  the  excite- 

*  Tliis  officer  was  made  a  baronet  after  the  battle  of  Queenston ;  he  is  a 
native  of  New  England,  and  was  succeeded  in  181  :<,  in  the  connnand  of  Uppc  r 
Canada,  by  Major-General  l)e  Kottenbiirji^h,  a  German,  we  believe,  who  was 
in  his  turn  soon  superseded  by  Lieut. -General  (now  Sir  Gordon)  Drunnnond. 




ment  arising  from  the  loss  of  their  late  heloved 
colonel,  fought  with  such  animosity  that  the  few 
Americans,  who  escaped  to  their  own  shore,  described 
them  to  their  companions  as  the  "green  tigers," 
from  their  green  facings ;  and  the  fame  of  their 
desperate  prowess,  on  this  occasion,  W'as  long  re- 
membered by  the  enemy's  invading  army.  But  the 
success,  though  complete,  was  felt  by  the  victors  as 
a  poor  compensation  for  the  fate  of  the  British  chief- 
tain, thus  prematurely  cut  off  in  the  midst  of  his 
career ;  and  the  sorrow  manifested  throughout  both 
provinces  proved  that  those  who  rejoiced  in  the  result 
of  this  second  invasion  would  gladly  have  foregone 
the  triumph,  if  by  such  means  they  could  have 
regained  him  who  rendered  the  heights  of  Queenston 
memorable  by  his  fall. 

' '  The  news  of  the  death  of  this  excellent  officer 
(observed  the  Quebec  Gazette)  has  been  received 
here  as  a  public  calamity.  The  attendant  circum- 
stances of  victory  scarcely  checked  the  painful  sen- 
sation. His  long  residence  in  this  province,  and 
particularly  in  this  place,  had  made  him  in  habits 
and  good  offices  almost  a  citizen ;  and  his  frankness, 
conciliatory  disposition,  and  elevated  demeanour,  an 
estimable  one.  The  expressions  of  regret  as  general 
as  he  was  known,  and  not  uttered  by  friends  and 
acquaintance  only,  but  by  every  gradation  of  class, 
not  only  by  grow^n  persons,  but  young  children,  are 
the  test  of  his  worth.  Such  too  is  the  only  eulogium 
worthy  of  the  good  and  brave,  and  the  citizens  of 
Quebec  have,  with  solemn  emotions,  pronounced  it 
on  his  memory.  But  at  this  anxious  moment  other 
feelings  are  excited  by  his  loss.  General  Brock  had 
acquired  the   confidence   of  the   inhabitants   within 



he  few 
if  their 
>ng  re- 
3ut  the 
iters  as 
1  chief- 
of  his 
lit  both 
e  result 
d  have 

t  officer 



ul  sen- 

e,   and 



3ur,  an 


ds  and 


en,  are 


ens  of 

iced  it 


k  had 



his  government.  He  had  secured  their  attachment 
permanently  by  his  own  merits.  They  were  one 
people  animated  by  one  disposition,  and  this  he 
had  gradually  wound  up  to  the  crisis  in  which  they 
were  placed.  Strange  as  it  may  seem,  it  is  to  be 
feared  that  he  had  become  too  important  to  them. 
The  heroic  militia  of  Upper  Canada,  more  particularly, 
had  knit  themselves  to  his  person  ;  and  it  is  yet  to  be 
ascertained  whether  the  desire  to  avenge  his  death 
can  compensate  the  many  embarrassments  it  will 
occasion."  A  Montreal  newspaper  of  the  day  also 
contained  the  following  observations:  "The  private 
letters  from  Upper  Canada,  in  giving  the  account  of 
the  late  victory  at  Queenston,  are  partly  taken  up 
with  encomiastic  lamentations  upon  the  never-to-be- 
forgotten  General  Brock,  which  do  honor  to  the 
character  and  talents  of  the  man  they  deplore.  The 
enemy  have  nothing  to  hope  from  the  loss  they  have 
inflicted ;  they  have  created  a  hatred  which  panteth 
for  revenge.  Although  General  Brock  may  be  said 
to  have  fallen  in  the  midst  of  his  career,  yet  his 
previous  services  in  Upper  Canada  will  be  lasting  and 
highly  beneficial.  When  he  assumed  the  government 
of  the  province  he  found  a  divided,  disaffected,  and, 
of  course,  a  weak  people.  He  has  left  them  united 
and  strong,  and  the  universal  sorrow  of  the  Province 
attends  his  fall.  The  father,  to  his  children,  will 
make  known  the  mournful  story.  The  veteran,  who 
fought  by  his  side  in  the  heat  and  burthen  of  the  day 
of  our  deliverance,  will  venerate  his  name."  And 
the  sentiments  of  the  British  government,  on  the 
melancholy  occasion,  were  thus  expressed  in  a  dis- 
patch from  Earl  Bathurst,  the  secretary  of  state  for 
the  colonies,  to  Sir  George  Prevost : — "His  Royal 




•I  > 





,  I 

Highness  the  Prince  Regent  is  fully  aware  of  the 
severe  loss  which  his  Majesty's  service  has  expe- 
rienced in  the  death  of  Major-General  Sir  Isaac  Brock. 
This  would  have  heen  sufficient  to  have  clouded  a 
victory  of  much  greater  importance.  His  Majesty 
has  lost  in  him  not  only  an  ahle  and  meritorious 
officer,  hut  one  who,  in  the  exercise  of  his  functions 
of  provisional  lieutenant-governor  of  the  province, 
displayed  qualities  admirahly  adapted  to  awe  the 
disloyal,  to  reconcile  the  wavering,  and  to  animate 
the  great  mass  of  the  inhabitants  against  successive 
attempts  of  the  enemy  to  invade  the  province,  in  the 
last  of  which  he  unhappily  fell,  too  prodigal  of  that 
Ufe  of  which  his  eminent  services  had  taught  us  to 
understand  the  value." 

The  Canadian  boat  songs  are  wxll  known  for  their 
plaintive  and  soothing  effect,  and  a  very  beautiful  one 
w^as  composed  on  the  death  of  Major-General  Brock. 
The  writer  of  this  memoir,  while  sailing  one  evening 
in  the  straits  of  Canso,  in  British  North  America,  the 
beautiful  and  pictures(iue  scenery  of  which  greatly 
increased  the  effect  of  the  words,  remembers  to  have 
heard  it  sung  by  a  Canadian  boatman,  and  he  then 
thought  that  he  had  never  listened  to  vocal  sounds 
more  truly  descriptive  of  melancholy  and  regret. 

Sir  Isaac  Brock,  after  lying  in  state  at  the  govern- 
ment house,  where  his  body  was  bedewed  with  the 
tears  of  many  affectionate  friends,  was  interred,  with 
every  military  honor,  at  Fort  George,  in  a  cavalier 
bastion,  which  he  had  suggested,  and  which  had  been 
just  finished  under  his  daily  superintendence.  His 
surviving  aid-de-camp,  Major  J.  B.  Glegg,  at  the 
same  time  recollecting  the  decided  aversion  of  the 
general  to  every  thing  that  bore  the  appearance  of 




of  the 
s  expe- 
t  Brock, 
juded  a 
Lwc  the 
!,  in  the 

of  that 
it  us  to 

•or  their 
tiful  one 

ica,  the 

o  have 
le  then 


itli  the 
d,  witli 
id  been 
.  His 
at  the 
of  the 
mce  of 

ostentatious  display,  endeavoured  to  clothe  the  dis- 
tressing   ceremony    with    all    his    native    simplicity. 
Such  was  the  esteem  in  which  he  was  held  by  the 
enemies  of  his  countrv,  for  he  had  or  could  have  no 
personal  enemies,  that  Major-General  Van  Renssalaer, 
in  a  letter  of  condolence,    informed    Major-General 
Sheatfe  that  immediately  after  the  funeral  solemnities 
were  over  on  the  British  side,  a  compliment  of  minute 
guns  would  be  paid  to  his  memory  on  theirs  ! ! !     Ac- 
cordingly, the  cannon  at   Fort   Niagara  were  fired, 
"  as  a  mark  of  respect  due  to  a  brave  enemy."     How 
much  is  it  then  to  be  regretted  that  we  should  ever 
come  into  collision  with  those  who  possess  the  same 
origin  and  the  same  language  as  ourselves,  and  who, 
by  this  generous  feeling  and  conduct,   proved  that 
they  are  a  liberal,  as  they  undoubtedly  are  a  gallant, 
people  ;    and  may  the  future  rivalry  of  both  powers 
be,  not  for  the  unnatural  destruction  of  each  other, 
but  for  the  benefit  of  mankind.*     No  words  can  bet- 
ter express  the  favorable  opinion  entertained  by  the 
Americans  of  the  deceased  than  the  language  of  their 
president,   Madison,   who,  alluding  to  the  battle  of 
Queenston  in  his  annual  message   to  congress,   ob- 
served :    "Our  loss   has   been   considerable,   and   is 
deeply  to   be  lamented.      That  of  the   enemy,   less 
ascertained,    will   be   the   more   felt,    as   it   includes 
amongst  the  killed  the  commanding  general,  who  was 
also  the  governor  of  the  province." 

Nature  had  been  very  bountiful  to  Sir  Isaac  Brock 

*  The  Americans  have  been  frcciuently  traduced  for  dcclarini);  war  with 
Great  Britain  wlien  tlio  {j'^atei"  Y'axX.  of  Europe  was  arrayed  aj^aiiist  tier,  Ijut 
wc  imist  admit,  in  common  candour,  that  tiiey  had  received  many  provo- 
cations;  their  citizens  had  been  impressed,  tlicir  sliips  captured,  their 
commerce  restrained,  and,  above  all,  their  coasts  had  been  iusnited  ;  and 
national  warfare  has  yet  to  be  vvaK<'d  on  more  ijencrous  principles,  if  the 
;it:;gres!3cd  await  the  convenience  of  the . 

I,'  I 





in  those  personal  gifts  which  appear  to  such  peculiar 
advantage  in  the  army,  and  at  the  first  glance  the 
soldier  and  the  gentleman  were  seen.  In  stature  lie 
was  tall,  erect,  athletic,  and  well  proportioned,  although 
in  his  latter  years  his  figure  was  perhaps  too  portly ; 
and  when  a  young  man,  at  the  head  of  his  company 
of  grenadiers,  he  attracted  general  observation  by  his 
martial  presence.  His  fine  and  benevolent  counte- 
nance w^as  a  perfect  index  of  his  mind,  and  his 
manners  w^ere  courteous,  frank,  and  engaging.  His 
character  has  already  been  so  fully  developed  in  the 
preceding  pages  that  it  may  appear  superfluous  to 
add  a  brief  sketch  of  its  more  prominent  features. 
Brave,  liberal,  and  humane  ;  devoted  to  his  sovereign, 
and  loving  his  country  with  romantic  fondness ;  in 
command  so  gentle  and  persuasive,  yet  so  firm,  that 
he  possessed  the  rare  faculty  of  acquiring  both  the 
respect  and  the  attachment  of  all  who  served  under 
him.  When  urged  by  some  friends,  shortly  before 
his  death,  to  be  more  careful  of  his  person,  he  replied  : 
"  How  can  I  expect  my  men  to  go  where  I  am  afraid 
to  lead  them ;"  and  although  perhaps  his  anxiety 
ever  to  shew  a  good  example,  by  being  foremost  in 
danger,  induced  him  to  expose  himself  more  than 
strict  prudence  or  formality  warranted,  yet,  if  he 
erred  on  this  point,  his  error  was  that  of  a  soldier. 
Elevated  to  the  government  of  Upper  Canada,  he 
reclaimed  the  disaffected  by  mildness,  and  fixed  the 
wavering  by  argument ;  and  having  no  national  par- 
tialities to  gratify,  that  rock  on  which  so  many 
provincial  governors  have  split,  he  meted  equal  favor 
and  justice  to  all.  British  born  subjects  soon  felt 
convinced  that  with  him  their  religion  or  their  birth 
place  was  no  obstacle  to  their  advancement.     Even 





nee  the 
ture  lie 
portly  ; 
I  by  his 
md   his 
5.     His 
I  in  the 
nous  to 
ess ;    in 
m,  that 
oth  the 
i  under 
'  before 
replied : 
nost  in 
if  he 
da,   he 
ed  the 
al  par- 
)n  felt 

over  the  minds  of  the  Indians  Sir  Isaac  Brock  gained 
an  ascendancy  altogether  unexampled,  and  which  he 
judiciously  exercised  for  purposes  conducive  equally 
to  the  cause  of  humanity  and  to  the  interests  of  his 
country.  He  engaged  them  to  throw  aside  the  scalp- 
ing knife,  implanted  in  their  breasts  the  virtues  of 
clemency  and  forbearance,  and  taught  them  to  feel 
pleasure  and  pride  in  the  compassion  extended  to  a 
vanquished  enemy.  In  return  they  revered  him  as 
their  common  father,  and  whilst  he  lived  were  guilty 
of  no  excesses.  It  is  well  known  that  this  untutored 
people,  the  children  of  the  forests,  value  personal  much 
more  highly  than  mental  qualities,  but  the  union 
of  both  in  their  leader  was  happily  calculated  to  im- 
press their  haughty  and  masculine  minds  with  respect 
and  admiration ;  and  the  speech  delivered,  after  the 
capture  of  Detroit,  by  the  celebrated  Te-cum-seh,* 
who  also  fell  during  the  war,  is  illustrative  of  the 
sentiments  with  which  he  had  inspired  these  warlike 
tribes.  "  I  have  heard,"  observed  that  chief  to  him, 
"  much  of  your  fame,  and  am  happy  to  shake  by  the 
hand  a  brave  brother  warrior.  The  Americans  endea- 
vour to  give  us  a  mean  opinion  of  British  generals, 
but  we  have  been  the  witnesses  of  your  valour.  In 
crossing  the  river  to  attack  the  enemy,  we  observed 
you  from  a  distance  standing  the  whole  time  in  an 
erect  posture,  and,  when  the  boats  reached  the  shore, 
you  were  among  the  first  who  jumped  on  land.  Your 
bold  and  sudden  movements  frightened  the  enemy, 
and  you  compelled  them  to  surrender  to  half  their 
own  force." 

Of  all  the  good  qualities  which  adorned  this  accom- 
plished soldier  none  was  more  prominent  than   his 

*  For  a  narrative  of  his  life,  &c.,  see  coDclusion  of  Appendix. 



decision,  and  it  was  ever  under  the  guidance  of  a 
sound  judgment.  His  strong  attachment  to  the  ser- 
vice, and  particularly  to  his  regiment,  formed  another 
distinguishing  feature  in  hi«  character.  There  was  a 
correspondence  of  regard  between  him  and  his  officers, 
and  even  the  non-commissioned  officers  and  privates, 
that  produced  the  picture  of  a  happy  family.  Those 
extremities  of  punishment,  which  the  exactions  of 
discipline  will  sometimes  occasion,  rarely  reached  his 
men.  He  governed  them  by  that  sentiment  of  esteem 
which  he  himself  had  created,  and  the  consolation 
was  given  him  to  terminate  a  brief  but  brilliant  course 
in  the  midst  of  his  professional  family.  They  per- 
formed his  last  obsequies,  and  those  who  knew  the 
commander  and  his  men  will  be  convinced  that  on 
the  dav  of  his  funeral  there  was  an  entire  detachment 
in  tears. 

It  deserves  to  be  recorded,  as  an  instance  of  good 
fortune,  unprecedented  perhaps  in  military  annals, 
and  especially  in  a  country  where  the  advantage  and 
facility  of  escape  were  so  great,  that  from  the  5th  of 
August,  the  day  on  which  Major-General  Brock  left 
York  for  Detroit,  to  the  period  immediately  preceding 
the  battle  of  Queenston,  the  force  under  his  personal 
command  suffered  no  diminution  in  its  numbers  either 
by  desertion,  natural  death,  or  the  sword.  This  com- 
prehended a  period  of  nearly  ten  weeks,  during  which 
an  army  was  captured,  and  a  journey  of  several 
hundred  miles,  by  land  and  water,  accomplished  with 
extreme  rapidity. 

In  conclusion  it  is  due  to  the  memory  of  this  excel- 
lent man  to  declare  that,  eminent  and  undisputed  as 
were  his  public  virtues,  he  was  no  less  estimable  in 
private  life.     In  his  own  family  he  was  the  object  of 


1  1 



3e  of  a 
;he  ser- 
e  was  a 
ions  of 
heel  his 
'  esteem 
t  course 
ley  per- 
lew  the 
that  on 

of  good 


age  and 

5th  of 

Dck  left 



is  com- 

;d  with 

uted  as 
able  in 
)ject  of 




the  warmest  affection,  and  his  servants  carefully  pre- 
served relics  of  their  dear  master,  as  they  style  hiui 
to  this  da^^  His  cares  and  anxieties  had  no  reference 
to  the  wei'th  he  should  amass,  but  to  the  sum  of 
human  mif^ery  he  might  relieve  ;  and  towards  the 
close  of  lis  brief  career,  as  the  prospect  of  increasing 
honors  ard  emoluments  opened  to  his  view,  he  con- 
templated his  good  fortune  only  as  the  means  of 
diffusing  felicity,  of  drying  the  tear  of  affliction. 
Indeed  so  totally  devoid  was  he  of  every  mercenary 
consideration,  that  although  he  enjoyed  an  ample 
income  from  his  appointments,  by  which  he  might 
have  been  enriched,  or  at  least  repaid  for  the  purchase 
of  his  commissions,  yet  he  left  literally  nothing  but 
his  fair  name  behind  him.  Some  of  his  nearest  rela- 
tives have  since  been  cut  off"  more  prematurely,  and 
far  more  cruelly  than  himself;  but  those  who  still 
survive  him  possess  the  never -failing  consolation 
which  arises  from  the  remembrance  of  his  virtues, 
and  from  the  reflection  that,  though  his  blessed  spirit 
hath  fled  for  ever  from  this  world,  they  may  meet 
again  in  the  mansions  of  futurity. 

Though  the  dead  heed  not  human  praise,  yet  the 
living  act  wisely  in  commemorating  the  fall  of  a 
distinguished  chief, — the  example  is  never  thrown 
away, — and  on  this  occasion  it  is  gratifying  to  reflect, 
that  every  posthumous  honor  was  paid  to  the  memory 
of  one  who  had  merited  the  distinction  so  well.  A 
public  monument,  having  been  decreed  by  the  impe- 
rial parliament,  was  raised  a  few  years  since  in  St. 
Paul's,  and  a  view  of  it  is  said  to  have  awakened  in 
an  astonished  Indian  more  surprise  and  admiration 
than  any  thing  he  witnessed  in  England.*     To  "  the 

*  Ap|H>n(U\  A,  Section  I,  No.  II. 

'   ,* 







hero  of  Upper  Canada,"  as  he  is  still  termed  in  that 
country,  the  provincial  legislature  has  recently  erected 
a  lofty  column  on  Queenston  heights,  to  which  his 
remains,  and  those  of  his  gallant  aid-de-camp,  were 
removed  from  Fort  George  in  solemn  procession,  on 
the  13th  of  October,  1824.*  Although  twelve  years 
had  elapsed  since  the  interment,  the  body  of  the 
general  had  undergone  little  change,  his  features  being 
nearly  perfect  and  easily  recognised,  while  that  of 
Lieut. -Colonel  M'Donell  was  in  a  complete  mass  of 
decomposition.  One  of  his  regimental  companions. 
Colonel  Fitzgibbon,  in  transmitting  a  detail  of  the 
ceremonies  of  the  day,  thus  pathetically  expressed 
himself:  "Nothing,  certainly,  could  exceed  the  inte- 
rest manifested  by  the  people  of  the  province  upon 
the  occasion  ;  and  numbers  from  the  neighbouring 
state  of  New  York,  by  their  presence  and  conduct, 
proved  how  highly  the  Americans  revere  the  memory 
of  our  lamented  chief.  Of  the  thousands  present  not 
one  had  cause  to  feel  so  deeply  as  I,  and  I  fell  as  if 
alone,  although  surrounded  by  the  multitude.  He 
had  been  more  than  a  father  to  me  in  that  regiment 
which  he  ruled  like  a  father,  and  I  alone  of  his  old 
friends  in  that  regiment  was  present  to  embalm  with 
a  tear  his  last  honored  retreat.  What  I  witnessed 
on  this  day  would  have  fully  confirmed  me  in  the 
opinion,  had  confirmation  been  wanting,  that  the 
public  feeling  in  this  province  has  been  permanently 
improved  and  elevated  by  Sir  Isaac  Brock's  conduct 
and  actions  while  governing  its  inhabitants.  These, 
together  with  his  dying  in  their  defence,  have  done 

*  A  nmiiificent  tyrant  of  twelve  thousand  acres  of  land  in  Upper  Canada 
was  also  bestowed  by  the  Provincial  Le<^islature  on  Sir  Isaac  Brock's  four 
surviving  brothers,  who  in  addition  were  allowed  a  pension  for  life  of  Two 
Hundred  Pounds  a  year  each,  by  a  vote  of  the  British  Parliament. 





in  that 


ich  his 

p,  were 

ion,  on 

e  years 

of  the 

!S  being 

that  of 

nass  of 


of  the 


le  inte- 

e  upon 




mt  not 

It  as  if 

;.     He 


lis  old 

n  with 


in  the 






jk's  four 

of  Two 

more  towards  cementing  our  union  with  tlie  mother 
country  than  any  event  or  circumstance  smce  t!ie 
existence  of  the  province.  Of  this  our  leading  men 
are  aware,  and  are  careful  to  seize  every  opportunity 
of  preserving  recollections  so  productive  of  good 
efiects."  The  height  of  the  column,  which  commands 
a  view  of  the  surrounding  country  for  about  fifty 
miles,  is  from  the  base  to  the  summit  one  hundred 
and  twenty-seven  feet,  and  from  the  level  of  the 
Niagara  river,  which  runs  nearly  under  it,  four  hun- 
dred and  seventy-seven  feet.  The  following  inscription 
is  engraven  on  this  splendid  tribute  to  the  unfading 
remembrance  of  a  grateful  people  : — 










ON  THE   13th  OCTOBER,    1812, 

IN  THE  43r(l  YEAR  OF  HIS  AGE, 





February,  1832. 








M  E  M  O  1  li 



LIEUT.  E.  W.  TUPPER,  of  II.  M.  S.  SYBILI.E. 


By  deadly  suflferinps  now  no  more  opprcss'd, 
Mount,  William,  to  tliy  tlcstin'd  rest ; 
While  I, — reversed  our  nature's  kindlier  donni, — 
Pour  forth  a  brother's  sorrows  on  thy  tomb. 


The  subject  of  this  memoir,  the  third  son  of  John  E. 
Tupper,  Esq.,  by  his  wife,  Elizabeth,  daughter  of 
John  Brock,  Esq.,  was  born  in  the  island  of  Guernsey. 
Having  received  the  rudiments  of  his  education  at 
Harrow,  where,  although  so  young,  he  was  remarked 
for  an  ardent  love  of  reading,  united  to  a  very  reten- 
tive memory,  he  commenced  his  naval  career  in  the 
Victory,  of  110  guns,  under  the  care  and  patronage 
of  the  present  Lord  De  Saumarez,  with  whom  he 
continued  in  the  Baltic  until  he  struck  his  flag. 
Being  sent  occasionally  to  serve  in  smaller  vessels  for 
the  greater  fPiCility  of  acquiring  practical  seamanship, 
he  in  one  instance  narrowly  escaped  a  watery  grave, 
the  Bellette,  18-gun  brig,  being  lost  with  all  her  crew, 
excepting  five,  the  cruise  after  he  left  her  to  rejoin 
the  flag  ship.  Having  wintered  on  that  station  in 
1812  in  the  Ranger,  of  28  guns,  Captain  Acklom,  he 
was  employed  in  that  ship  early  the  following  spring, 
in   the   reduction   of  Dantzic,    then   occupied   by    a 

t   i 




I   . 



French  garrison.  He  served  on  the  American  coast, 
during  tiie  latter  part  of  the  war,  in  the  Asia,  74,  and 
was  present  at  the  disastrous  attack  of  New  Orleans, 
on  the  8th  of  January,  1815,  forming  one  of  a  party 
under  Captain  Rowland  Money,  landed  from  the  fleet 
to  co-operate  with  the  army.  On  the  night  of  the 
storm,  this  party,  in  conjunction  with  the  8jth  Light 
Infantry,  under  Colonel  Thornton,  attacked  some 
fortified  works  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Mississippi, 
and  were  completely  successful  after  sustaining  a  tri- 
fling loss,  but  the  failure  of  the  main  assault  rendered 
this  success  unavailing.  The  cannon  on  these  out- 
works appear  to  have  enfiladed  the  principal  defences 
on  the  left  bank  of  the  river,  the  attempt  to  carry 
which  cost  the  army  so  many  men ;  and  had  the 
main  assault  been  deferred  until  these  guns  could  be 
turned  against  the  garrison,  the  city  would  probably 
have  been  captured.  In  the  same  year  he  joined  the 
flag  ship  of  Sir  Thomas  Fremantle,  who,  having  been 
an  intimate  friend  of  his  late  uncle,  Sir  Isaac  Brock, 
kindly  assured  him  of  his  influence  and  support ;  but 
ere  he  had  attained  the  requisite  age  for  promotion, 
peace  took  place  and  blighted  all  the  bright  prospects 
with  which  he  entered  the  service.  In  November, 
1817,  on  his  return  in  the  Active  frigate.  Captain 
Philip  Carteret,*  from  the  Jamaica  station,  he  passed 
at  the  Naval  College  at  Portsmouth,  and  was  one  of 
four  midshipmen  complimented  as  having  undergone 
a  superior  examination.  In  1823  he  v^as  appointed 
to  the  Revenge,  76,  Sir  Harry  Neale's  flag  ship  in 
the  Mediterranean,  and  took  a  passage  to  join  her  in 
the  Sybille,  of  48  guns.     Captain  Yorke,t  command- 

*  The  late  Sir  Philip  Carteret  Sylvester,  Bart,  and  C.  B. 
t  The  present  Earl  of  Hartlwicke. 

•an  coast, 
1,  74,  and 
i  a  party 
I  the  fleet 
bt  of  the 
3th  Liglit 
ed    some 
ing  a  tri- 
lese  out- 
to  carry 
had  the 
could  be 
ined  the 
ing  been 
"  Brock, 
)rt;  but 
3  passed 
5  one  of 
ship  in 
1  her  in 



I  ! 

.  1 


J'  I-.:-,-    • 



-■;'  '■ ,  ■ 


•■■■-.  '•■.;.■-■' 




i  i 













ing  the  Alacrity  brig,  having  apphed  to  Captain 
Pechell,  on  the  voyage  from  Gibraltar  to  Malta,  for  an 
officer  capable  of  taking  charge  of  a  watch,  Mr.  Tupper 
was  selected  for  that  purpose.  Captain  Yorke  wished 
him  to  remain  on  board  the  brig,  but  he  preferred 
joining  the  flag  ship,  and  a  flattering  testimonial  of 
Captain  Yorke's  approbation  was  found  among  his 
papers,  when  received  in  Guernsey  after  his  decease. 
Being  placed  on  the  admiralty  list  for  advancement, 
through  the  interest  of  a  relative  residing  in  London, 
he  was,  while  at  Smyrna,  promoted  from  the  Revenge 
into  the  Seringapatam  frigate ;  but  Captain  Pechell* 
was  so  satisfied  with  his  conduct,  during  the  short 
period  he  was  under  his  orders,  that  he  prevailed 
upon  the  admiral  to  transfer  him  to  the  Sybille,  and 
Lieutenant  Tupper,  as  gladly  as  unfortunately  for 
himself,  joined  the  latter  ship,  which  was  distinguished 
on  the  station  for  superior  gunnery  and  discipline. 
She  was  wdiat  is  termed  "a  crack  frigate;"  her 
commander  was  not  only  a  scientific,  but  an  expe- 
rienced and  zealous  officer  ;  and  young  men  of  the  first 
families  and  interest  were  then  serving  under  him.f 

The  S\bille  w^as  at  Alexandria,  on  her  way  from 
Malta  to  the  coast  of  Syria,  when  intelligence  was 
received  by  Mr.  Salt,  the  well  know^n  oriental  traveller 
and  the  British  consul  general  in  Egypt,  of  the  plun- 
der of  a  Maltese  and  a  Sardinian  vessel  by  a  strong 
party  of  Greek  pirates,  who  had  taken  possession  of  a 
small  barren  island  on  the  southern  coast  of  Candia, 
and  whose  treatment  of  both  the  crews  had  been 
attended  with  circumstances  of  great  atrocity.     Cap- 

*  Captain  Pechell,  C.IJ.,  succeeded  to  the  baronetcy  on  the  death  of  his 
fiitiier,  the  18tli  June,  1820,  on  which  day  the  lencontie  at  Candia  took  place. 

t  Some  mention  is  made  of  the  Syhille,  her  captain,  and  the  attack  of  tiie 
pirates  at  Candia  in  Wiiychcotte  of  St.  John's. — Vide  Appendiv  IJ,  No.  3. 









I  I 

tain  Pecliell  set  sail  immediately  in  pursuit  of  these 
lawless  and  desperate  men.  On  Saturday  the  17tli 
of  June,  182G,*  being  near  Gozo,  the  boats  were 
dispatched  to  destroy  some  small  vessels  hauled  up 
on  the  beach,  but,  as  a  heavy  surf  was  breaking  there, 
the  crews  could  not  land,  and  they  coasted  along, 
followed  by  the  frigate  and  by  a  large  party  of  armed 
Greeks,  who  anxiously  watched  their  motions  from 
the  shore,  offering  them,  however,  no  molestation, 
although  within  musket  shot.  In  the  evening  the 
boats  were  recalled,  having  been  unable  to  effect  a 
landing.  The  ship  stood  off  and  on  the  coast  of 
Candia  during  the  night,  and  early  the  following 
morning  two  misticoes  were  observed  under  sail 
standing  towards  her.  On  perceiving  their  mistake 
they  immediately  made  for  the  land,  and,  while  in 
chase  of  them,  a  rocky  islet  was  unexpectedly  disco- 
vered under  Cape  Matala,  on  which  were  seen  armed 
men,  the  crews  of  three  or  four  piratical  misticoes, 
which  were  secured  to  the  rocks  in  a  narrow  creek, 
called,  by  the  English,  Good  Harbour,  formed  by  the 
islet  and  the  main  land  of  Candia.  This  island,  the 
Crete  of  the  ancients,  and  the  theatre  of  so  much 
contention  and  bloodshed  in  modern  times,  was  in 
possession  of  the  Turks,  some  of  whom  were  seen 
from  the  Sybille,  and  were  equally  dreaded  by  the 
Greeks,  w^hose  retreat  to  the  main,  had  they  been  so 
inclined,  was  thus  effectually  cut  off.  Candia  rises 
pre-eminently  above  the  multitude  of  isles  which 
overspread  the  Egean,  and  the  snowy  tops  of  Mount 
Ida  are  seen  distinctly  at  sea  from  a  distance  of  thirty 

*  Exactly  thirty-two  years  after  the  Sybille  was  captured  from  the  Frencli 
in  the  Greek  Arcliipclago,  and  fifty-one  years  after  the  attack  of  Hunker's 
Hill,  in  which  Lieutenant  Tupper's  great  uncle,  Major,  afterwards  Major- 
Gencral,  Tupper,  commanded  a  battalion  of  marines. 





Di"  these 

lie   l/th 

ts  were 

uled  up 

g  there, 

I  along, 

f  armed 

IS  from 


ing  the 

effect  a 

3oast  of 


]er    sail 


»vhile  in 

y  disco- 

1  armed 



by  the 

nd,  the 


was  in 

re  seen 

by  the 

been  so 

ia  rises 



f  thirty 

JO  French 

els  Major- 

miles.  But  of  the  hundred  flourishing  cities,  which 
it  once  contained,  scarcely  a  vestige,  with  two  or 
three  exceptions,  now  remains,  so  complete  has  been 
the  destruction  brought  on  by  war  and  Ottoman 
barbarism.  One  of  the  misticoes  ran  into  the  creek, 
and  was  followed  by  the  frigate  ;  the  otlier,  finding 
she  could  not  reach  the  island  without  risk  of  capture, 
bore  up  and  escaped  to  leeward.  On  the  approach 
of  the  Sybille,  Sir  John  Pcchell  was  informed  by  the 
mate  of  a  Greek  schooner,  wdiich  was  coming  out  of 
the  creek,  that  the  position  of  the  pirates  was  too 
strong  to  be  attacked  with  boats  only,  and  that  they 
were  determined  to  defend  their  vessels  to  the  last 
extremity.  Their  position  was  indeed  well  chosen, 
the  islet  being  exceedingly  rocky  and  jorecipitous,  and 
from  tw^o  to  three  hundred  armed  men  awaited  the 
attack  under  cover  of  the  rocks  and  artificial  stone 
breast  works  on  the  summit,  which  completely  com- 
manded the  creek.  From  this  their  "  point  d'appui" 
they  could  espy  and  pounce  upon  any  unfortunate 
merchant  vessel  which  approached  the  coast,  and 
when  disengaged,  they  occasionally  sallied  forth  and 
committed  depredations  on  the  neighbouring  Turkish 
villages.  It  will  soon  be  seen  how  resolutely  they 
defended  themselves,  and  how  much  of  the  spirit  of 
ancient  Greece  they  exhibited  on  this  unfortunate 
occasion.  The  suppression  of  piracy  by  British  ships 
of  war  had  hitherto  been  attended  with  little  loss, 
being  confined  to  the  Greeks  of  the  Morea  and 
Cyclades,  not  remarkable  for  courage  ;  and  although 
the  Candiotes  of  either  religion  have  always  been 
noted  as  the  most  daring  and  ferocious  of  the  KSultan's 
subjects,  there  was  on  this  occasion,  with  so  great  a 
disparity  of  force,  no  cause  to  apprehend  so  serious 









'    I 

\    f 

and  so  successful  a  resistance.  Captain  Pechell,  hav- 
ing ascertained  that  the  ship  could  be  taken  in,  cast 
anchor,  with  the  boats  in  tow,  at  about  noon  in  the 
mouth  of  the  creek ;  and  before  the  broadside  could 
be  brought  to  bear  by  means  of  a  spring  on  the  cable, 
Lieutenant  Gordon  impetuously  dashed  forward  in 
the  barge  with  the  view  of  boarding  a  mistico,  which 
was  endeavouring  to  escape  by  the  weather  channel. 
The  captain  intended  that  the  boats  should  wait  until 
the  frigate  was  ready  to  co-operate  with  them,  and 
he  immediately  recalled  Lieutenant  Gordon,  but  the 
latter  was  either  too  eager  to  attack,  or  did  not  hear 
the  order  ;  and  Lieutenant  Tupper  and  the  remaining 
officers,  who  were  still  within  hail  of  the  ship,  were 
thus  left  in  doubt  as  to  the  course  they  should  pursue. 
The  other  boats,  however,  quickly  followed  to  sup- 
port the  barge,  whose  crew  alone  boarded  and  carried 
the  mistico ;  but  Lieutenant  Gordon,  Midshipman 
Edmonstone,  and  every  man,  excepting  one,  being 
killed  or  wounded,  they  were  compelled  to  abandon 
her,  and  aided  by  a  light  breeze  off  the  shore,  the 
barge  fortunately  drifted  out,  and  was  towed  on  board 
by  the  launch,  Lieutenant  Tupper  pressing  forward 
to  her  assistance,  although  he  was  by  this  time  him- 
self desperately  wounded.  The  boats,  six  in  number, 
having  been  exposed  to  a  most  murderous  fire  for 
about  a  quarter  of  an  hour,  on  returning  to  the 
Sybille,  presented,  particularly  the  barge,  the  melan- 
choly spectacle  of  a  heap  of  dead  and  dying.  Mid- 
shipman J.  M.  Knox  and  twelve  men  were  killed ; 
Lieutenant  Edward  Gordon,  dangerously  ;  Lieutenant 
Tupper,  mortally  ;  Midshipman  William  Edmonstone* 

•  A  younger  son  of  "the  late  Sir  Charles  Edmonstone,  Bart.,  and  grandson 
of  Lord  Hothain. 



and  Robert  Lees,*  both  very  severely;    and  twenty- 
seven  men  wounded,  oi"  whom  five  died  in  a  few  days. 
Mr.  Knox,  who  was  shot  dead  in  the  second  cutter, 
had,  on  a  former  occasion  with  the  Greek  bandits, 
manifested  much  coohiess  and  courage  when  unex- 
pectedly encountered  by  them  with  his  boat's  crew  on 
shore.      M- .   Edmonstone,   another  fine  and  gallant 
young  man  of  sixteen,  and  the  only  midshipman  in 
the  barge,  was  dreadfully  wounded  in  the  chin,  the 
bullet  carrying  away  several  of  his  teeth  ;  and  a  ball  is 
said  to  have  pierced  the  shoulder  of  Mr.  Lees,  who 
was  in  the  'Irst  cutter,  and  to  have  killed  the  coxswain 
behind  him.     Lieutenants  Gordon  and  Tupper  were 
the  first  and  third  of  the  ship,  and  the  only  officers  of 
that  rank  in  the  boats.     The  day  of  the  attack  was 
the  sabbath,  and  on  the  same  day  of  the  w^eek  and 
month,  eleven  years  previously,  was  fought  the  battle 
of  Waterloo.     Sir  John  Pechell  now  resolved  to  inflict 
summary  punishment  for  the  slaughter  of  so  many  of 
his  crew ;    two  of  the  misticoes  were  quickly  sunk, 
and  many  of  the  pirates,  who  for  a  little  time  kept 
up  a  brisk   fusilade  on   the   ship,    were   killed   and 
wounded  by  the  frigate's  guns,  their  dead  bodies  and 
muskets  being  every  where  strewed  among  the  rocks. 
Their  fire  being  silenced,  they  crowded  towards  their 
boats,  and  attempted  to  escape  by  the  weather  channel ; 
but  as  soon  as  the  headmost  boat  became  exposed  to 
the   ship's    guns,   a  well-directed   fire  of  grape  and 
canister  left  her  neither  rower  nor  helmsman,  and  she 
fell  off  towards  the  shore  and  sank  in  shallow  water. 
But   humanity  to   one  of  her  own  crew  at   length 
caused  a  cessation  of  the  firing  from  the  Sybille.     A 
marine,  according  to  his  own  account,  while  in  the 

*  A  nephew  of  Sir  Haicouit  Lees,  Bart. 



ir  i. 

1 1 


m!    ( 

\      '^ 

■  f  I' 


; ! 


MEMOIR    OF    LIEUT.    TU['1»ER. 


act  of  cutting  the  cable  of  the  mistico  boarded  from 
the  barge,  was  thrown  on  the  rocks  and  stunned  by 
the  violence  of  the  shock.  On  coming  to  his  senses 
he  found  himself  alone  in  a  cave,  and  immediately 
ran  down  towards  the  ship,  from  whence  he  was 
recognised  by  his  scarlet  jacket,  although  intermingled 
with  the  Greeks,  who,  when  the  firing  ceased,  brought 
him  to  a  projecting  rock,  and  offered  to  restore  him 
unhurt  if  the  attack  were  discontinued.  There  was 
no  alternative  without  the  sacrifice  of  this  man's  life, 
and  the  Sybille,  having  received  him  on  board,  weighed 
anchor  from  this  ill-fated  spot,  and  immediately  re- 
turned to  Malta  to  land  her  wounded.  Great  anxiety 
was  at  first  entertained  for  Lieutenant  Gordon,  two 
balls  having  passed  through,  and  a  third  lodged  in, 
his  body,  and  being  an  excellent  officer,  he  was  highly 
beloved  by  the  whole  ship's  company.  He  was  then, 
unknown  to  himself,  a  commander,  having  been 
promoted  by  the  admiralty  fifteen  days  before  this 
sanguinary  affair,  for  his  previous  zeal  and  gallantry. 
Although  the  pirates,  behind  their  breastworks,  de- 
fended themselves  in  comparative  security,  yet,  in 
justice  to  them  it  should  be  added,  that  their  chief 
headed  a  party  which  was  bold  enough  to  come  down 
to  the  water's  edge  and  to  fire  upon  the  Sybille,  so  as 
to  prevent  her  men  putting  a  spring  on  the  cable, 
the  effect  of  which  they  well  understood.  Here  the 
daring  chief  fell,  and  his  followers  were  distinctly 
seen  from  the  frigate  to  divest  the  corse  of  its  ill-gotten 
spoils.  Their  total  loss  was  not  clearly  ascertained, 
but  nearly  eighty  are  reported  to  have  been  slain,  and 
the  remainder,  being  able  to  equip  only  one  of  their 
vessels,  subsequently  set  forth  to  commit  other  depre- 
dations.    They  were  pursued  by  a  Turkish  brig  of 


ig  of 




war,  and  driven  on  shore  on  the  coast  of  Anatoha, 
whence  they  escaped  into  the  mountains.  Thus  this 
piratical  establishment  was  finally  abandoned,  and  it 
is  deeply  to  be  regretted  that  its  attack  by  the  Sybillc 
should  have  been  attended  with  such  a  lamentable 
loss  of  life  on  both  sides.  Sir  John  Pechell  could 
not,  in  the  performance  of  his  duty,  act  otherwise  ; 
but  as  long  as  the  unjust  and  cruel  system  of  promo- 
tion prevails  in  the  navy,  by  which  during  peace  no 
officer,  however  deserving,  without  powerful  interest 
or  extreme  good  fortune,  can  hope  to  be  advanced  in 
the  usual  course  of  service,  manv  brave  men  will  be 
unnecessarily  exposed  and  sacrificed,  as  they  undoubt- 
edly were  on  this  occasion.  We  blame  not  Lieutenant 
Gordon, — his  intrepidity  and  sufferings  excite  our 
admiration  and  sympathy,  but  we  should  be  devoid 
of  the  common  feelings  of  humanity  if  we  did  not 
execrate  that  system,  of  which  he  also  was  the  victim. 
In  this  attack  Lieutenant  Tupper  commanded  the 
launch,  and,  although  severely  wounded  in  three 
places,  he  stood  up  the  whole  time,  and  retained  the 
command  of  her  until  she  returned  to  the  ship.  The 
bullet,  which  proved  fatal,  entered  his  right  breast, 
and,  passing  obliquely  downwards  and  backwards, 
was  extracted  from  under  the  skin  over  the  false  ribs. 
Having  gone  into  action  with  his  coat  and  epaulette 
on,  it  is  probable  that  he  was  more  particularly  aimed 
at,*  as  the  four  midshipmen,  Mr.  H,  M.  E.  Allen, 
the  Honorable  Frederick  Pelham,f  Mr.  Robert  Spencer 
Robinson,!   and   the  Honorable   Edward   Plunkett,§ 

*  A  Greek  is  a  soldier  by  nature, — his  sight  is  so  keen  tliat  it  surprises  our 
most  expert  sportsmen. — Colonel  >»  apiek. 

t  Second  son  of  tlic  Earl  of  t'liichester. 

t  Son  of  Sir  .John  Robinson,  Bart.  ^  Son  of  Lord  Dunsany. 

Amonar  the  midsiiipmen  in  the  other  boats  were  the  present  Captains  Hon. 
E.  G.  Howard  and  II.  G.  Hamilton,  and  Lieutenant  Hon.  ,1.  Denman. 


•1*    ' 




I    t 

!   ul 







who  were  in  the  launch,  escaped  unhurt.  After  lin- 
gering for  eight  days,  he  breathed  his  last  in  a  state 
of  delirium  on  board  the  Sybille,  at  Malta,  and  passed 
from  time  to  eternity  totally  unconscious  of  the  awful 
change  that  was  awaiting  him.  His  remains  were 
interred  in  the  quarantine  burial  ground,  where  a 
monument  was  erected  by  his  captain  and  messmates, 
with  this  inscription  of  their  esteem  and  regard. 


LIEUT.   E.  W.  TUPPER,   I.ATE   H.   M.   S.   SYBIIXE, 

WHO  DIED  26th  JUNE,   1826, 



It  was  placed  between  the  tombs  of  Charles  Locke, 
Esq.,  British  consul  general  for  Egypt,  and  Theodore 
Gatton,  Esq.,  the  only  mementos  of  the  living  then 
seen  throughout  the  cemetery  to  indicate  that  aught, 
which  once  breathed,  was  laid  below.  Captain  Gordon 
and  Mr.  George  Johnstone,  the  surgeon,  in  letters  to 
the  family  in  Guernsey,  after  their  return  to  England, 
thus  feelingly  and  eloquently  expressed  themselves. 
The  former  said  : — 

"  It  will  be  some  consolation  to  an  afflicted  family 
to  learn  that  no  one  had  been  more  esteemed,  and 
none  more  regretted,  by  his  captain,  brother  officers, 
and  shipmates,  than  poor  WiUiam.  He  was  a  good 
officer  and  an  excellent  seaman,  and  in  whom  Sir  John 

Pechell  had  always  the  greatest  reliance Your 

poor  brother  was  too  amiable  and  honorable  a  young 
man  not  to  have  possessed  proper  religious  feelings. 
He  bore  his  sufferings  with  fortitude, — during  the 
six  days  previous  to  my  being  landed  I  never  heard 
him  complain,  although  I  have  little  doubt  he  was 
conscious  that  his  wounds  were  mortal." 

fter  liu- 
a  state 
1  passed 
le  awful 
IS  were 
vhere  a 


ig  then 
tters  to 

d,  and 
a  good 
r  John 

ig  the 

e  was 




The  surgeon  wrote  : — 

"Wiien  I  first  saw  hiui  he  was  firm  and  cool,  Jfc 
asked  me  to  give  my  opinion  without  reserve,  and 
knowing  hiin  to  be  possessed  of  great  fortitude,  I  told 
him  that  the  wound  in  the  chest  was  of  a  most  dan- 
gerous nature,  but  not  necessaribj  fatal.  He  had  by 
this  time  lost  a  great  deal  of  blood,  but  the  internal 
hemorrhage,  though  the  most  alarming,  was  slight. 
He  remained  so  low  for  three  days  that  it  was  ex- 
pected he  would  have  sunk,  though  he  still  continued 
collected  and  firm.  On  the  fourth  day  he  rallied,  his 
pulse  became  more  distinct,  and  he  evidently  encou- 
raged hopes.  Need  I  say  that  I  felt  myself  incapable 
of  destroying  them, — indeed  I  was  not  altogether 
without  hope  myself.  The  principal  danger  was  from 
hemorrhage  upon  the  separation  of  the  sloughs,  and 
my  fears  were  fatally  verified,  for  on  the  25th,  at 
noon,  it  commenced  and  increased  internally,  until 
his  lungs  could  no  longer  perform  their  functions, 
and  he  died  at  about  three  o'clock  on  the  morning  of 
the  26th.     During  the  whole  time  he  was  resigned, 

evincing  the  greatest  strength  of  mind As  it 

was  with  unfeigned  sorrow  that  I  saw  a  fine  and  gal- 
lant young  man  fall  a  victim  to  such  a  cause,  so  it 
was  with  admiration  that  I  witnessed  his  heroic  bear- 
ing when  the  excitement  was  past,  and  hope  itself 
was  almost  fled.  I  have  seen  many  support  their 
firmness  amidst  danger  and  death,  but  it  belongs  to 
few  to  sustain  it  during  protracted  suffering,  which  is 
indeed  a  trial  often  too  severe  for  the  bravest,  but 
through  which  your  lamented  brother  came  with  a 
spirit  and  resignation  which  reflected  lustre  upon 
himself  and  family,  and  endeared  him  to  all  his 


'1^    \ 


^J!   i 











i   i 

The  spot  on  which  this  desperate  encounter  took 
j)h\cc  is  called,  in  modern  (ireek,  Kalosliniionas, 
which,  in  English,  signifies  " 'J'he  Fair  Havens  ;"  and 
altlious;h  its  [)ositi()n  does  not  exactly  accord  with 
that  of  the  same  name  laid  down  in  a  recent  scriptural 
chart  of  St.  Paul's  voyage,  still,  as  the  identity  of  the 
appellations  is  so  remarkahle,  as  the  latitude  corres- 
ponds, and  as  there  is  only  a  slight  difference  of 
longitude,  it  is  very  possible  that  the  present  Kalos- 
limionas  is  The  Fair  Havens  mentioned  in  the  twenty- 
seventh  chapter  of  the  Acts  of  the  Apostles. 

"And  there  the  centurion  found  a  ship  of  Alexandria,  sailing 
into  Italy,  and  he  put  us  therein. 

"  Anil  when  we  had  sailed  slowly  many  days,  and  scarce 
were  come  over  against  Cnidus,  the  wind  not  sutlering  us,  we 
sailed  under  Crete,  over  against  Salmone. 

"  And,  hardly  passing  it,  came  unto  a  place  which  is  called 
The  Fair  Havens,  nigh  whereunto  was  the  city  of  Lasea." 

That  this  promising  young  officer  should  have  fallen 
by  such  hands  w^as  the  more  severely  felt  by  his 
disconsolate  family,  because,  a  few  months  previously, 
some  of  its  members  had  it  in  their  power  to  be  of 
service  to  the  officers  and  crew  of  the  Greek  brig  of 
war,  Cimoni,  wrecked  on  Alderney  in  November, 
1825.  The  commander,  Captain  Miaulis,  son  of  the 
celebrated  Greek  admiral  of  that  name,  thus  expressed 
his  thanks  in  a  letter  on  the  subject  to  the  Greek 
deputies  in  London. 


"Portsmouth,  1st  January,  1826. — Being  on  the 
point  of  quitting  England,  I  consider  myself  obliged 
by  duty  to  express  the  sincere  gratitude  which  I,  my 
officers,  and  crew,*  entertain  towards  the  inhabitants 

*  Each  scam.-in,  besides  iboil  and  raiment  during  his  stay,  received  £5  on 
his  departure  from  the  island. 








of  Guernsey  in  general,  and  particularly  towards  the 
Lieutenant-Governor,  Sir  John  Colhoriie,  and  the 
family  of  Mr.  Tupper,  resident  in  that  island,  for  their 
most  benevolent  and  generous  conduct  towards  us. 

"  If  any  thing  can  possibly  alleviate  the  misfortunes 
of  those  who  are  shipw^recked  on  a  foreign  coast,  lar 
from  their  native  country,  unaccpiainted  with  the 
language  of  the  people  among  whom  chance  has 
thrown  them,  it  is  the  meeting  with  men  of  liberality 
and  humanity.  Such,  we  thank  Heaven,  has  been 
our  lot,  and  we  can  assure  the  inhabitants  of  Guernsey 
that,  whilst  we  live,  their  conduct  will  remain  inde- 
libly engraven  on  our  hearts. 

"  You  will  oblige  me  and  my  officers  by  giving 
publicity  to  this  letter.  Treatment,  like  that  we  met 
with,  should  not  remain  unrecorded." 

Of  this  crew  very  possibly  some,  urged  by  want 
and  desperation,  were  among  the  pirates  at  Good 
Harbour, — one  mav  have  inflicted  the  fatal  wound 
which  deprived  Lieutenant  Tupper  of  his  life,  and  if 
so,  it  is  melancholy  to  reflect,  as  the  orientals  pathe- 
tically express  it,  that  the  arrow  which  pierced  the 
eagle's  heart  was  poised  with  an  eagle's  feather, — that 
a  Greek,  lately  cherished  in  his  victim's  native  isle, 

"  ffjive  the  final  hlow, 
Or  helped  to  plant  the  wound  that  laid  liini  low. 
So  the  struck  eagle,  stretched  upon  the  plain, 
No  more  through  rolling  clouds  to  soar  sigain, 
Viewed  his  own  feather  on  the  fatal  dart. 
And  winged  the  shaft  that  (juivered  in  his  heart. 
Keen  were  his  pangs,  but  keener  far  to  feel 
He  nursed  the  pinion  which  impelled  the  steel; 
While  the  same  plumage  that  had  warmed  his  nest, 
Drank  the  last  life  drop  of  his  bleeding  breast." 

lii  HON. 

In  person  Lieutenant  Tupper  was  rather  above  the 
middle  height,  with  a  pleasing  and  intelligent  counte- 





'   . 




MKMOIU    OF    LIKUT.    TUI'l'EK. 


iiiincc,  and  he  and  his  next  hrotlier,  Charles,  when 
inidshipnien  in  the  Vietory  together,  were  desij^nated 
on  board  as  the  handsome  brothers.*  His  love  of 
reading  continued  in  its  full  force  to  the  last,  and  as 
he  possessed  a  very  coi)ious  fund  of  information, 
particularly  on  naval  subjects,  he  was  often  referred 
to  on  a  disputed  point.  Cruelly  cut  oft*  in  the  open- 
ing bud  of  manhood,  when  fortune  seemed  at  length 
propitious,  and  life  in  consequence  was  become  doubly 
dear  to  him,  the  onlv  consolation  left  to  his  near  rela- 
tives  is,  that  he,  unlike  his  brother  De  Vic,  died  in 
the  service  of  his  own  country.  He,  who  sketches 
this  feeble  tribute  to  his  memory,  was  the  elder  com- 
panion of  his  childhood,  and  the  friend  of  his  later 
years ;  uiyJ  he  still  feels,  from  sad  experience,  how 
impossible  it  is  to  forget  him,  and  how  poignant  is 
the  ever  recurring  thought  of  their  earthly  separation. 
Who  indeed  has  not  observed  that  in  this  world 
there  are  griefs  of  a  nature  which  time  cannot  oblite- 
rate, which  sympathy  cannot  assuage, — that  there  are 
secret  sorrows  which  embitter  our  happiest  hours,  and 
terminate  only  in  the  grave, — that  there  are  sudden 
bereavements  wdiose  wounds  heal  but  for  a  moment, 
or  perhaps  never  cease  to  bleed  ?  And  in  this  instance 
the  void,  which  the  premature  loss  of  an  amiable 
young  man  will  ever  cause  in  the  hearts  of  those  who 
knew  him  best,  is  the  surest  testimony  of  departed 
worth,  and  the  only  eulogium  worthy  of  the  good, 
the  unfortunate,  and  the  brave. 

The  truly  gallant  Captain  Gordon  was,  as  soon  as 
he   recovered    in   some    degree    from    his    desperate 

*  By  a  singular  coincidence  the  two  brothers  commenced  their  career  in 
the  same  ship,  the  Victory,  to  which  their  near  relative,  Lieutenant  Carre 
Tapper,  belonged  when  he  was  killed  in  the  Mediterranean  in  one  of  licr 
boats,  and  all  three  lost  their  lives  in  boats  ! 


MEMOIR    OF    LIEUT.    Tl'Pl'EU. 




wounds,  appointed  to  the  conunand  of  the  Acorn,  a 
new  corvette  of  18  i^uns,  and  the  ai)i)ointinent  was  a 
flattering  tribute  to  his  bravery  and  sufferings,  as  well 
as  the  })relude  of  further  promotion.  The  Acorn, 
b:iilt  l)y  Sir  Robert  Sej)[)ings  as  an  experimental  shi{), 
and  represented  as  a  most  perfect  vessel  of  her  class, 
foundered  in  a  huriicane  in  the  Gulf  Stream,  on  the 
16th  or  17th  April,  18'^8,  while  on  her  passage  from 
Bermuda  to  Halifax,  haA'^ing  never  been  seen  or  heard 
of  since.  That  Captair.  Gordon  outlived  his  wounds 
at  Candia  was  deemed  quite  wonderful ;  but  as  one 
ball  lodged  near  the  sp'ne  and  could  not  be  extracted, 
he  was  reduced  in  consequence  from  a  remarkably 
active,  athletic  man,  to  a  mere  invalid,  and  his  suffer- 
ings could  have  terminated  only  with  his  existence. 
A  midshipman  of  the  Sybille  told  the  writer  "that 
there  was  not  a  man  on  board  the  frigate  who  would 
not  have  run  the  gauntlet  for  Gordon."*  That  ship 
had  four  lieutenants  when  her  unfortunate  rencontre 
with  the  Greeks  took  place,  and  the  second,  Lieute- 
nant J.  O.  Bliss,  a  very  superior  young  man,  was 
lost  in  the  Acorn  with  Captain  Gordon.  They  both 
sleep  in  the  deep  waters,  and  soon  alas  were  they 
doomed  to  follow  their  brother  lieutenant  to  that 
haven  whence  no  voyager  returns  !  Hard  was  the 
fate  of  the  victims, — peace  be  to  their  gallant  shades  ! 

!    ''I 

February,  1832. 

•  Vide  Appendix  15,  No.  1. 










My  beautiful,  my  brave ! 

Ah  !   who  can  tell  how  many  a  soul  sublime 
lias  felt  the  influence  of  ninlig:naiit  star, 
And  waged  with  Fortune  an  uneciual  war ! 

The  common  ancestor  of  the  Tuppers  of  Guernsey 
was  an  English  gentleman,  who  settled  in  the  island 
about  the  year  1592,  in  the  reign  of  Queen  Elizabeth, 
and  his  descendants  have  continued  to  rank  among 
the  first  insula^  families.  He  had  two  sons,  the  elder 
of  whom  married  the  daughter  of  the  Procureur  du 
Roi,  or  Attorney-General,*  and  the  younger  removed 
to  England.  During  the  revolution  of  1G88,  the 
Channel  or  Norman  Isles  were  eminently  protestant, 
being  among  the  first  in  the  British  dominions  to 
disarm  and  imprison  the  troops  of  James  the  Second, 
as  well  as  to  declare  for  the  Prince  of  Orange ;  and 
another  ancestor  of  the  subject  of  this  memoir  gladly 
conveyed  to  Admiral  Russell,  at  some  expense  and 

*  Hillary  Gosselin,  Esq.,  {grandson  of  Hillary  Gosselin,  Esq.,  RailitV  of 
Guernsey  in  four  reigns, —  Henry  VIII.  to  Kli/.abeth, —  and  auioui:;  whose 
very  few  male  descendants  are  the  present  \'ice-.\,dnural  Gosselin,  and  his 
brother  Lieut.-Gcneral  Gosselin. 


!    i  ! 


■  1 1 




.',  t 





!     1 

risk  of  capture,  passing  either  through  or  in  sight  of 
the  French  fleet,  the  information  that  Tourville  was 
at  sea.  For  this  acceptable  service  he  was  presented 
by  his  sovereigns,  William  and  Mary,  with  a  massive 
gold  chain  and  medal,  which  are  now  in  possession  of 
the  family,  and  which  they  are  permitted  to  bear  as 
an  honorable  augmentation  to  their  arms  and  crest. 
The  name  appears  to  be  of  Saxon  origin,  as  there  are 
several  Tuppers  residing  in  Germany  at  this  day. 

William  De  Vic  Tupper,  whose  life  we  are  about 
to  narrate,  was  born  in  Guernsey  on  the  28th  April, 
1800,  and  was  so  named  from  his  paternal  uncle, 
who  fell  in  a  duel  in  Guernsey  with  an  officer  in  the 
army.  He  was  the  fifth  of  ten  sons,  and  one  of 
thirteen  children.  His  father  was  a  younger  son  of 
a  much  respected  jurat  or  magistrate  of  the  Royal 
Court,  who  died  in  1802,  leaving  five  children.* 
Having  received  an  excellent  education  in  England, 
partly  under  a  private  tutor  in  Warwickshire,  De  Vic, 
the  name  by  which  he  was  always  designated,  was 
sent  on  the  restoration  of  the  Bourbons,  in  1814,  to 
a  college  at  Paris,  in  which  he  continued  until  the 
arrival  of  Napoleon  from  Elba,  being  then  gratified 
by  a  glimpse  of  that  extraordinary  man.  When  he 
landed  in  France,  although  he  had  barely  completed 
his  fourteenth  year,  his  stature  was  so  tall  and  athletic 
as  to  give  him  the  appearance  of  a  young  giant ;  and 
on  being  asked  his  age  at  the  police  office,  that  it 
might  be  inserted  in  his  passport,  his  reply  was 
received  with  a  smile  of  astonishment  and  incredulity, 
which  affiarded  much  subsequent  amusement  to  his 

*  Two  sons, — Daniel  married  Catherine,  dau^rliter  of  John  Tupper,  Esq., 
.Jurat;  and  .John  married  Elizabeth,  dau$rhter  of  John  Brock,  Esq.,— and 
three  daii(;hters,  Emilia,  wife  of  Sir  P.  De  Havilland,  Bailitf ;  Elizabeth, 
wife  of  W.  Le  INlarchant,  Esq. ;  and  Margaret,  wife  of  I.  Carey,  Esq. 


lo  his 

|r,  Esq., 

., —  and 


>  •         ,     -    -      X 

k     ,1,'  '  }--^'^-'l'      !'i    ^ 

S^.P\'CN •  N AV V i  NT  .  AMU.ET,// 
■    -  >^R-  2t  MAY  109.^,,   ;X 






'I'i  I 


1       ! 




elder  fellow  travellers.  At  the  age  of  sixteen  his 
strength  and  activity  were  so  great,  that  few  men 
could  have  stood  up  against  him  with  any  chance  of 
success.  On  his  return  to  Guernsey,  every  interest 
the  family  possessed  was  anxiously  exerted  to  indulge 
his  wish  of  entering  the  British  army,  but  owing  to 
the  great  reductions  made  after  the  peace  of  1815,  he 
was  unable  to  obtain  a  commission,  even  by  purchase. 
Those  relatives,  who  could  best  have  forwarded  his 
views,  had  been  slain  in  the  public  service,  and  in 
that  day  few  claims  were  admitted,  unless  supported 
by  strong  parliamentary  influence.  He  attended  the 
levee  of  the  commander-in-chief,  who  promised  to 
take  his  memorial  into  early  consideration ;  but  His 
Royal  Highness  had  first  to  satisfy  the  cravings  of  an 
insatiable  oligarchy,  whose  iniquitous  misrule  has  at 
length  succumbed  to  the  desperation  of  a  long-injured 
people.  This  was  a  cruel  disappointment  to  one, 
whom  nature  ever  intended  for  a  military  life,  and  it 
ultimately  drove  him  to  a  distant  land  to  shed  that 
blood,  and  to  yield  that  breath,  which  he  in  vain 
sought  to  devote  to  his  native  country.*  Happy  for 
him  and  for  his  friends  had  it  been  otherwise,  as  it 
will  quickly  be  seen  that  he  was  endowed  with  quali- 
ties, which  must  have  rendered  him  conspicuous  in 
any  service,  but  which,  in  a  civil  strife,  only  hastened 
his  destruction.  Thus  disappointed,  he  spent  t v/o  or 
three  years  in  Catalonia,  of  which  province  a  relative f 

*  How  different  is  the  success  of  members  of  the  same  family  in  the  same 
pursuit!  His  first  cousin,  William  Le  Mesurier  Tupper,  entered  the  army 
in  the  23d  Royal  Welsh  Fusileers,  in  September,  1823,  and  in  August,  1826, 
was  a  captain  in  that  distinguished  regiment. 

t  The  late  P.  Carey  Tupper,  Esq.,  who  enjoyed  a  pension  of  t'60O  sterling 
a  year  for  his  services  in  Spain  during  Napoleon's  invasion,  and  for  which 
he  declined  the  offer  of  an  English  baronetcy  and  a  Spanish  barony.  During 
a  long  residence  in  that  country  he  formed  a  very  valuable  collection  of 
paintings  and  cartoons,  part  of  which  were  sent  to  England.  A  younger 
brother  was  British  consul  at  Caraccas,  and  subsequently  at  Riga. 





■(■  ■ 

!  '.'  I 

If  I 




was  British  consul,  and  "the  young  EngUshman" 
received  the  pubhc  thanks  of  the  municipaUty  of 
Barcelona,  for  having  boldly  exposed  his  life  to  extin- 
guish a  conflagration,  which  threatened  to  destroy 
a  whole  barrier  of  the  city.  Here  his  vanity  was 
constantly  excited  by  exclamations  in  the  streets  on 
the  manly  beauty  of  his  person.  The  profession  of 
arms  continuing  his  ruling  passion,  he  embarked  at 
Guernsey  late  in  1821  for  Rio  de  Janeiro,  whence  he 
proceeded  to  Buenos  Ayres,  and  thence  over  land  to 
Chile.  His  family  was  averse  to  his  joining  the 
patriot  cause,  as  it  vvas  then  termed,  and  he  arrived 
at  Santiago  a  mere  soldier  of  fortune, — without,  we 
believe,  a  single  letter  of  introduction  to  those  in 
authority.  But  his  appearance  and  manners,  and  a 
perfect  knowledge  of  three  languages,  English,  French, 
and  Spanish,  all  of  which  he  spoke  fluently,  soon 
procured  him  friends.  The  Italian,  in  a  less  degree, 
was  also  another  of  his  acquirements.  The  garrison 
of  Valdivia  having  revolted.  Colonel  Beauchef,  who 
had  served  in  Europe,  and  who  led  with  Major  Miller 
the  troops  in  the  successful  attack  of  that  fortress  by 
Lord  Cochrane,  was  sent  from  the  capital  to  endea- 
vour to  bring  the  mutineers  to  submission,  and  he 
requested  that  young  Tupper  might  accompany  him. 
They  landed  there  alone,  and,  with  great  personal 
risk,  succeeded  in  securing  the  ringleaders,  who  had 
ordered  their  men  to  fire  on  them  as  they  approached 
in  a  boat ;  but  Colonel  Beauchef  having  previously 
commanded  them  and  obtained  their  regard,  the  men 
fortunately  refused  to  proceed  t'"  extremities  with 
their  old  commander.  Young  Tup]  is  also  said  to 
have  excited  their  astonishment  ^  /  Jne  manner  in 
which  he  seized  on  one  of  the    ingleaders,  a  very 




lity  of 
I  extin- 
ty  was 
3ets  on 
sion  of 
'ked  at 
mce  he 
land  to 
ng  the 
)ut,  we 
lose  in 
,  and  a 
r,  soon 

athletic  and  powerful  man,  and  led  him  captive  to  the 
boat.  For  this  service,  and  for  his  conduct  in  a 
campaign  against  the  fierce  Araucanians,  whom  the 
Spaniards  had  never  been  able  to  subjugate,  he  was 
made  in  January,  1823,  over  the  heads  of  all  the 
lieutenants,  captain  of  the  grenadier  company  of 
battalion  No.  8,  commanded  by  the  same  gallant 
Frenchman,  Colonel  Beauchef.  This  company  ^f^r>- 
sisted  of  upwards  of  one  hundred  exceedingly  iine 
men,  and  accompanying  the  battalion  shortly  after  in 
an  expedition  to  Arica,  it  excited  the  surprise  of  the 
comparatively  diminutive  Peruvians,  and  to  which  its 
captain  appears  not  a  little  to  have  contributed.  This 
expedition  was  soon  recalled  from  Peru  to  proceed 
under  the  director,  General  Ramon  Freire,  against  the 
island  of  Chiloe,*  so  long  and  so  bravely  defended  by 
the  Spanish  Governor  Quintanilla.  On  the  return  voy- 
age from  Arica  to  Coquimbo  the  vessel,  which  conveyed 
the  grenadiers  of  No.  8,  was  short  of  both  provisions 
and  water,  and  of  the  latter  only  a  wine  glass  full  was 
at  last  served  out  in  twenty-four  hours  to  each  indi- 
vidual. Although  the  heat  was  intense,  and  two  of 
the  grenadiers  died,  the  company,  when  drawn  up  to 
receive  the  scanty  draught,  invariably  refused  to  touch 
it  until  their  captain  had  tasted  of  each  glass,  and 
one  dying  soldier  would  confess  himself  to  no  one 
but  his  captain,  so  strong  a  hold  had  he  already 
gained  on  the  affections  of  those  he  commanded. 

We  have  already  said  that  an  attempt  was  about 
to  be  made  to  wrest  the  island  of  Cliiloe  from  the 

*  Lord  Cochrane's  next  attempt  was  upon  the  island  of  Chiloe,  the  larp^est 
of  an  archipelago  of  seventy-two  islands,  stretching  along  the  inhospitable 
coast  between  Valdivia  and  the  straits  of  Magellan.  The  navigation  is  very 
intricate,  on  account  of  eddies,  currents,  and  whirlpools;  and  a  tremendous 
surf  renders  the  coast  almost  every  where  unapproachable. — Modern  Tra- 
veller, Peru,  Chile,  1829, 


'  11 


I  ' 

t  < 








^ :  ill 

1 1 



dominion  of  the  Spaniards.  In  pursuance  of  this 
object,  battalion  No.  8  was  embarked  at  Coquimbo  in 
.January,  1824,  and  landed  on  tho  small  island  of 
Quiritjuina,  in  the  bay  of  Talcahuano,  where  it  re- 
mained until  the  preparations  were  completed.  The 
troops  were  formed  into  three  divisions,  and  Cp.^^tain 
Tupper  was  named  second  in  comma.  1  of  the  third, 
but  the  nomination  giving  great  umbrage  to  several 
majors  and  lieutenant-colonels  who  had  been  passed 
over,  this  arrangement  was  annulled,  and  battalion 
No.  8  was  directed  to  take  the  advance.  The  exp'j- 
dition  reached  Chiloe  on  the  24th  of  March,  and  the 
next  d£iy  battalion  No.  8  gained  possession  of  the 
fort  of  Chacao,  which  offered  but  a  slight  resistance. 
On  the  31st,  a  detachment  consisting  of  two  battalions, 
Nos.  7  and  8,  and  the  grenadier  company  of  No.  1, 
disembarked  at  Delcague,  and  at  noon  on  the  1st  of 
April  commenced  its  march,  through  a  very  woody 
and  broken  country,  towards  the  town  of  San  Carlos. 
Two  companies  of  grenadiers,  under  Captain  Tupper, 
formed  the  vanguard  of  this  detachment.  A  strong 
Spanish  force  awaited  them  in  ambush  at  MocopuUi, 
which  is  an  immense  bog  surrounded  by  underwood, 
having  a  masked  gun  on  an  adjacent  eminence.  The 
grenadiers  and  No.  8  marched  through  the  mouth  of 
the  defile  perfectly  unconscious  of  their  danger,  and 
when  within  a  few  paces  of  the  enemy  so  murderous 
a  fire  was  opened  upon  them  that  they  were  thrown 
into  the  utmost  confusion.  The  enemy  was  invisible, 
and  in  a  short  time  two  hundred  of  the  patriots  had 
fallen,  while  No.  7  halted  in  the  rear  and  refused  to 
advance.  Captain  Tupper  is  represented  as  having 
behaved  here  with  the  most  devoted  heroism,  charging 
twice  into  the  thickets  with  the  few  grenadiers  who 



of  this 
imbo  in 
land  of 
e  it  re- 
1.     The 
e  third, 
I  passed 
le  exp'j- 
and  the 
.  of  the 
f  No.  1, 
e  1st  of 
'  woody 
outh  of 
r,  and 
ts  had 
sed  to 

would  follow  him  to  so  perilous  a  service.  In  the 
second  charge  three  men  only  accompanied  him,  one 
of  whom  was  killed  and  another  received  a  bayonet 
wound  in  the  face,  while  Captain  Tupper  was  himself 
slightly  wounded  in  the  left  side  by  a  bullet, — another 
perforated  his  cap, — and  a  Spanish  sergeant  made  a 
blow  at  him  with  a  fixed  bayonet,  which  he  struck 
down  with  his  sabre,  and  it  went  through  his  leg. 
The  bushes,  however,  favored  their  escape,  and,  after 
being  nearly  surrounded,  they  rejoined  the  battalion, 
which  had  retreated  a  short  distance.  Colonel  Beau- 
chef,  as  a  "  dernier  ressort,"  now  boldly  resolved  on 
attacking  the  enemy  in  close  column.  Animated  by 
their  gallant  commander,  the  men  formed,  although 
they  were  previously  in  complete  disorder  and  No.  7 
had  retreated,  and  carried  the  position  at  the  point  of 
the  bayonet,  pursuing  the  royalists  for  about  half  a 
mile.  But  the  field  was  dearly  purchased,  the  detach- 
ment engaged  of  scarcely  five  hundred  men  having 
three  hundred  and  twenty  killed  and  w^ounded,  inclu- 
ding  thirteen  out  of  eighteen  oflicers,  and  seventy-one 
of  one  hundred  and  thirty-six  grenadiers  composing 
the  vanguard.  The  division  having  thus  suffered  so 
severely,  and  the  nature  of  the  country  being  so 
favorable  to  its  defenders.  Colonel  Beauchef  returned 
next  day  to  the  ships ;  and  the  lateness  of  the  season, 
added  to  the  intelligence  of  the  arrival  in  the  Pacific 
from  Spain,  of  the  Asia,  of  64  guns,  and  Achilles 
brig,  of  20  guns,  compelled  the  squadron  to  sail  for 
Chile.*  The  latter  vessel  is  the  same  which  Colonel 
Tupper  attempted,  in  1830,  to  carry  by  boarding. 
He  was  rewarded  with  a  brevet  majority  for  his  con- 
duct in  this  disastrous  affair,  and  he  wrote  nearly 

*  Vide  Appendix  C,  No.  2. 



'  i 


:m' ! 





'I  ! 

M     ' 



two  years  afterwards,  in  allusion  to  some  remarks 
relative  to  the  Chile  troops,  as  follow: — "The  obser- 
vations in  F 's  letters,  respecting  our  troops,  are 

not  at  all  just ;  the  Chile  soldiers  are  as  fine  a  class 
of  men  as  I  have  ever  seen,  extremely  brave  and  very 
capable  of  fatigue,  indeed  to  a  degree  of  which  your 
English  soldiers  have  no  idea.     Moreover,  they  are 

very  robust,  and  so  contrary  to  what  F supposes, 

we  have  not  a  single  black  in  the  regiment.  The  dis- 
cipline is  tolerable  now,  and  the  clothing  is  superior  to 
any  I  have  seen  in  Spain.  I  perhaps  speak  passion- 
ately, as  1  dote  on  all  my  brave  fellows,  particularly 
on  my  old  company  of  grenadiers,  with  the  fondness 
of  a  brother  ;  the  feelings  of  absolute  adoration  with 
which  they  regard  me,  and  of  which  so  many  have 
given  me  such  melancholy  proofs,  are  surely  sufficient 
to  draw  my  heart  tow^ards  them.  I  wish  you  could 
see  my  gallant  servant  as  he  now  stands  before  me, — 
his  dark  and  sparkling  eye  intently  fixed  on  my 
countenance,  his  sun-burnt  visage,  his  black  musta- 
choes,  and  his  athletic  figure,  altogether  forming  as 
fine  a  soldier  as  can  well  be  seen." 

Early  in  the  year  1825  Major  Tupper  expressed  an 
anxious  wish  to  obtain  an  appointment  in  one  of  the 
British  mining  associations,  wliich  at  that  ^-^riod  were 
established  in  Chile,  and,  as  his  letter  on  the  subject 
contains  other  information,  we  extract  the  following 
particulars : — 

"Santiago,  25th  May,  1825. — MiUfary  services 
are  here  no  longer  required,  and  foreign  officers  are 
therefore  looked  upon  as  a  burthen,  which,  sooner  or 
later,  must  be  shaken  off.  A  feeling  of  envy  attends 
us,  which  renders  our  situation  extremely  galling  to 
every  man  of  honour ;   and  some  of  my  companions 



in  arms  are  indeed  to  be  pitied,  who,  iiaving  lost  their 
limbs  in  the  service,  are  totally  dependent  upon  the 
generosity  of  this  ungrateful  republic.  As  to  myself 
1  cannot  so  much  complain,  as  I  suffer  little  or  no 
inconvenience  now  from  the  bayonet  wound  I  received 
in  the  last  action,  my  leg  only  swelling  occasionally 
in  cold  weather. 

"  Nor  is  it  easy  to  steer  a  safe  course  in  a  country 
so  disposed  to  anarchy :  a  congress  has  been  esta- 
blished in  three  different  ^eriods,  and  has  always 
terminated  its  sessions  in  tumult  and  disorder.  There 
is  no  stability  in  affairs,  and  the  director,  Freire,  is 
totally  destitute  of  political  courage ;  he  dare  not  be 
absolute,  and  the  mass  of  the  people  is  much  too 
ignorant  to  admit  of  other  government  than  the  iron 
hand  of  a  despot. 

**  Chile  contains  about  nine  hundred  thousand  inha- 
bitants, exclusive  of  the  Indians  or  aborigines ;  it 
extends  from  the  desert  of  Atacama  to  the  borders  of 
Patagonia,  comprising  about  twenty  degrees  of  lati- 
tude, and  its  extreme  breadth,  from  the  Andes  to  the 
sea,  does  not  exceed  one  hundred  leagues.  The 
provinces  of  Coquimbo  and  Conception  have  lately 
declared  indirectly  their  independence  of  Santiago, 
which  is  too  weak  to  enforce  their  obedience.  Co- 
quimbo is  a  pretty  town  of  about  eight  thousand 
inhabitants,  and  the  province  is  extremely  rich  in 
gold,  silver,  and  copper  mines.  Conception  has  been 
a  fine  town,  but  it  is  now  reduced  to  about  six  thou- 
sand residents ;  the  whole  province  is  very  rich  and 
picturesque,  abounding  in  wood  and  pastures.  It  has 
for  many  years  been  subject  to  the  inroads  of  the 
Araucano  Indians,  and  exposed  to  the  depredations  of 
a  numerous  banditti,  as  the  lofty  Andes,  the  trackless 





<  I  ■; 





■  I. 

•  !    ii 

I     I 


lorests,  and  the  magnificent  rivers  of  tiiis  immense 
territory,  afford  so  many  means  of  refuge  to  the 
savage  hordes  of  Inthan  cmd  Creole  robbers,  that  it  is 
inii)ossible  for  the  government,  in  its  present  debili- 
tated state,  to  clear  the  country  of  them. 

"The  Araucano  Indians  extend  from  the  river  Bio 
Bio,  which  laves  the  southern  side  of  Conception,  to 
Valdivia.  They  are  the  fiercest  and  most  warlike  of 
all  the  tribes,  and  the  best  horsemen  in  the  world. 
Their  property  consists  in  herds  of  cattle,  which  they 
drive  before  them  on  the  approach  of  an  enemy,  and 
the  women  cultivate  the  potatoe,  bean,  and  maize. 
They  arc  a  fine  robust  people,  and  jjossess  great  mus- 
cular strength.  Polygamy  is  universally  in  practice, 
and  the  women  are  virtuous  to  a  surpiising  degree. 
I  never  could  discover  any  other  sign  of  religion  than 
what  is  to  be  deduced  from  the  fact  that  they  bury 
spurs,  provisions,  &c.,  with  their  dead.  Their  worst 
characteristic,  in  common  with  all  savages,  is  their 
utter  faithlessness  and  total  disregard  of  compact  or 
treaty,  and  they  are  moreover  cruel  beyond  all  con- 
ception of  cruelty.  I  was  ten  months  campaigning 
in  their  territory,  and  I  suffered  hardships  which  in- 
deed required  all  my  constitution  to  resist.  Half  a 
dozen  of  them  will  put  to  flight  any  number  of  our 
cavalry,  but  they  dare  not  face  infantry ;  their  arms 
are  sabres  and  lances  about  twenty  feet  long.  With 
our  battalion  of  three  hundred  men  we  defeated  six  or 
seven  hundred  of  them  twice." 

In  October,  1825,  the  director,  Freire,  was  deposed 
by  an  aristocratical  faction ;  and  the  conduct  of  Major 
Tupper,  now  effective  of  No.  8,  on  the  occasion  will 
be  best  explained  in  other  extracts  from  his  letters, 
dated  at  Santiago  in  1826,  and  addressed  to  his  family. 

'  ( 




isix  or 





"  February  18. — The  director  has  wished  frequently 
to  make  me  his  aid-de-cainp,  and  I  have  as  often 
declined  the  situation.  In  a  country  like  this,  dis- 
tracted by  party  and  still  subject  to  all  the  disorders 
of  the  revolution,  the  stout  heart  and  the  stal worth 
arm  are  of  more  effect  when  they  are  backed  by  a  few 
good  soldiers.  About  a  month  before  our  departure 
for  Chiloe,  the  director  was  deposed  by  tbe  efforts  of 
a  party  supported  by  two  regiments, — he  was  obliged 
to  leave  the  city  in  the  morning ;  at  two  in  the  after- 
noon Colonel  Sanches  was  elected  in  his  place ;  in 
the  night  I  formed  a  counter  revolution  in  my  own 
corps,  brought  over  No.  7,  and,  in  spite  of  the  other 
two  regiments,  replaced  Freire  in  his  situation  before 
ten  o'clock  the  next  morning.  Mr.  Nugent,  the 
British  consul-general,  expressed  himself  well  pleased 
with  my  conduct  in  this  affair,  but  Freire  is  not  a 
man  to  recollect  the  services  of  his  best  friends,  and 
he  is  losing  them  fast.  I  shall  be  surprised  if  he  be 
director  six  months  hence." 

"May  29. — I  perceive  that  honorable  mention  is 
made  of  my  name  in  the  Representative*  of  January 
25th  last.  I  believe  that  I  alluded,  in  one  of  my 
former  letters,  to  the  circumstances  which  gav*.  ise 
to  this  commendation, — they  were  in  themselves  of 
a  very  unpleasant  nature  to  me.  In  October  last  a 
party  had  prevailed  so  far  in  Santiago  as  to  procure 
the  spurious  election  of  another  director.  Many  of 
Freire's  measures  having  given  great  disgust,  and  his 
incapacity  for  government  becoming  every  day  more 
evident,  the  election  was  strongly  supported,  particu- 
larly by  two  of  the  corps  forming  the  garrison  of 
Santiago.     My  commanding  officer,  Colonel  Beauchef, 

*  A  London  daily  newspaper. 


?  1 

I  r 




I   f 




'  ^  I 


1  \ 







to  whom  I  have  so  many  and  great  obHgations,  was 
impHcated  with  the  rest.  I  was  aware,  however,  that 
the  faction  was  composed  of  bad  and  dangerous  men, — 
moreover,  that  the  provinces  of  Coquimbo  and  Con- 
ception would  certainly  support  Freire,  and  therefore, 
that  a  civil  war  must  be  the  result  of  the  election  in 
the  city.  1  represented  all  this  to  Beauchef  in  the 
strongest  terms  ;  I  endeavoured  to  convince  him  that 
civil  war  must  always  be  a  losing  game  for  foreign 
officers, — he,  however,  would  not  see  it  as  I  did,  and 
I  felt  myself  under  the  disagreeable  necessity  of  taking 
the  command  of  the  regiment  from  him.  This  may 
appear  strange,  but  it  was  easily  effected.  I  called 
the  officers  together,  and  made  them  a  spirited  exhor- 
tation in  my  uncle  Savery's  style  ;  they  all  swore 
upon  their  drawn  swords  to  support  me  to  the  last. 
I  distributed  thirty  rounds  of  ball  cartridge  to  each 
man, — of  their  love  and  confidence  I  had  no  doubt, — 
I  believe  they  would  follow  me  to  perdition  itself. 
All  this  was  done  at  midnight.  Beauchef  soon  after 
came  into  the  barracks ;  I  made  it  evident  to  him 
that  the  corps  was  no  longer  under  his  orders ;  I 
once  again  urged  him  not  to  ruin  himself  for  ever, 
and  he  at  last  submitted  to  lead  the  battalion  to  the 
assistance  of  the  director,  and  the  whole  business  was 
quelled  with  the  banishment  of  about  twenty  indivi- 
duals. Our  corps  being  considered  a  crack  one, 
other  battalions  were  induced  to  follow  the  example 
we  had  set,  and  a  counter  revolution  was  in  conse- 
quence effected  without  difficulty." 

The  commendation  in  the  Representative  we  have 
not  seen,  but  the  Morning  Chronicle  in  January, 
1826,  concluded  an  account  of  this  political  commo- 
tion in  the  following  words  : — 



to  the 

tss  was 






"While  the  conduct  of  an  English  officer,  Major 
Tupper,  is  mentioned  in  terms  of  high  commendation 
for  the  firmness  and  steadiness  with  which  he  pre- 
vented the  troops  from  being  drawn  aside  from  their 
duty,  we  are,  on  the  other  hand,  very  sorry  to  per- 
ceive the  manner  in  which  French  influence  has  been 
exerted  on  this  and  other  occasions  in  Chile." 

Among  the  individuals  banished  was  Colonel  Viel, 
a  Frenchman,  who  went  to  Peru,  and  of  whom  fre- 
quent mention  will  be  made  in  the  sequel ;  but  either 
from  some  jealousy  on  the  part  of  General  Freire,  or 
very  possibly  from  a  dread  of  giving  offence  to  many 
powerful  individuals  implicated  in  this  conspiracy, 
Major  Tupper  received  no  immediate  advancement  or 
reward  for  his  verv  decisive  interference.  If  the 
former  motive  were  the  cause,  that  jealousy  probably 
arose  from  the  circumstance  of  Major  Tupper  having 
been  in  some  degree  a  rival  in  the  affections  of  the 
young  lady  whom  the  director  had  recently  married, 
and  who  had,  it  is  natural  to  suppose,  evinced  a  pre- 
ference for  the  equally  young  major  ;  but  in  Chile,  as 
in  older  countries,  parents  do  not  always  consult  the 
inclinations  of  their  children,  and  attachment  is  sacri- 
ficed at  the  shrine  of  wealth  or  ambition.  General 
Freire,  a  native  of  Talcahuano,  was  at  that  time 
about  forty-six  years  of  age,  and,  without  any  of  the 
usual  advantages  of  education,  had  raised  himself 
from  a  humble  origin  to  the  high  situation  he  then 
occupied.  Represented  as  possessing  a  stately  and 
pleasing  exterior  with  a  frank  and  conciliatory  address, 
he  was  doubtless  indebted,  in  a  great  measure,  to 
these  advantages  for  his  success,  as  he  displayed 
neither  talent  nor  energy  from  the  date  of  his  fatal 
elevation  to  power.* 

*  Vide  Appendix  C,  No.  3. 

( \ 

lif ' 

;i  Kl 

J  '  t 

.'■  ■  I 

;  1; 



n  : 


i'  I 

I  ■ 

I  '1 






The  decisive  battle  of  Ayacucho  having,  with  the 
solitary  exception  of  the  fortress  of  Callao,  effected 
the  liberation  of  the  whole  continent  of  Spanish  Ame- 
rica, it  was  resolved  to  renew  the  attempt  to  drive 
the  Spaniards  from  the  islands  of  Chiloe,  which  form 
the  natural  keys  of  the  Pacific  when  approached  from 
Cape  Horn.  Another  expedition  in  consequence, 
commanded  again  by  the  director  in  person,  set  sail 
from  Valparaiso  in  November,  1825,  and,  after  touch- 
ing at  Valdivia,  reached  Chiloe  in  January,  when 
barely  two  thousand  men  were  disembarked.  Major 
Tupper  commanded  the  grenadier  companies  of  Nos. 
6  and  8,  forming  part  of  the  advanced  division,  and 
was  left  by  its  commander,  Colonel  Aldunate,  chiefly 
to  his  own  direction.  The  enemy,  in  force  consider- 
ably above  three  thousand  men,  including  four  hundred 
cavalry,  occupied  a  strong  entrenched  position,  his 
right  flank  resting  upon  the  sea,  his  left  guarded  by 
impenetrable  woods,  his  front  palisaded  and  strength- 
ened by  a  deep  and  muddy  rivulet,  which  offered  but 
two  passes,  one  near  the  wood  defended  by  three 
hundred  men,  the  other  on  the  beach.  On  the  14th 
Colonel  Aldunate,  with  six  flank  companies,  took  the 
beach,  while  Major  Tupper,  with  his  two  companies, 
carried  the  pass  near  the  wood  in  a  few  minutes, 
with  little  loss,  by  jumping  over  the  palisade,  when 
he  escaped  almost  miraculously,  as  before  his  men 
could  join  him  he  was;  exposed  to  a  tremendous 
discharge  of  musketry,  which  covered  him  with  mud, 
and  shot  away  one  of  his  epaulettes.  The  royalists 
having  been  driven  also  from  a  second  position,  their 
cavalry  attempted  a  charge,  but  were  completely 
routed  by  the  grenadier  company  of  No.  8.  The 
enemy  now  retreated  to  his  last  and  strongest  position 





on  the  heights  of  Bella  Vista  on  the  road  to  Castro, 
the  principal  town  of  the  island,  and  was  attacked 
unsuccessfully  three  diffcx'-t  times  by  five  flank  com- 
panies. Colonel  Aldunate  then  called  Major  Tupper, 
and  pointing  to  the  royalists,  said,  "  The  glory  is  re- 
served for  you, — dislodge  the  enemy  immediately." 
This  was  a  most  desperate  service,  as  the  road,  or 
rather  path,  was  so  narrow  as  to  admit  of  only  three 
or  four  men  abreast,  but  taking  a  flag  in  his  left 
hand,  Major  Tupper  ordered  his  grenadiers  to  follow 
him  without  firing  a  shot.  By  running  quickly  he 
reached  the  crest  of  the  heights  with  the  loss  of  only 
six  men  killed  behind  him,  his  escape  appearing  so 
astonishing  to  the  survivors  that  they  were  convinced 
he  wore  a  charm.  Here  he  encountered  a  Spanish 
officer,  named  Lopez,  commanding  we  believe  the 
rear  guard,  who  resolutely  maintained  his  ground ; 
a  personal  combat  ensued,  and  the  Spaniard  was 
killed  by  a  sabre  cut,  which  nearly  clove  his  head  in 
two.  There  was  unhappily  no  alternative,  as  the 
gallant  Lopez  would  neither  surrender  nor  give  way. 
In  the  mean  time  fourteen  or  fifteen  of  the  Spaniards 
having  fallen  by  the  bayonet,  the  remainder  fled,  and 
were  vigorously  pursued  for  about  a  league  on  the 
road  to  Castro,  when  orders  were  brought  to  the 
grenadiers  to  halt.  In  this  pursuit  a  colonel  and 
about  fifty  men  were  made  prisoners.  The  action 
lasted  altogether  nearly  four  hours,  and  on  the  whole 
the  enemy,  whose  troops  consisted  partly  of  militia, 
shewed  but  little  conduct  or  courage,  having  indeed 
been  routed  by  the  eight  companies,  which  were  the 
only  troops  seriously  engaged  on  the  side  of  the 
patriots,  whose  entire  loss  did  not  exceed  one  hundred 
and  seventy-five  men  in   killed   and  wounded.      A 






/  ■ 

I  \' 



is  !■ 

1      ; 

r  > 

:!i  I 





gallant  North  American,  Lieutenant  Oxley  of  the 
navy,  was  killed  in  an  attack  on  two  gun  boats,  the 
stronger  of  which  was  taken.  Major  Tupper,  having 
volunteered,  assisted  at  its  capture,  although,  as  a 
Chileno  officer  of  his  regiment,  from  whom  we  derive 
the  information,  writes,  "it  was  not  necessary  that 
he  should,  as  an  officer  of  the  army,  seek  to  fight  by 
sea,  particularly  when  he  was  not  ordered."  Major 
Tupper  mentioned,  that  throughout  the  action  "Colo- 
nel Aldunate  had  distinguished  himself  much,  and 
that  General  Borgono  had  given  great  proofs  of 
ability."  The  surrender  of  the  island*  was  the  imme- 
diate consequence  of  these  successes,  and  Major 
Tupper  was  rewarded  with  a  brevet  lieutenant-colo- 
nelcy, although  much  more  was  promised  him  when 
the  impression,  which  his  behaviour  left,  was  fresh  in 
the  mind  of  the  director.  But  a  foreign  officer  in 
any  country  must  naturally  expect  that  his  gallantry 
and  devotion  will  be  viewed  by  many  a  native  with  a 
jealous  eye,  and  indeed  too  often  treated  with  frigid 
indifFerepoe  when  his  services  are  no  longer  required. 
Alluding  to  this  subject  Major  Tupper  wrote  from 
Santiago  on  the  14th  of  March,  1826,  as  follows  : — 

' '  Long  ere  you  receive  this  the  public  papers  will 
have  informed  you  of  the  success  of  our  late  expedi- 
tion against  Chiloe.  I  have  been  fortunate  enough  to 
find  my  name  inserted  in  the  dispatches,  and  not- 
withstanding I  feel  convinced  that  there  exists  a 
strong  feeling  in  the  army  that  my  services  have  been 
disguised  and  glossed  over ;  many  causes  are  assigned 
for  this  injustice  ;   it  is  extraordinary,  as  politically 

*  General  Rodil,  after  resolutely  sustainitij^  a  siege  in  Callao  for  thirteen 
months,  surrendered  from  famine  19th  January,  lb2G,  and  thus  the  dominion 
of  Spain  in  Peru  and  Chile  was  severed  nearly  on  the  same  day,  and  douht- 
loss  for  ever. 



gh  to 


sts   a 









speaking  I  have  been  his  best  friend, — I  allude  to  the 
director  Freire.  I  cannot  think  so  meanly  of  him  as 
to  allow  myself  to  suppose  with  some  people,  that 
jealousy  in  a  foolish  love  affair,  has  had  any  influence 
on  his  mind.  I  shall,  however,  receive  my  commis- 
sion as  lieutenant-colonel  as  soon  as  he  arrives  from 

The  chief  part  of  the  expedition  having  returned  to 
Chile,  and  Colonel  Aldunate  being  appointed  governor 
of  the  islands.  No.  4  was  left  in  garrison ;  but  in 
May  following  that  battalion  revolted  in  favor  of 
O'Higgins,  and  the  governor  arrived  at  Valparaiso 
for  assistance,  having  been  made  prisoner  by  the 
insurgents,  and  compelled  to  embark.  Lieut. -Colonel 
Tupper  volunteered  to  accompany  him  back,  and 
they  proceeded  with  less  than  three  hundred  men  to 
Chiloe.  On  the  12th  of  July  the  Resolution  trans- 
port, in  which  was  Lieut. -Colonel  Tupper  with  the 
troops,  Colonel  Aldunate  being  in  the  Achilles  brig 
of  war,  was  obliged  to  bring  up  to  the  eastward  of  the 
island  of  San  Sebastian,  the  tide  running  out  so 
strong  that  she  could  not  stem  it.  They  attempted 
to  reach  the  Achilles,  anchored  on  the  opposite  coast, 
with  the  flood,  but  the  ebb  making  again  before  they 
could  do  so,  they  were  driven  so  fast  on  the  island  of 
San  Sebastian  that  they  had  scarcely  time  to  drop  an 
anchor,  which  brought  them  up  with  a  very  dangerous 
reef  on  their  lee  quarter.  Here  they  remained  for 
several  hours  in  imminent  danger  of  losing  both  the 
ship  and  their  lives,  when  they  fortunately  drove  past 
the  reef  in  consequence  of  the  anchor  breaking.  On 
their  a-^rival  near  the  small  island  of  Lacao  on  the 
13th,  at  sunset,  Lieut. -Colonel  Tupper  was  ordered 
to  attack  the  fort  of  Chacao  with  one  hundred  men, 

1    i 


■I    ' 

f  ii 



«■     ♦! 


1  . 


"        I 






!  I 

'11' • 


r  'I 

1  ii.: 

and  he  left  the  ship  at  midnight  with  his  favorite 
company  of  grenadiers  of  No.  8  and  a  few  soldiers  of 
No.  1,  landing  in  the  cove  of  Remolinos,  where  he 
surprised  a  neighbouring  battery,  making  prisoners 
the  few  artillerymen  who  garrisoned  it.  From  them 
he  learnt  that  in  the  battery  of  San  Gallan,  which 
occupied  a  strong  position  on  the  road  from  Lacao  to 
Chacao,  there  were  two  officers  and  fifty  men  of  the 
insurgents,  and  instantly  directing  himself  towards  it 
by  a  road  almost  impassable,  as  it  was  very  boggy 
and  intersected  by  fallen  trees,  he  reached  the  battery 
at  five  o'clock  a.  m.  Advancing  alone  with  the  guide 
he  perceived  that  no  sentry  was  guarding  the  land 
side,  "  and  throwing  himself  on  the  enemy  with 
intrepidity  he  managed  to  take  them  prisoners,  not 
me,  except  an  officer,  escaping.  In  the  attainment 
of  this  object  no  more  than  twenty  soldiers  could 
keep  up  with  their  commander,  owing  to  the  narrow- 
ness of  the  road,  and  also  because  it  was  necessary 
that  those  in  advance  should  push  forward,  so  as  to 
arrive  before  daylight.  On  our  part  there  was  no 
loss  whatever,  and  on  that  of  the  enemy  only  four 
wounded.  This  undertaking  being  completed,  Lieut. - 
Colonel  Tupper  marched  towards  the  port  of  Chacao, 
and  took  the  battery  there,  which  was  abandoned  by 
the  enemy.  On  receiving  intelligence  of  these  opera- 
tions we  made  sail  at  eleven  o'clock  a.  m.,  and  at  five 
in  the  afternoon  anchored  in  the  said  port."* 

Colonel  Aldunate  having  landed  with  the  remainder 
of  the  troops,  the  insurgents  were  reduced  to  submis- 
sion without  further  difficulty,  as  the  natives  in  great 
numbers  presented   themselves,   and  offered  to   act 

*  Extract  translated  from  Colonel  Aldunate's  dispatch.  Of  the  dispatches, 
in  which  we  know  that  honorable  mention  was  made  of  Colonel  Tnpper's 
iianic,  this  only  has  accidentally  reached  us. 

.'  (.; 

as  to 
^as  no 
[y  four 
led  by 
it  five 




10   act 




against  them.  Indeed  ihe  greatest  danger  appte- 
hended  throughout  was  from  the  season,  the  gales  of 
wind  on  that  coast  being  very  violent  during  the 

"  In  liorrid  climes,  where  Cliiloc's  tempests  sweep, 
Tumultuous  murmurs  o'er  the  trouWed  deep." 

A  newspaper,  pubHshed  in  English  at  Buenos  Ay  res, 
observed  in  reference  to  the  departure  of  this  small 
expedition,  which  left  Valparaiso  in  the  Achilles  and 
Resolution  on  the  25th  June  :* 

' '  Colonel  Aldunate  is  an  officer  of  honor,  and  if  he 
has  been  surprised  once,  he  will,  for  this  reason,  know 
how  to  take  better  precautions  hereafter.  Besides, 
he  is  accompanied  by  Major  Tupper,  whose  character 
is  well  known,  and  whose  valour  cannot  be  better 
estimated  than  in  the  words  of  our  correspondent : 
'  four  hundred  brave  soldiers,  and  Tupper  at  their 
head,  are  sufficient  to  annihilate  all  the  royalists  there 
may  be  in  Chiloe.'  " 

The  above  extract  reached  England  in  October, 
1826,  and  about  the  same  time  the  BailifF,f  or  chief 
magistrate  of  Guernsey,  received  the  following  letter 
from  a  British  officer]:  of  high  rank  and  reputation, 
who  had  previously  been  lieutenant-governor  of  the 
island : — 

"  Though   I   always  like   to   converse   with  you, 

yet  I  do  not  know  that  I  should  have  sat 

down  to  write  to  you  exactly  at  this  time,  but  that  I 
have  had  a  long  conversation  with  Mr.  Miller,  who 
is  brother  to  a  celebrated  general  of  that  name  in 

*  On  this  day  his  brother.  Lieutenant  Tupper,  mortally  wounded,  was  in 
the  last  agonies  of  death  on  board  H.  M.  S.  Sybille,  at  Malta, 

t  Daniel  De  Lisle  Brock,  Esq.,  succeeded  the  late  Sir  Peter  De  Havilland 
as  Bailiff,  in  1821. 

+  The  late  General  Sir  John  Doyle,  Bart.,  G.C.B.,  &c. 



1 1 





'I   -' 

:.'i      1 



i    .'I 

'        '  1 



=  ! 


!     1^ 

1.     ) 




the  Peruvian  army,  and  who  has  himself  lately  arrived 
from  Santiago. 

"  He  there  knew  your  nephew^  young  Tupper,  and 
his  account  is  so  creditable  to  that  fine  fellow,  so 
honorable  to  our  country,  and  must  be  so  gratifying 
to  his  highly  respectable  family,  that  I  cannot  defer 
communicating  it  to  you.  He  says  that  in  point  of 
appearance  he  is  the  handsomest  man  he  has  ever 
seen  in  either  hemisphere  ;  that  he  is  esteemed  one  of 
their  best  soldiers,  extremely  active  and  habile ;  and 
stands  so  wtU  with  all  parties,  that  no  change  in  the 
local  politics  of  the  country  could  be  in  any  way 
disadvantageous  to  him ;  and  he  adds,  that  he  is 
perfectly  idolized  by  the  troops  he  commands,  parti- 
cularly those  who  have  served  w^ith  him  in  action ; 
and  to  crown  all,  he  says,  with  a  partiality  very  justi- 
fiable, especially  to  so  distinguished  a  brother,  that 
when  they  speak  of  young  Tupper  they  call  him 
another  General  Miller.  This  at  all  events,  in  com- 
ing from  my  friend,  is  the  acme  of  panegyric,  for  the 
brother  is  really  a  first  rate  character.  I  could  not 
resist  telling  you  all  this  upon  the  testimony  of  a 
cool,  sensible,  and  unprejudiced  observer.  Pray  re- 
member me  to  Savery  and  my  other  friends,  and 
believe  me,  &c." 

Lieut. -Colonel  Tupper,  on  his  return  from  Chiloe 
to  Santiago,  in  August,  1826,  learnt  that  he  had 
become  lieutenant-colonel  effective,  in  consideration  of 
his  services  in  the  recent  reduction  of  that  island. 
In  December  he  joined  at  Talca  the  army  of  the 
south,  under  General  Borgono,  whose  object  was  to 
destroy  a  horde  of  bandits  composed  chiefly  of  In- 
dians, and  of  nearly  a  thousand  strong,  who  ravaged 
the  province  of  Conception  in  summer,  retiring  on 



the  approach  of  winter  to  the  eastern  side  of  the 
Cordillera.*  Their  incursions  had  been  of  late  so 
frequent  and  destructive,  that  it  was  absolutely  neces- 
sary to  put  them  down.  Three  divisions,  to  act  on 
different  points,  were  accordingly  formed,  and  Lieut. - 
Colonel  Tupper  was  appointed  to  command  a  squadron 
of  dragoons,  with  which  he  passed  the  Cordillera, 
parallel  with  the  town  of  Chilian,  in  pursuit  of  the 
bandits,  and  went  to  the  eastward  as  far  as  the  river 
Nanken,  in  the  province  of  Mendoza.  Pincheira 
contrived,  however,  to  elude  all  pursuit,  and  before 
the  end  of  the  campaign  Lieut. -Colonel  Tupper  was 
sent  by  General  Borgono  on  a  mission  to  the  capital, 
where  he  arrived  in  April,  1827,  and  on  the  1st  of 
May  following  was  appointed  first  aid-de-camp  to  the 
supreme  government,  an  office  of  trust  and  respecta- 
bility. At  this  time  General  Pinto,  a  statesman  of 
liberal  principles  and  enlightened  views,  although 
perhaps  wanting  in  political  firmness,  wat  elected 
president  in  the  place  of  General  Freire.  Much  wc.0 
expected  from  the  administration  of  the  new  president, 
and  it  was  hoped  that  he  would  be  powerful  enough 
to  remove  many  existing  abuses,  but  those  interested 
in  their  continuance  proved  in  the  end  the  stronger 
party.  General  Pinto,  having  been  employed  in  a 
diplomatic  capacity  in  England,  was  a  warm  admirer 
of  every  thing  English,  and  his  chief  aid-de-camp 
ever  found  in  him  a  sincere  and  steadfast  friend.  He 
wrote  on  June  27th  : — 

"  I  consider  my  commission  in  this  service  as  secure 
as  an  employment  under  any  South  American  govern- 
ment can  well  be.     My  pay  is  that  of  a  lieutenant- 

*  They  were  cointnancied  by  Pincheira,  tlie  son  of  a  European  by  an 
Indian  mother,  who  held  the  rank  of  colonel  in  the  Spanish  service,  and 
(omniitted  his  d>'predations  under  the  Spanish  standard. 



\    i 


!ii  i^ 



I       1 

'  1  >  I 








"I'        I 

;  ,  i 

>  I 

I ; 




colonel  of"  ( avalry,  Avith  one  hundred  and  fifty  dollars 
per  month,  and  my  situation  is  at  present  *  Edecan 
Mayor,'  or  aid-de-camp  in  chief  to  the  president  of 
the  repubhc,  General  Pinto,  a  very  clever  man,  who 
has  resided  in  England  for  some  time.  This  situation 
I  shall  probably  hold  for  some  years  if  I  continue  in 
the  service." 

And  on  August  4,  1827  : — 

**The  president  mentioned  to  me  some  time  back, 
that  should  the  present  governor  of  Chiloe  resign,  as 
was  expected,  he  would  send  me  there.  My  pay 
would  then  be  four  thousand  dollars  per  annum,  and 
there  are  other  advantages." 

In  October,  1827,  a  midshipman  of  H.  M.  S.  Doris 
unfortunately  killed  a  Chileno  sergeant,  who  had 
attacked  him  with  his  bayonet  during  some  disturb- 
ance in  the  theatre  at  Valparaiso.  It  appears  that 
this  young  officer  was  stabbed  twice  by  the  sergeant, 
who  was  intoxicated,  when  in  his  own  defence  he 
drew  out  a  pocket  pistol  and  shot  him  dead.  Sir 
John  Sinclair,  who  commanded  the  frigate,  gave  up 
the  midshipman  to  the  authorities  on  shore,  the  inha- 
bitants of  the  town  declaring  that  they  would  have 
vengeance  either  of  him  or  of  some  other  British 
officer ;  and  the  president  of  Chile  ordered  a  court 
martial,  which  was  composed  partly  of  foreign  officers 
in  the  service  of  the  republic.  At  the  solicitation  of 
the  British  consul-general,  Lieut. -Colonel  Tupper 
undertook  the  defence,  and  it  is  said  conducted  it 
wdth  so  much  ability  that  the  result  was  an  acquittal, 
although  it  was  generally  expected  that  the  prisoner 
would  have  been  found  guilty  of  murder,  such  was 
the  irritation  of  the  public  mind  against  him,  and  in 
that  case  the  consequence  might  have  been  fatal. 





Lieut. -Colonel  Tupper  again   wrote   on   April 
1828,  as  follows:— 

"  Our  congress  met  on  the  25tli  of  February  ;  it  is 
very  badly  composed,  and  will  not,  I  fear,  do  much 
good.  The  provinces  begin  to  bo  greatly  divided, 
thanks  to  the  system  of  federalism.  I  think  the  wiiole 
of  South  America  is  in  a  dreadful  state  of  anarchy  and 
confusion, — so  much  ignorance  and  so  little  morality. 
I  believe  it  is  impossible  that  the  different  states  can 
constitute  themselves  for  many  an  age,  and  what 
Moore  says  of  another  country  applies  particularly  to 
them  : — 'And  there  is  certainly  a  close  approximation 
to  savage  life,  not  only  in  the  liberty  which  they 
enjoy,  but  in  the  violence  of  party  spirit,  and  of 
private  animosity  which  results  from  it.'  " 

While  acting  as  aid-de-camp,  Lieut. -Colonel  Tupper 
was  engaged  in  the  suppression  of  two  or  three  dan- 
gerous revolts,  incited  by  the  party  to  which  we  have 
just  alluded,  and  whose  private  interests  had  suffered 
when  in  1823  many  exclusive  privileges  were  abo- 
lished. Their  first  object  was  to  supplant  General 
Pinto  in  his  high  office,  so  as  to  accomplish  their 
hisidious  designs  under  the  cloak  of  legal  authority. 
We  subjoin  extracts  from  two  letters  which  the  sub- 
ject of  this  memoir  wrote  to  a  brother  at  this  period. 

**  Santiago,  August  17,  1828. — My  long  silence 
has  been  owing  to  a  trip  which  I  made  last  month  to 
San  Fernando,  (forty  leagues  south  of  Santiago,)  to 
suppress  a  mutiny  among  the  forces  quartered  there. 
General  Borgono,  having  been  ordered  to  take  com- 
mand of  the  troops  destined  to  put  down  the  mutineers, 
requested  the  president  to  allow  me  to  accompany 
him,  which  was  acceded  to.  We  left  this  place  on 
the  4th  of  July,  with  two  hundred  infantry,  and  were 



i     I 







:  '  '  I.  . 

'■:  I 




subsetiucntly  joined  by  about  four  bundred  milili. 
cavalrv.  On  anivini'  near  San  Fernando  we  found 
tbat  tbe  mutineers,  battalion  No,  6,  about  tbree  bun- 
dreci  in  number,  bad  taken  up  a  strong  position  to  tlie 
nortb  of  tbe  town.  Not  judging  it  prudent  to  attack 
tbem,  we  passed  on  to  San  Fernando;  tbe  general 
sent  me  before  bim,  witb  two  weak  companies  of 
infantry,  to  take  possession  of  tbe  place ;  on  arriving 
in  the  Plaza  Mavor  I  was  cbarged  bv  a  body  of 
dragoons,  two  bundred  strong,  who,  having  declared 
for  the  mutineers,  bad  just  arrived  from  Curico,  about 
twelve  leagues  south  of  San  Fernando.  After  a  little 
skirmishing  I  succeeded  in  driving  tliem  out  of  the 
town,  h.iving  lost  on  our  part  two  men  killed  and 
five  wounded,  which  casualties  arose  from  the  fire  of 
a  detachment  of  No.  G,  which  had  possessed  itself  of 
a  church  steeple.  The  general  soon  after  joined  us. 
Immediately  after  this  affair  the  dragoons  re-united 
out  of  the  town,  and  joined  battalion  No.  6.  Both 
corps  marched  to  Santiago,  seizing  all  the  horses  on 
the  road,  and  were  so  expeditious  as  put  it  altogether 
out  of  our  power  to  overtake  them.  They  were  met 
near  Santiago  by  about  one  hundred  cuirassiers  and 
four  hundred  militia  infantry.  After  exchanging  a 
few  shots,  the  government  party  took  to  their  heels 
and  ran  into  Santiago.  About  sixty  of  the  militia 
were  cut  down  by  the  dragoons,  and  the  mutinous 
troops  marched  in  the  evening  to  the  artillery  bar- 
racks. We  arrived  next  day  close  to  the  capital,  and 
they,  finding  our  force  so  near,  the  people  enraged 
against  them  and  altogether  opposed  to  the  change 
of  government  which  they  had  in  view,  accepted 
a  general  pardon  and  submitted  to  tbe  constituted 
authorities.     And  thus  ended  the  business,  being,  I 




I  iniiiua 
-e  found 
ree  luin- 
m  to  tlie 
o  attack 





body   of 


o,  about 

r  a  little 

t  of  the 

led  and 

e  fire  of 

itself  of 

ined  us. 



rses  on 


re  met 

rs  and 

iging  a 

|r  heels 



[y  bar- 

il,  and 





|ing,  I 

dare  say,  only  the  harbinger  of  the  civil  wars  which 
are  about  to  break  out  over  all  South  America.  It 
was  reported  in  Santiago  that  I  had  been  killed  in 
the  affair  of  San  Fernando ;  I  hope  the  report  will 
not,  by  any  channel,  have  reached  you.  Since  these 
things  came  to  pass,  the  congress  has  sanctioned  a 
constitution,  which  many  think  is  likely  to  allay  our 
political  effervescence,  while  others  imagine  it  will 
prove  another  apple  of  discord ;  for  my  part,  1  am  of 
opinion  that  the  elements  of  political  organization  are 
throughout  South  America  inefficient  to  the  establish- 
ment of  good  government,  and,  perhaps  fortunately 
for  these  states,  that  despotism,  which  is  the  child  of 
anarchy,  will  ere  long  crush  in  its  iron  grasp  as  well 
the  seeds  of  discord  as  the  tree  of  liberty. 

"  K'en  now 
While  yet  upon  Coliinihia's  lisiiifj  brow 
The  showy  smile  of  yoiiii"^  presiiinption  plays. 
Her  bloom  is  poison'd  and  her  heart  deeays. 
Even  now  in  dawn  of  life  her  sickly  brcatii 
Burns  with  the  taint  of  empires  near  their  death, 
And  like  the  nymphs  of  her  own  withering;  ( lime 
She's  old  in  youth,  she's  blasted  in  her  prime  !" 


"August  18. — I  have  been  compelled  to  melt  the 
seal  of  this  letter  to  inform  you  that  a  very  dangerous 
conspiracy  was  discovered  last  night,  of  which  the 
object  was,  as  usual,  to  drive  the  president  from  his 
situation.  It  is  ascertained  that  the  intention  of  the 
conspirators  was  to  murder  the  president.  General 
Borgono,  myself,  and  about  ten  others,  among  them 
Viel,  a  French  officer.  Part  of  the  battalion  No.  6 
and  the  dragoons  had  already  entered  into  the  conspi- 
racy. The  principal  persons  accused  have  absconded, 
and  we  have  only  been  able  to  seize  three  of  the 
subordinate  agents." 

I   , 

I  i 

f  • 


•If' M 


1  , 


f  i 

1  ; 


(    ' 

'  'it 

,  5 



"  Scpt'^i^iber  15. — I  think  I  mentioned  in  my  last 
letter  that  a  conspiracy  had  been  discovered,  the 
object  of  which  was  to  effect  an  entire  change  in  the 
government ;  it  was  intended  to  seize  upon  the  pre- 
sident and  upon  several  of  those  who  surround  him, 
putting  them  to  death  if  the  least  resistance  were 
offered.  We  had,  however,  timely  notice  of  the 
affair,  and  were  enabled  to  suppress  the  mutiny  en- 
tirely in  one  battalion.  An  order  having  been  sent 
at  the  same  time  to  arrest  some  officers  of  dragoons, 
the  whole  regiment  rose  and  marched  to  the  i)rovince 
of  Conception,  where,  being  met  by  a  superior  force, 
they  were  obliged  to  lay  down  their  arms.  On  the 
18th  of  this  month  the  civil  authorities  and  military 
wdll  swear  to  the  maintenance  of  the  constitution. 
There  are  two  houses  of  representation  elected  every 
two  years ;  foreigners  can  occupy  every  situation 
excepting  that  of  president  and  minister  of  state. 
On  the  whole  I  think  the  constitution  is  not  a  bad 
one,  but  the  popular  elections  are  too  frequent." 

On  March  10,  1829,  he  again  wrote  to  his  brother 
as  follows : — 

"  I  procured  Miller's  memoirs  yesterday,  and  turned 
over  to  the  taking  of  Chiloe  in  1826;  the  author 
had  much  better  have  said  nothing  about  it.  He 
states  our  force  at  four  thousand  men,  while  the  real 
number  embarked  at  Valparaiso  was  this  : — 

Artillery oO 

Battalion  No.  1 4.50 

4 583 

6 550 

7 371 

8 378 

Dismounted  Cavalry 142 





Of  this  reduced  number  not  quite  two  thousand 
men  were  disembarked  at  Chiloe,  as  upwards  of  one 
hundred  men  were  left  sick  at  Valdivia,  and  more  than 
four  hundred  remained  on  board  the  ships.  The  Chi- 
lotes  had  considerably  upwards  of  three  thousand  men, 

of  whom  four  hundred  were  cavalry.      Major , 

so  far  from  distinguishing  himself,  would  I  think  have 
been  tried  in  the  English  service  for  cowardice.  He 
commanded  the  first  column  of  grenadiers,  and  I 
the  second ;  notwithstanding,  my  colunui  led  the  van 
during  the  whole  action,  he  bringing  up  the  rear  at  a 
considerable  distance,  and  certainly  not  being  under 
fire  during  the  four  hours  the  affair  lasted.  Besides, 
he  did  what  I  think  no  brave  man  would  do, — he 
took  off  his  epaulettes  when  the  first  shot  was  fired, 
and  gave  them  to  his  servant  in  presence  of  both 
columns  of  grenadiers." 

In  reply  to  some  questions  from  his  brother  relative 
to  a  narrative  by  Doctor  Leighton,  an  English  sur- 
geon, of  an  expedition  in  the  Indian  territory  in  1822, 
published  in  Miers'  travels  in  Chile,  he  wrote  from 
Santiago  in  October,  1829  : — 

"  About  a  month  previously  to  the  expedition  whicli 
Leighton  narrates,  Colonel  Beauchef  sent  me  with 
thirty  men  to  endeavour  to  surprise  Palacios  in  his 
dwelling,  situated  in  the  Indian  territory,  about  forty 
or  fifty  leagues  to  the  northward  of  Valdivia.  The 
intended  surprise  was  planned  upon  the  information 
of  a  deserter  of  ours,  who  had  resided  some  time 
with  Palacios ;  he  offered  to  guide  me,  and  averred 
that  the  dwelling  of  the  bandit  could  be  reached  in 
one  night.  We  set  out  accordingly,  and  after  a  most 
fatiguing  night's  march  arrived  by  daybreak  only  on 
the  borders  of  the  territory  of  the  Indians  of  Tolten. 

■'  i 


1  I 


M  j) 


t  1 

'.5  1 


:■  (  , 



i;  ' 

(  ! 



If  you  have  a  good  map  you  will  see  this  river  laid 
down.  These  were  friendly  to  us,  and  they  assured 
me  that  I  could  not  reach  the  dwelling  of  Palacios  in 
less  than  three  days'  very  hard  march.  I  at  once 
perceived  that  Beauchef  had  been  grossly  deceived, 
and  that  I  had  no  chance  of  success  in  the  object  of 
my  expedition.  I  was,  however,  too  young  in  my 
enthusiasm  to  be  so  easily  turned  back.  I  continued, 
I  may  say  merely  for  the  fun  of  the  thing,  and  to 
have  a  little  insight  into  the  customs  of  the  Indians, 
who  are  rather  numerous  about  there.  I  was  regaled 
by  some  caciques,  and  I  skirmished  with  others ;  I 
even  made  love  to  the  dryades  of  the  land,  with 
whom,  however,  I  was  not  successful.  I  got  a  terrible 
box  on  the  ear  from  one  sylvan  beauty,  which  almost 
felled  me  to  the  earth.  On  the  third  day  I  was 
nearly  surprised  by  Palacios  himself,  at  the  head  of 
two  or  three  hundred  Indians.  However,  I  was  not 
surprised,  and  I  took  up  so  good  a  position  and 
shewed  such  a  countenance,  that,  as  Palacios  himself 
afterwards  confessed  to  me,  he  and  his  Indians  thought 
the  attack  would  be  too  difhcult.  I  retreated, — he 
dodged  me  until  I  reached  Tolten,  and  then  left  me. 
The  Indians  of  Tolten,  although  friendly,  did  not 
accompany  me,  as  they  considered  I  was  going  to 
certain  destruction.  Palacios  was  much  dreaded  by 
them ;  he  was  a  native  of  Valdivia,  had  been  a  ser- 
geant in  the  Spanish  army,  and  spoke  the  Indian 
language  perfectly.  He  was  subsequently  betrayed 
into  the  hands  of  the  patriots  and  shot  in  Valdivia, 
where  he  had  just  arrived  when  our  first  expedition 
to  Chiloe  touched  in  that  port.  I  spoke  to  him  for 
more  than  an  hour." 





On  the  retirement  of  Colonel  Beauchef  in  June, 
1829,  Lieut. -Colonel  Tupper  unfortunately  for  him- 
self, as  it  necessarily  embroiled  him  in  the  approaching 
commotion,  accepted  the  command  of  his  old  batta- 
lion. No.  8,  and  on  the  following  month  he  was 
made  full  colonel.  A  few  weeks  before  hostilities 
commenced  between  the  rival  parties,  Colonel  Tupper 
with  the  same  proi)hetic  spirit  which  is  visible  in  a 
preceding  letter,  and  with  a  presentiment  which  was 
too  soon  to  be  realized,  thus  wrote  to  a  member  of 
his  family  in  Guernsey  : — 

"  I  naturally  cannot  consider  my  life  of  long  dura- 
tion ;  I  am  too  immediately  acted  upon  by  every 
revolution  in  this  country  not  to  be  prepared  for 
death,  and  to  be  perfectly  resigned  to  it  when  the 
day  shall  arrive ;  even  in  my  time  how  many  foreign 
officers  have  not  perished  by  climate  and  by  the 
sword.  I  shall  have  lived  long  enough  if  I  leave  my 
children  a  subsistence  and  a  name  unblemished.  My 
late  elevation  in  rank  is  an  earnest  of  my  rising  repu- 
tation, and  I  have  perhaps  reason  to  hope  that  when 
I  fall,  my  rank  and  the  circumstances  of  my  dodiu 
will  place  an  obligation  on  Chile  towards  my  family, 
which  she  may  be  willing  to  acknowledge." 

Spain  has  indeed  much  to  answer  for,  no*^  only 
to  her  late  South  American  colonies,  but  to  u,'  loral 
civihzation  and  humanity,  for  three  centuries  of  the 
grossest  misrule  that  ever  disgraced  any  age  or  coun- 
trv.  Her  dominion  on  that  continent,  having  been 
from  the  first  pregnant  with  avarice  and  cruelty,  is 
perhaps  the  foulest  blot  on  the  moral  history  of  the 
world.  But  she  has  not  escaped  the  punishment  of 
her  political  offences,  and  the  hand  of  retributive 
justice  is  surely  visible  in  her  present  state  of  degra- 




1   M 

,  ■    I: 





I  If! '!: 


!1       \ 

*  , : 

i   i 

M     \ 



datioii.  Were  it  otherwise,  an  *  unholy'  alliance  ol' 
despots  dared  not  have  decreed  that  the  will  of  her 
king  should  be  superior  to  the  voice  of  her  people, 
and  that  the  obstinacy  of  one  man.  should  bring 
desolation  over  a  whole  country.  Too  proud  to 
acknowledge  his  weakness,  and  too  vicious  to  yield 
where  submission  would  be  a  virtue,  the  wretched 
Ferdinand  has  prolonged  the  contest  with  independ- 
ence abroad  and  freedom  at  home,  until  his  character 
has  become  a  by-word  among  nations.  Proud  and 
once  mighty  Spain  is  indeed  fallen, — her  coasts  un- 
protected, her  commerce  destroyed,  her  power  a 
nullity,  her  name  almost  a  term  of  reproach,  she 
presents  a  sad  spectacle  of  the  evils  arising  from  a 
long  course  of  absolute  government !  And  if  such  be 
the  lamentable  position  of  the  mother  country,  can  it 
be  a  matter  of  surprise  that  the  acquisition  of  inde- 
pendence found  her  colonies  totally  unprepared  to 
appreciate  the  blessings  of  rational  freedom  ?  They 
had  been  so  long  and  so  studiously  debased,  that  he, 
who  expected  that  a  native  master  spirit  would  at 
once  appear  among  each  of  them  to  suppress  the 
constant  struggles  for  power  and  cO  allay  the  prolific 
elements  of  anarchy  and  confusion,  the  natural  con- 
sequences of  that  debasement,  must  have  been  little 
acquainted  with  the  workings  of  the  human  mind. 
The  effects  of  c  o  cruel  a  system  of  policy  could  only 
be  mitigated  or  removed  by  years  of  probation  and 
suffering.  In  Chile  the  ^.'paniards,  on  their  final 
expulsion,  left  an  intolerant  priesthood  and  a  selfish 
oligarchy, — the  one  anxious  to  preserve  its  sway,  the 
other  to  continue  in  possession  of  several  royal  mono- 
polies, which  were  of  course  inconsistent  with  the 
general   welfare   and   republican   feelings   oi"   ecjuity. 



The  predominance  of  both,  now  united  there  for 
mutual  support,  must  disappear  before  the  increasing 
knowledge  of  the  people ;  the  impious  league  of 
church  and  state,  for  interested  purposes,  cannot  long 
exist  with  genuine  liberty,  as  to  question  the  tenets 
of  the  one  will  be  to  draw  down  the  vengeance  of  the 
other, — will  be  to  stigmatize  constitutional  resistance 
as  infidelity,  and  religious  reformation  as  political 

In  June,  1829,  General  Pinto  was  re-elected  presi- 
dent of  the  republic  for  five  years,  but  unfortunately 
he  declined  the  office,  and  this  unexpected  refusal  not 
only  compromised  his  best  friends,  but  was  the  main 
cause  of  all  the  bloodshed  which  followed.  In  the 
subsequent  crisis  General  Freire's  conduct  was  incon- 
sistent and  vacillating ;  and  General  Prieto,  under 
the  guise  of  obtaining  the  recal  and  return  to  power 
of  the  exiled  Director  O'Higgins,  whose  aid-de-camp 
he  had  formerly  been,  having  marched  his  troops 
from  Conception  towards  the  capital,  a  coalition  of 
the  disaffected  there  was  formed  to  support  him,  and 
through  his  means  to  seize  on  the  reius  of  govern- 
ment. The  mob,  ever  fond  of  change,  was  induced 
by  large  bribes  and  the  hope  of  plunder  to  act  under 
this  coalition,  whl^h,  if  at  first  weak  in  numbers, 
was  very  formidable  in  resources.  General  Freire 
attempted  to  assume  the  command  of  the  garrison  of 
Santiago,  but  the  field  officers  of  the  different  corps 
refused  to  obey  his  orders,  and  resolved  to  acknow- 
ledge only  the  existing  authorities.  Thus  foiled,  he 
introduced  himself  into  the  barracks  of  No.  8,  during 
the  absence  of  the  colonel,  and  ordering  the  battalion 
under  arms,  he  endeavoured  in  an  insidious  harangue 
to  gain  over  the  soldiers  to  his  own  purposes,  well 







'I  ■! 




.  (I 

1'  I 

'*     r 

!  I  I     i 

I    I 






knowing  that  their  defection,  as  composing  the  finest 
battalion  in  the  service,  would  prove  fatal  to  the 
constitutional  cause.  Colonel  Tupper,  being  quickly 
informed  of  the  attempt,  mounted  his  horse  and  gal- 
loped furiously  to  the  barracks.  He  rushed  in,  and 
the  difficulty  of  his  situation  will  be  easily  con- 
ceived,— a  foreigner  opposed  singly  to  a  native  of  the 
highest  present  military  and  late  civil  rank,  and 
beloved  also  by  the  soldiery, — but  the  result  will  best 
prove  the  attachment  of  his  men  towards  him.  Ad- 
dressing them  in  Spanish,  he  spoke  briefly  to  this 
eftect:  "vSoldiers!  the  captain  general  has  led  you 
to  vicloiy, — your  colonel  has  also  led  you  to  victory  ; 
whom  do  you  obey, — your  colonel  or  General  i^reire  ?" 
The  wiiole  battalion  instantaneously  responded  as  one 
me,a,  "  We  obey  our  colonel, — Viva  el  Coronei  Tup- 
per !"'  'irA  General  Freire  and  his  si  Ite,  among  whom 
was  /ivuuiral  Blanco,  were  happy  to  escape  unhurt, 
the  soldiers  having,  we  believe,  levelled  their  muskets 
at  them.  On  their  way  to  the  barracks  they  were 
followed  by  a  large  mob,  who  attempted  to  force  the 
gates,  but  on  hearing  Colonel  Tupper  order  the  guard 
to  prime  and  load,  the  people,  well  knowing  his 
resolute  character,  dispersed  in  a  moment.  This 
attempt  was  the  more  dangerous,  as  battalion  No.  1 
was  quartered  in  the  same  barracks,  and  would  have 
immediately  fo''.owed  the  secession  of  No.  8.  Freire, 
on  his  return  home,  was  taunted  by  his  wife  with  the 
baseness  and  inconsistency  of  his  col  duct  on  this 
occasion.  Her  family  belc-igftd  to  the  constitutional 
party,  and  this  beautiful  young  woman  told  her 
husband  that  the  soldiers  had  acted  like  men  of 
honor,  and  in  her  indignation  she  threw  a  plate  on  a 
marble  table,  whence  it  danced  oft'  and  shattered  a 

t    iil 



large  and  valuable  mirror  into  pieces.  She  was  pro- 
bably the  cause  of  his  returning  to  that  party  which 
he  should  never  have  forsaken.  It  may  be  added 
here  that  Colonel  Tupper,  during  his  short  command, 
had  been  enabled,  from  his  personal  influence  with 
the  president,  to  do  much  for  the  welfare  of  his  bat- 
tahon,  which,  having  been  repeatedly  distinguished 
in  battle,  was  proud  and  jealous  of  its  reputation ; 
and  the  officers,  who  were  principally  very  young 
men  of  the  first  families  in  the  country,  adhered  to 
their  colonel  to  the  last  with  inviolable  fidelity.  He 
had  established  a  school  in  the  regiment,  and  when- 
ever the  pay  of  the  men  was  in  arrear,  he  borrowed 
money  on  his  own  responsibility  from  his  friends,  and 
discharged  the  claims  of  his  soldiers. 

Amid  the  distrust  and  confusion  which  prevailed 
during  this  eventful  period  in  Santiago,  General  Prieto 
arrived  by  easy  marches  in  the  neighbourhood,  and 
encamped  his  army  on  some  heights  within  a  league 
of  the  city.  General  Lastra,  an  old  man  and  without 
experience,  having  served  chiefly  in  the  navy,  was 
appointed,  as  he  was  a  native  Chileno,  first,  and  Colo- 
nel Viel  second  in  command  of  the  constitutional 
troops,  and  daily  skirmishes  preceded  the  decisive 
action  of  December  14th.  Subjoined  is  a  transcript 
of  the  last  unfinished  letter  which  Colonel  Tupper 
addressed  to  his  brother,  and  which  not  only  best 
explains  the  origin  of  the  contest,  the  objects  of  the 
diflerent  leaders,  and  the  part  which  he  took  in  this 
trying  moment,  but  affords  a  general  specimen  of 
his  style  of  correspondence  without  the  most  distant 
idea  of  publication.  It  should,  however,  be  remem- 
bered, that  the  letter  was  written  in  the  hurry  and 
confusion  attendant  on  his  approaching  departure  for 


r  I 

1  : 


1  ! 

-)  ■ 



I  '     i 


'  f  ■' 







i    i. 

I  ■ 

I    ;  ; 



Conception,  for  which  port  he  sailed  with  his  hattahon 
on  the  28th  of  January. 

"Valparaiso,  January  26,  1830. — I  have  not  the 
slightest  idea  when  I  addressed  you  last,  or  indeed 
what  chapter  in  my  history  I  then  concluded ;  it  is 
nevertheless  certain  that  the  eventful  period,  which 
has  since  te-vened,  has  heen  so  chequered  with  inci- 
dent, so  repict^  with  tumult  and  strife,  that  had  I  the 
pen  of  Caesar  I  could  almost  imitate  his  commentaries, 
if  indeed  any  string  of  occurrences  in  this  wretched 
country  could  merit  such  a  book  with  such  a  name. 

"  I  am  afraid  that  poor  Chile  has  forfeited  for  ever 
the  reputation  of  comparative  tranquillity  and  orga- 
nized government,  which  hitherto  had  been  the  boast 
of  those  interested  in  her  welfare.  The  scenes  we 
have  lately  witnessed,  and  the  illiberal  and  even 
furious  hatred  evinced  throughout  the  country  against 
all  foreigners,  have  perfectly  astonished  even  those 
who  were  least  friendly  to  the  character  of  these  people, 
and  least  sanguine  in  their  prognostics  of  future 

' '  I  really  sit  down  in  absolute  despair  of  being 
able  to  make  you  understand  the  cause  and  course  of 
late  events,  or  to  write  such  a  narrative  as  will  not 
confuse  you,  and  of  which  the  tediousness  will  not 
disgust  you ;  it  is  indeed  a  hard  task,  and  I  would 
rather  make  bricks  for  the  Egyptians,  but  I  know 
that  you  will  expect  some  account  from  me, — let  me 
therefore  cross  the  Rubicon  at  once.  I  would  give 
you  Ctiesar's  language  in  his  own  words  if  I  recollected 
them,  but  much  riding  has  long  jostled  classic  lore 
out  of  me. 

"You  know  that  the  elections  closed  about  six 
months  ago ;   they  were  gained  by  a  party  called  the 





not  the 
r  indeed 
d  ;  it  is 
1,  which 
ith  inci- 
lad  I  the 
a  name. 

for  ever 
id  orga- 
he  boast 
enes  we 
id  even 
'  against 
n  those 
I  people, 

|f  being 
)urse  of 
nil  not 
all  not 
-let  me 
Id  give 
ic  lore 

|ut  six 
3d  the 

'  Lil)crales,'  in  contra-distinction  to  the  '  Peleucones,' 
who  are  the  aristocrats  of  the  country  and  shun  all 
innovations,  and  to  the  Estanqueros,  who  are  the 
vampires  of  the  state,  a  party  whose  object  is  to  raise 
itself  to  opulence  by  exclusive  commercial  privileges, 
inconsistent  with  the  general  prosperity.  The  O'Hig- 
ginists  form  another  party,  the  object  of  which  is  to 
bring  back  O'Higgins  and  absolute  government. 

"  I  have  said  that  the  *  Liberales'  gained  the  elec- 
tions ;  General  Pinto,  their  chief,  was  elected  president 
for  five  years  by  the  electoral  colleges,  (not  by  con- 
gress,) the  constitution  stating  that  any  individual, 
having  more  than  one  half  of  the  votes  of  the 
electoral  colleges,  becomes  president  of  course, — 
otherwise  the  election  is  left  to  congress.  The  vice- 
president  is  elected  by  congress,  from  among  those 
persons  who,  next  to  the  president,  unite  most  votes 
from  the  electoral  colleges,  or,  as  the  *  Liberales' 
have  it,  from  among  all  those  who  have  votes  at  all. 
Now  Pinto  had  more  than  half  the  votes  of  the  col- 
leges, and  was  therefore  recognised  president.  The 
election  of  vice-president  became  the  attribute  of 
congress,  and  this  was  a  most  interesting  point,  as 
by  this  time  General  Pinto  had  positively  declined 
the  acceptance  of  the  presidency. 

"The  constitution  enacts,  that  the  vice-president 
is  to  be  elected  by  congress  from  among  those  having 
the  immediate  majority  of  votes, — '  Mayoria  imme- 
diata.'  Those  opposed  to  the  '  Liberates'  construe 
the  meaning  to  be  that  the  vice-president  is  to  be 
elected  from  the  two  having  most  votes  from  the 
colleges,  while  on  the  other  hand  the  '  Liberales' 
contend  that  the  vice-president  may  be  elected  indis- 
criminately from  all  those  who  have  votes.     In  con- 


.   ( 



i  i 






M;   ■■] 



!  r  '  I 



I  ;  I 


I  < 

sequence  congress,  composed  almost  exclusively  of 
'  Liberales,'  elected  as  vice-president  the  individual 
third  on  the  list  of  candidates,  that  is,  leaving  out 
the  two  with  more  votes.  This  individual,  however, 
resigned  also,  and  the  functions  of  government  thon 
devolved  on  the  president  of  the  upper  house,  who 
issued  a  convocation  ordering  a  new  election  of  pre- 
sidents by  the  electoral  colleges. 

"General  Prieto,  an  old  friend  of  O'Higgins,  had 
been  named,  previous  to  the  elections,  general  of  the 
army  of  the  south,  (situated  on  the  Indian  frontier,) 
and  there  is  now  no  doubt  that  from  the  day  of  his 
nomination  he  intended  to  subvert  the  government, 
and  to  render  the  O'Higgins  party  once  more  para- 
mount in  Chile.  Even  very  shortly  after  his  nomi- 
nation, reports  were  received  in  Santiago  that  his 
conduct  was  extremely  suspicious,  and  that  his  inten- 
tions were  secretly  hostile. 

"  On  learning  General  Pinto's  election  to  the  presi- 
dency, he  declared  himself,  ard  issued  a  proclamation 
in  which  hf  asserted  his  refusal  to  obey  the  established 
authorities,  avowing  as  his  motive  the  necessity  of 
liberating  the  people  from  the  rule  of  an  illegal  con- 
gress. When  the  news  of  Prieto's  revolt  reached 
Santiago,  the  president  of  the  upper  house,  a  poor 
old  man  of  the  name  of  Vicuna,  was  exercising  the 
functions  of  government  from  causes  already  detailed. 
He  had  the  more  reason  to  be  alarmed  at  his  situation 
that  both  the  Estanqueros  and  Peleucones*  declared 
for  Prieto,  and  coalesced  to  destroy  with  one  effort 
the  government  and  the  liberal  party,  by  which  it 
was  supported. 

*  Peleucones  are  royalists  or  old  Spaniards;  Estaiico,  a  monopoly  granted 
or  retained  by  the  government.— >SV<'  iUossavn,  in  Miers'  Chile. 





"There  is  little  doubt  that  matters  woukl  have  still 
gone  well  had  General  Freire  acted  with  his  accus- 
tomed integrity,  but  this  weak  man  was  completely 
led  by  two  or  three  of  the  '  Estanqueros,'  and,  though 
the  natural  enemy  of  Prieto,  he  positively  refused  to 
support  Vicuna, — on  the  contrary,  leaning  consider- 
ably to  the  other  side. 

"  I  was  at  this  time  quartered  with  my  corps  in 
Santiago,  and  I  considered  it  my  duty  to  support  the 
government  and  congress,  because  I  think  that  the 
case  is  extremely  rare  in  which  a  military  m;;  i  can 
with  honor  do  otherwise,  and  because  I  was  p  lied 
that  the  matter  in  question  was  not  one  in  which  the 
interference  of  the  military  was  at  all  called  for,  the 
greatest  grievance  urged  by  the  rebels  being  confined 
to  the  allegation  that  the  letter  of  the  law  had  not 
been  adhered  to  in  the  election  of  vice-president.  I 
knew  moreover  that  all  parties,  whatever  their  avowed 
object  might  be,  only  sought  the  furtherance  of  their 
private  views, — that  they  all  wished  to  be  in  place, 
and  to  plunder  the  country  at  discretion, — and  above 
all,  I  considered  that  no  free  government  or  orderly 
state  could  exist  an  hour  if  the  military  were  once 
allowed  to  throw  the  sword  into  the  scale,  and  decide 
points  of  legislation  by  the  force  of  arms,  as  is  now 
too  generally  the  case  in  South  America.  Fortunately 
the  chiefs,  who  were  in  garrison  in  the  capital,  were 
much  of  this  opinion.  We  determined  to  give  Prieto 
battle  in  support  of  legitimate  authority,  and  the 
several  corps  therefore  left  Santiago.  The  enemy 
was  encamped  about  a  league  from  the  city,  on  ground 
higher  than  ours,  though  not  otherwise  favorable 
to  him,  as  many  ditches  and  walls  (with  the  exjep- 
tion  of  the  position  itself  low)  rendered  ineffectual 




-  i 

I  lu 


;  'Hi  « 

.  it 













^^  ■'  0%'^  ^'^ 






S  IS   iio 

L25  ill  1.4 






WEBSTER,  N.Y.  14580 

(7)6)  873-4503 







his  immense  superiority  in  cavalry.  He  shewed  us 
his  front,  his  right  resting  on  a  farm  house  called 
Ezaguirre,  much  strengthened  hy  walls  and  ditches, 
and  his  left  on  another  called  Ochagavia,  scarcely 
less  capahle  of  defence.  A  large  body  of  cavalry  was 
stationed  on  the  right  of  Ezaguirre.  We  marched  in 
parallel  columns ;  the  battalions  in  close  columns  of 
companies,  Pudeto*  forming  the  left  of  the  line. 
Each  flank  was  protected  by  two  pieces  of  artillery, — 
a  howitzer  in  the  centre ;  our  cavalry,  about  one 
hundred  and  eighty  strong,  was  advanced  considerably 
before  our  left  flank. 

"The  battle  began  by  a  charge  which  the  enemy's 
cavalry,  posted  at  Ezaguirre,  made  upon  our  cavalry, 
which,  being  much  weaker,  fled  instantly.  The 
enemy's  cavalry  pursued  ours  so  vigorously,  that  the 
greater  part  passed  our  column  within  fifty  paces ; 
the  rear  companies  faced  about  and  opened  fire,  which 
soon  obliged  them  to  retire. 

"  Our  column  had  already  halted  on  coming  within 
range,  and  a  very  smart  cannonade  opened  on  both 
sides  ;  the  enemy's  guns  were  extremely  well  served, 
but  did  little  execution  notwithstanding,  as,  owing  to 
the  chance  of  the  ricochet,  every  ball  went  directly 
over  the  column  it  was  intended  for,  and  one  went 
through  my  flag. 

"  We  had  halted  in  front  of  Ochagavia,  at  the  dis- 
tance of  little  more  than  half  a  mile  from  the  house. 
Our  three  light  companies  were  ordered  to  move  to 
the  right  and  to  attack  the  left  of  Ochagavia ;  I  was 
ordered  to  lead  the  attack  in  front ;    we  expected  to 

*  His  rojifimcnt,  No.  8,  so  called  from  a  place  in  Cliiloo,  where  the  two 
flank  conipanii's  of  the  huttalion  distinf^uishcd  themselves  in  the  battle  of 
McUa  Vista.  The  two  other  battalions  in  the  action  were  No.  1 ,  or  (Ihacabuco, 
and  No.  7,  or  Conception. 



have  much  to  do,  but  wc'c  mistaken,  as  the  enemy 
abandoned  the  house  after  skirmishing  a  Httle,  and 
we  occupied  it  immediately. 

"We  now  held  possession  of  the  position  which 
had  originally  covered  the  enemy's  left  flank,  having 
experienced  a  very  trifling  loss ;  however,  our  light 
companies,  supported  by  the  grenadiers,  commenced 
a  sharp  firing  in  the  direction  of  Ezaguirre,  and  No.  1 , 
or  Chacabuco,  was  ordered  to  support  them,  Pudeto 
and  Conception  bringing  up  what  now  might  be 
termed  the  reserve.  This  was  twice  charged  by  the 
enemy's  cavalry,  which  had  formed  behind  Ochagavia's 
house,  but  these  charges  were  rendered  ineftectual  by 
the  steadiness  of  both  battalions  and  by  the  nature  of 
the  ground,  which  was  not  favorable  to  cavalry.  The 
enemy  behaved  well,  and  evidently  suffered  much 
from  these  charges,  as  well  from  musketry  as  from 
grape  shot,  and  made  off'  quite  discomfited. 

"  In  the  meanwhile  the  light  companies  and  grena- 
diers, vanquishing  all  opposition,  beat  the  enemy's 
infantry  out  of  Ezaguirre's  house  in  a  very  short  time, 
and  occupied  the  second  position,  making  many  pri- 
soners, among  whom  the  Choco  Silva  with  his  host. 
My  major,  Varela,*  even  took  all  the  knapsacks  of 
No.  3  ;  and  he  has  assured  me  on  his  word  of  honor, 
that  Arequita,  the  major  of  that  battalion,  sent  an 
officer  to  him  to  beg  that  he  would  cease  firing,  and 
that  they  would  lay  down  their  arms.  This  was 
complied  with,  and  all  the  soldiers  who  had  not  dis- 
persed were  disarmed  and  made  prisoners.  The  firing 
had  of  course  then  become  very  slack,  and  in  fact 
the  battle  was  considered  to  be  over  by  those  who 
occupied  Ezaguirre's  house. 

*  Slain  also  at  Lircai  on  the  17th  April,  WM. 


»  t 



il  M 






?  I 

1  4 
I  t 

'     I 




■  » 

I-,   I 





"  Immediately  on  repulsing  the  cavalry,  the  batta- 
lions of  Conception  and  Padeto  marched  towards 
Ezaguirre's  house.  On  arriving  near  it,  the  firing 
having  now  almost  ceased,  I  saw  General  Pricto  ride 
up  a  little  to  the  left  of  my  column  to  Colonel 
Rondisoni,  and,  as  I  then  understood,  gave  himself 
up  a  prisoner  of  war.  I  soon  after  received  an  order 
to  cease  further  aggression,  and  to  recall  the  skir- 
mishers, which  I  immediately  complied  with. 

"A  small  part  of  the  enemy's  infantry,  about  two 
hundred  and  fifty  men,  which  still  held  together,  was 
situated  some  ten  paces  on  the  other  side  of  a  wall 
close  to  us ;  the  soldiers  were  resting  on  their  arms, 
and  appeared,  to  all  intents  and  purposes,  to  have 
yielded  themselves  prisoners  of  war.  We  formed  our 
corps  in  line  along  the  wall,  and  I  asked  General 
Lastra's  permission  to  disarm  these  troops,  but  he 
would  not  consent,  saying  it  was  useless  to  humiliate 
the  enemy  further." 

Here  the  letter  thus  abruptly  terminates  without 
even  a  signature,  owing  to  the  writer  having  sailed  so 
soon  after  from  Valparaiso,  and  been  doubtless  busily 
employed  in  the  intermediate  time  in  consulting  with 
General  Freire,  and  in  superintending  the  preparations 
for  the  conveyance  of  his  battalion.  This  sudden 
termination  is  the  more  to  be  regretted,  as  the  writer 
was  evidently  about  to  narrate, — what,  however,  is  too 
well  authenticated  to  admit  of  the  slightest  doubt, — 
the  perfidious  conduct  of  General  Prieto,  who,  when 
he  found  that  the  battle  was  lost,  rode  up  to  Colonel 
Rondisoni,  and  endeavoured  to  obtain  by  stratagem 
what  he  could  not  by  the  force  of  arms.  Taking  the 
colonel  by  the  hand,  he  declared  that  the  contest  was 
over,  and  that  he  was  anxious  to  avoid  the  further 



effusion  of  blood,  Witli  these  professions  he  was 
permitted  to  pass  on  unguarded  to  the  rear,  where 
Colonel  Viel  appears  to  have  been  deceived  by  similar 
declarations,  as  he  not  only  ordered  that  the  swords 
of  the  officers,  who  had  surrendered,  should  be  re- 
turned to  them,  but  allov/ed  Prieto  to  proceed  to  the 
farm  house  of  Ochagavia,  accompanied  by  part  of 
one  of  his  battalions,  which  had  also  surrendered,  but 
had  not  been  disarmed  !  From  Ochagavia,  Prieto 
sent  officers  to  Lastra  and  Viel,  with  assurances  of  his 
anxiety  to  terminate  at  once  the  strife  which  was 
desolating  the  country,  and  with  entreaties  that  they 
would  come  to  him  to  hold  a  conference  for  that 
purpose.  They  went,  and,  by  this  second  imaccount- 
able  step,  suspicions  of  something  worse  than  incapa- 
city or  indifference  to  the  constitutional  cause  are 
doubly  excited.  On  their  arrival,  Prieto  told  them 
that  they  were  his  prisoners,  and  pretended  that  not 
he,  but  they,  had  sought  the  cessation  of  the  combat. 
He  next  sent  for  the  remaining  constitutional  chiefs, 
under  the  pretext  that  their  presence  was  requisite  to 
assist  in  the  conference ;  but  Colonel  Tupper,  "  this 
chief,  whose  eulogium  our  pen  is  too  feeble  to  com- 
pose worthily, — this  bold  chief,  v^hose  memory  will 
live  in  the  hearts  of  all  true  Chilenos,  even  after  his 
brilliant  course  is  run, — this  diief,  we  say,"*  after 
consulting  his  companions,  returned  for  answer,  that 
unless  Lastra  and  Viel  were  released  in  a  few  minutes, 
Prieto  would  be  attacked,  and  himself  and  his  fol- 
lowers be  put  to  the  sword.  Prieto  now  became 
alarmed  and  released  his  dupes,  but  not  until  the 
feeble  Lastra  had  been  compelled  to  sign  a  treaty,  by 
which  he  agreed  to  suspend  all  offensive  operations 

*  Extract  translated  from  a  printed  "Aviso  al  Publico." 


,1    ^ 

^  t' 






»  I 

lii'l    ■> 


'  ■'■;' 






■.    '■Ji 


:-  n 




for  the  present,  alleging  afterwards  that  he  did  so  to 
regain  his  liberty.  In  confirmation  of  this  account, 
gleaned  from  public  docuinents,  the  truth  of  which 
might  otherwise  be  questioned,  it  nay  be  as  well  to 
add  the  following  extract  from  a  private  letter,  dated 
Santiago,  14th  December,  1830,  and  written  by  one 
Englishman  to  another,  both  perfect  strangers  to 
Colonel  Tupper's  family  : — 

"  This  being  agreed  to,  Lastra  and  Viel  went  over, 
but  they  were  no  sooner  arrived  than  Prieto  said, 
*  Deliver  your  swords, — you  are  my  piisoners.'  They 
were  greatly  enraged  at  so  felonious  an  action.  Prieto 
requested  Lastra  to  sign  a  document  to  the  effect 
that  Tupper  should  surrender  with  his  battalion  ;  but, 
be  this  true  or  not,  certain  it  is  that  Prieto  sent  to 
Tupper,  stating  that  his  presence  was  necessary,  as 
Lastra  and  Viel  could  not  come  to  any  decision 
withou!:  him.  Tupper  replied  that  he  would  not  go 
over,  and  insisted  on  Lastra  and  Viel  immediately 
returning  to  their  stations.  After  waiting  a  short 
time,  and  no  appearance  of  these  officers,  he  sent  to 
Prieto  to  say  that,  if  they  were  not  released  in  five 
minutes,  he  would  immediately  attack,  and  shew  no 
quarter  either  to  him  (Prieto)  or  to  any  other  who 
might  fall  into  his  hands.  This  had  the  desired 
effect ;  the  officers  were  given  up,  but  Prieto  implored 
that  the  war  should  cease,  and  that  a  treaty  should 
be  entered  into." 

Notwithstanding  that  a  convention,  obtained  under 
such  circumstances,  was  any  thing  but  binding  on 
General  Lastra,  whose  first  act  should  have  been  to 
punish  him  by  whom  he  had  been  so  grossly  deceived, 
an  armistice  of  forty-eight  hours  took  place,  during 
which  General  Freire  was  appointed,  by  mutual  con- 




sent,  to  the  command  of  both  armies,  Prieto  and 
his  troops  being  most  imprudently,  if  not  most 
treacherously,  admitted  into  the  capital,  although  liis 
infantry  had,  or  might  have,  been  made  prisoners, 
his  artillery  captured,  and  his  cavalry  completely 

This  action  was  fought  on  the  morning  of  the  1 4th 
of  December ;  the  numbers  on  each  side  were,  we 
believe,  about  two  thousand  men ;  and  fully  two 
hundred  men  appear  to  have  fallen,  the  greater  part 
of  whom  belonged  to  Prieto's  army.  Colonel  Tupper 
is  represented  to  have  behaved  on  this  day  with  more 
than  usual  gallantry,  although  his  letter  is  so  barren 
as  to  his  own  conduct ;  but  he  had  the  bitter  morti- 
fication of  seeing  the  success,  to  which  he  had  mainly 
contributed,  rendered  perfectly  unavailing  by  this 
ridiculous  treaty.  During  the  battle  about  one  hun- 
dred and  fifty  of  Prieto's  mounted  followers  penetrated 
into  the  city,  either  in  search  of  plunder  or  in  the 
hope  of  causing  a  diversion ;  and  after  sacking  the 
French  consulate,  fo*'  which  outrage  a  compensation 
of  thirty  thousand  dollars  was  exacted  by  a  French 
squadron  in  1831 ,  and  committing  other  depredations, 
they  proceeded  to  the  house  of  Colonel  Tupper  with 
the  view,  it  would  seem,  of  murdering  his  wife,  who 
was  far  advanced  in  pregnancy.  Not  finding  her  at 
home,  and  understanding  that  she  had  taken  refuge 
at  the  bishop's  residence,  they  galloped  thither,  and, 
breaking  open  the  portal,  declared  that  they  were 
come  to  kill  "la  muger  del  Ingles  Tupper."  The 
bishop  approached  them  in  his  robes,  with  a  large 
crucifix  in  his  hands,  and  the  demons  fled  almost 
as  soon  as  they  saw  him.  On  hearing  their  cries,  a 
deep  swoon  happily  came  to  the  relief  of  their  in- 



!  i 

(:         ' 



tended  victim ;  but  tlie  previous  ant^uish  of  this 
unhappy  young  woman,  then  in  her  twenty -third 
year,  may  be  more  easily  conceived  than  described. 
She  had  heard,  during  the  morning,  every  shot  fired 
by  the  contending  armies,  and  did  not  yet  know  the 
fate  of  her  liusband  !  Tlie  dav  after  the  action, 
Colonel  Tupper  waited  in  plain  clothes  on  General 
Freire,  and  resigned  the  command  of  his  regiment, 
determined  to  serve  no  longer  under  such  leaders  and 
in  such  a  cause  ;  but  unfortunately  he  was  prevailed 
upon  by  his  old  commander  to  accept  the  appoint- 
ment of  commandant  of  arms,  or  military  governor, 
of  the  town  and  province  of  Coquimbo,  a  very  desira- 
ble part  of  the  country,  and  a  situation  of  emolument, 
as  well  as,  at  that  time,  of  great  responsibility.  To  a 
young  officer,  with  an  increasing  family  and  limited 
means,  the  offer  was  too  tempting  to  be  refused, 
although  he  never  entertained  a  favorable  opinion  of 
General  Freire's  abilities,  giving  him  credit  only  for 
good  intentions.  He  was  at  Valparaiso,  preparing  to 
embark  for  Coquimbo,  when  Freire  arrived  in  the 
former  town,  Prieto  having,  as  Colonel  Tupper  had 
all  along  foreseen  and  apprehended,  attempted  to  take 
him  prisoner,  and  compelled  him  to  seek  security  in 
flight  from  the  capital.  In  this  manner  Prieto  ob- 
tained possession  of  a  fine  park  of  field  artillery,  and 
incorporated  the  constitutional  cavalry  with  his  own. 
Among  other  charges  of  duplicity,  General  Freire 
accused  Prieto,  in  a  letter  of  January  1 8th,  which 
was  published,  of  having  excited  the  authorities  of 
Coquimbo  not  to  receive  Colonel  Tupper,  whom  he 
had  destined  for  that  command  in  the  conviction  that 
he  was  best  fitted  for  it.  Colonel  Tupper,  now  bound 
in  honor  not  to  abandon  Freire  in  his  difficulties, 



very  reluctantly  resumed  the  coiiirnaiul  of  his  l)atta- 
lion,  and  proceeded  with  it  to  Conception,  vvliich 
province  was  in  favor  of  the  liberal  party.  The  three 
battalions  of  infantry,  which  had  fought  against  Prieto 
on  the  14th  of  December,  followed  the  fortunes  of 
Freire  ;  each,  previously  to  their  departure  from  Val- 
paraiso, issued  a  manifesto  to  the  citizens,  and  we 
translate  that  of  Pudeto,  or  No.  8,  which  was  by  far 
the  most  poignant  and  uncompromising ;  and  although 
written  in  an  inflated  tone  of  defiance,  the  language 
was  well  suited  to  the  Spanish  character  of  those  to 
whom  it  was  addressed. 

"  The  battalion  of  Pudeto,  ever  faithful  to  its  oaths, 
swears  to  maintain  the  constitution.  Fellow  citizens, 
confide  in  its  honor  which  has  never  been  violated. 
Enemies  of  order,  tremble :   you  well  know  Pudeto. 

*'  His  Excellency  Captain-General  Freire  leads  us  to 
victory.  His  name  electrifies  the  hearts  of  the  brave, 
and  guarantees  the  pacific  citizen  in  his  employments. 

* '  The  infamous  Prieto  will  be  for  ever  intimidated  ; 
this  soldier  without  honor,  who,  deriding  in  repeated 
instances  the  most  sacred  engagements,  aspires  to 
despotism  by  the  most  unjust  means. 

**  Valparaiso,  27th  January,  1830."* 

Prieto  doubtless  never  forgave  this  fearless,  but 
perhaps  imprudent,  mention  of  his  treachery,  and 
probably  the  commandant  of  the  battalion  was  from 
that  moment  marked  out  as  the  object  of  his  san- 
guinary vengeance. 

Colonel  Tupper  described  the  voyage  to  Conception 
as  the  most  comfortless  and  painful  he  had  ever  made, 
and  after  landing  at  the  island  of  Juan  Fernandez  for 

*  Vide  Appendix  C,  No.  4. 






j  i 



»  I, 

■  I 




water,  it  was  by  mere  hazard  that  tliey  escai)e{l  cap- 
ture by  the  Achilles,   a  very   large  '20-gun  brig,  in 
possession  of  Prieto's  party.     While  commanding  at 
Talcahuano,  the  seaport  of  the  city  of  Conception,  he 
attemi)ted  to  carry  by  boarding,  during  the  night  of 
the  1 7th  of  February,  the  same  Achilles,  which  was 
then  blockading  the  harbour,  and  whose  crew  were 
unconscious  of  the  meditated  attack.      He  set  out 
with  six  boats  and  about  eighty  men,  but  after  traver- 
sing the  whole  of  the  extensive  bay,  the  captain  of 
the  port  was  unable  to  find  the  object  of  their  search, 
although    she   was   at   anchor.      Two   of   the   boats 
having  separated,  Colonel  Tupper  concealed  himself 
all  the  next  day,  with  the  four  others,  in  the  small 
and  picturesque  cove  of  Tome,*  surrounded  by  rocks 
and  immense  trees,  with  a  little  village  in  the  upper 
corner,  almost  hid  in  the  foliage.     From  hence  he 
wrote  to  Colonel  Viel,  who  was  in  the  neighbourhood, 
for  a  reinforcement  to  be  sent  to  the  rendezvous  at 
the  small  island  of  Quinquina.     This  reinforcement 
of  four  boats  arrived,  and  on  the  night  of  the  1 8th  he 
returned  again  to  the  attack,  with  eight  boats  and 
about  one  hundred  and  thirty  men ;    but  the  enemy 
was   now  perfectly   prepared,    and   he  was  repulsed 
with  the  loss  of  seven  men  killed  and  twenty- three 
wounded,  and  one  of  the  boats  sunk  by  a  cannon 
ball.     It  deserves  to  be  recorded,  as  an  instance  of 
the  reckless  courage  of  British  sailors,  that  twelve  of 
the  crew  of  an  English  whaler  in  the  bay  volunteered 
to  accompany  him,  and  on  these  men  he  placed  his 
chief  dependance,  well  knowing  that  soldiers,  however 
brave,  are  not  fitted  for  such  a  service.     These  sailors 
did  not  deceive  him, — they  were  in  fact  almost  the 

*  Captain  Basil  Hall's  Journal  contains  a  description  of  the  bay  of  Talcahuano. 



only  men  who  hoarded,  and  one  was  killed  and  five 
wounded.     Indeed,  had  all  done  their  duty,  the  hrig 
niii^ht  possihly  have  heen  carried,  but  some  of  the 
boats  remained   behind,   and  only  three  approached 
near  enouj;h  to  be  of  any  service.     The  commander 
of  the  whaler  was  the  first  who  ascended  the  side, — 
Colonel  Tupper   the   second.      The   former   escaped 
with  two  slight  wounds, — the  latter's  left  hand  was 
pierced  by  a  pike ;    his  sleeve  was  perforated  by  a 
bullet  from  a  musket,   the  muzzle  of  which  almost 
touched  him ;    and  he  was  then  knocked  overboard 
head  foremost  by  a  violent  blow  on  the  breast,  but 
being  an  admirable  swimmer,  he  reached  a  boat  at 
some  distance,  so  weak  and  exhausted,  however,  from 
the  effects  of  the  contusion,  that  he  was  unable  to  get 
in  alone.     The  English  captain  arrived  first  at  Talca- 
huano,  and  stated  that  Colonel  Tupper  was  dead,  as 
he  had  seen  him  fall  wounded  into  the  sea.     When 
the  latter  at  length  appeared,  he  found  his  soldiers  in 
tears,  and  even  their  wives  were  uttering  loud  cries ; 
but  on  seeing  him,  they  and  the  officers  rent  the  air 
with  their  acclamations,  and  w^elcomed  him  as  one 
risen  from  the  dead.     Numbers  had  come  from  Con- 
ception to  the  port,  a  distance  of  twelve  miles,  to 
make  inquiries  relative  to  his  fate,  and  in  that  city, 
whither  a  messenger  was  instantly  dispatched,   the 
church  bells  were  rung  to  celebrate  his  return.     The 
report  of  his  death  was  quickly  conveyed  to  Santiago, 
and  of  such  consequence  was  it  deemed  by  the  oppo- 
site party,  that  they  evinced  their  joy  by  music  and 
bonfires  in  the  streets  ;  while  at  Valparaiso,  they  were 
barbarous  enough  to  proceed  to  the  lodgings  of  his 
wife,  and  under  the  windows  to  proclaim  the  fate  of 
her  husband.     But  when  his  safety  was  ascertained. 


1  \ 









some  verses  were  published  on  "  Lii  Muerte  del  Coro- 
iiel  Tupper,"  in  ridicule  of  this  premature  rejoicing, 
and  in  exultation  at  his  escape. 

Having  recovered  from  his  wounds,  Colonel  Tupper 
j)roceeded  northwards  to  Chilian,  which  town  was 
garrisoned  by  three  hundred  and  fifty  hostile  infantry. 
Its  reduction  was  highly  desirable,  and  Colonel  Viel, 
the  superior  in  rank,  thought  that  by  taking  an  out- 
work, they  would  be  enabled  to  command  the  main 
defences  of  the  place.  Accordingly,  on  the  night  of 
the  9th  of  March,  Colonel  Tupper  made  the  attack 
indicated  with  one  hundred  and  forty-six  old  and 
tried  soldiers  of  his  battalion,  all  he  had  with  him, 
and  they  carried  the  outwork  by  assault,  although 
strongly  entrenched  and  bravely  defended.  But  as 
the  garrison  retired  into  an  inner  fortification,  which 
could  not  be  reach  3d  by  musketry,  it  became  neces- 
sary to  abandon  the  redoubt,  after  sustaining  a  severe 
loss  of  good  soldiers,  who  could  but  ill  be  spared  at 
that  moment.  Two  of  his  officers  were  severely 
wounded,  one  the  brave  Captain  Say  ago.  Colonel 
Tupper  was  also  much  exposed  in  this  affair,  as,  ever 
prodigal  of  his  person,  he  was  one  of  the  first  to 
mount  the  ladders  amid  a  shower  of  bullets.  Two 
days  after,  in  a  letter  to  his  wife,  he  assured  her  that, 
unless  in  the  event  of  a  foreign  invasion,  this  cam- 
paign would  be  the  last  he  would  make,  and  added : 
"Enfin,  il  me  restait  ce  compromis  avec  le  General 
Freire, — il  a  fallu  le  remplir, — je  sais  que  j'ai  pousse 
la  delicatesse  tr^s-loin, — en  tout  cas,  je  ne  serai  que 
plus  digne  de  toi." 

General  Freire,  having  been  repulsed  from  Coquim- 
bo,  landed  near  the  river  Maule,  after  sustaining  the, 
to  him,  irreparable  loss  of  a  vessel  laden  with  arms 






and  ainmunitioii,  and  was  soon  joined  by  CuIoikI.-. 
\  iel  and  'J\i[)[)ci',  wlio  found  liis  troops  badly  clotht'd 
and  paid,  as  be  would  not  follow  tbe  example  of  bis 
opjionents,  wbo  impressed,  witbout  besitation,  every 
necessary  supj)ly  for  tbeir  army.  Tbey  bad,  more- 
over, under  tbeir  control  all  tbe  resources  of  tbe 
cai)ital,  of  wbicb  Freire  bad  allowed  bimself  so  fooU 
isbly  to  be  dispossessed  ;  and  tbe  infamous  Prieto,* 
having  organized  a  well-appointed  force,  conunenced 
bis  marcb  from  Santiago  for  tbe  soutb  under  bigbly 
favorable  circumstances.  Tbe  duplicity  of  tbis  man, 
after  be  was  so  comi)letely  beaten  on  tbe  14tb  of 
December,  could  only  be  exceeded  by  tbe  base  collu- 
sion or  extreme  incapacity  of  tbose  wbo  treated  with 
bim.  But  it  appears  tbat  be  was  only  tbe  willing 
tool  of  an  unprincipled  party,  as  be  is  represented  as 
possessing  neitber  military  talents  nor  even  personal 
courage ;  and  certain  it  is  that  his  victory  at  Lircai 
was  stained  with  tbat  cruelty  which  is  ever  the  at- 
tendant of  cowardice. 

A  battle,  which  was  to  decide  the  fate  of  one  party, 
and  which,  it  was  foreseen,  would  be  very  sanguinary, 
was  near  at  hand.  The  hostile  armies  approached 
each  other  with  highly  exasperated  feelings ;  tbe 
chiefs  of  the  one  w^re  conscious  of  their  inferioritv  of 
force,  but  they  burned  to  punish  the  treachery  of 
which  they  were  the  victims,  while  those  of  the  other 
well  knew  that  they  had  forfeited  all  claim  to  honor- 
able treatment,  and  were  anxious  to  wipe  away  the 
disgrace  of  their  late  defeat.  The  deep  and  rapid 
Maule,  whose  fords  are  not  always  practicable  for 
cavalry,  much  less  for  infantry,  now  alone  separated 
the  combatants.     Colonel  Tupper  requested  to  be  al- 

*  Piicto,  in  Spanish,  signifies  bliickisli,  narrow-minded. 


!    I 



•    '    III    ' 








MS  <  ' 



lowed  to  cross  over  with  a  column  of  four  or  five 
hundred  infantry,  for  the  purpose  of  making  a  night 
attack  on  the  enemy's  camp,  which,  in  the  desperate 
state  of  aft'airs,  was  the  best  expedient  that  could  be 
devised  ;  but  unfortunately  General  Freire  would  not 
sanction  the  attempt,  as,  in  t'lt  fatal  persuasion  that 
his  popularity  would  carry  him  through  the  contest, 
he  had  allowed  himself  to  be  deceived  by  some  of 
Prieto's  chiefs,  who,  probably  at  the  instigation  of 
their  general,  had  promised  to  join  him  with  their 
troops  at  the  first  convenient  opportunity.  In  conse- 
quence, Colonel  Tupper  is  said,  by  one  of  his  officers, 
to  have  been  completely  disgusted  at  Freire's  evident 
infatuation  or  incapacity,  and  to  have  anticipated  the 
fate  which  awaited  him  with  gloomy  resolution.  He 
well  knew  that  his  enemies  were  too  anxious  for  his 
death  to  show  him  any  quarter,  and  as  a  husband 
and  a  father  he  could  not  but  feel  deeply  the  forlorn 
and  desolate  condition  in  which  his  death  would  leave 
his  wife  and  children.*  He  had,  however,  gone  too 
far  to  recede,  and  in  any  extremity  his  high  sense  of 
honor  would  have  prevented  his  withdrawing  himself 
on  the  eve  of  a  battle  from  the  cause  he  had  espoused. 
On  the  15th  of  April,  1830,  General  Freire  crossed 
the  river,  and  marched  three  leagues  without  obstruc- 
tion to  Talca,  the  principal  town  of  the  province, 
beautifully  situated  midway  on  the  high  road  from 
Santiago  to  Conception,  and  about  two  hundred  miles 
from  either  city.  Here  his  army  was  received  with 
the  greatest  enthusiasm,  and  a  council  of  war  being 
called,  it  was  resolved  that,  as  the  enemy  w^as  so 
much  superior  in  cavalry  and  artillery,  the  consti- 

*  Unhappily  for  him  and  for  tlieni,  a  letter  from  tlic  editor,  containing  the 
offer  of  a  very  dcsirahlc  situation  in  Rio  de  Janeiro,  did  not  reach  Chile  till 
shortly  after  his  death. 



tutional  troops  should  remain  in  the  vicinity  of  the 
town,  where  they  could  not  he  attacked  hut  under  a 
very  great  disadvantage,  as  Talca  is  skirted  hy  enclo- 
sures and  ditches.  Had  this  decision  been  adhered 
to,  Prieto  must  have  retraced  his  steps  towards  the 
capital  for  want  of  forage  and  other  supplies,  and 
having  necessarily  to  pass  several  defiles  and  rivers, 
he  might  have  been  much  harassed  in  his  retreat. 
On  the  16th,  Prieto  endeavoured  to  bring  on  an 
engagement,  but  could  not  draw  the  constitutionalists 
from  their  vantage  ground.  Early  on  tlie  17th, 
General  Freire  proceeded,  with  Colonel  Viel  and  the 
cavalry,  to  the  adjoining  plain  of  Cancharayada,  for 
the  purpose,  we  suppose,  of  making  a  reconnaissance ; 
but  from  some  unexplained  and  unaccountable  mo- 
tive, he  sent  suddenly  for  the  remainder  of  his  forces. 
It  was  on  this  plain  that  General  San  Martin  man(Eu- 
vred,  in  March,  1818,  to  bring  the  Spanish  General 
Osorio  to  battle,  but  the  latter  being  inferior  in 
numbers,  retreated  southwards  to  the  same  position  in 
front  of  Talca,*  which  Freire  had  just  abandoned. 
Nothing  could  be  more  ill  judged  or  imprudent,  as 
his  army,  which  consisted  of  about  seventeen  hun- 
dred men,  had  only  two  weak  squadrons  of  regular 
cavalry  and  four  pieces  of  artillery,  while  that  of 
Prieto,  amounting  to  fully  two  thousand  tw^o  hun- 
dred men,  had  eight  hundred  veteran  cavalry,  and 
eleven  or  twelve  pieces  of  artillery.  The  Chile  cavalry 
is  very  formidable,  the  men  being  most  expert  riders, 
mounted  on  active  and  powerful  horses,  and  generally 
armed  with  long  lances,  which  they  use  with  great 
dexterity.  Prieto,  observing  this  inexplicable  move- 
ment, succeeded  without  difficulty  in  placing  his  troops 

*  Vide  Appendix  C,  No. .'}.— Extract  from  Miller's  Memoirs. 



,  I 


r     i\ 


!"    i 



>■  .! 







\  '. 


?;  ■  I  i; 



between  the  constitutional  army  and  Talca,  In  this 
manner  its  return  to  the  town  was  completely  cut  off, 
and  it  had  to  fight  in  an  extensive  open  plain  with 
the  enemy  in  front,  the  flanks  unprotected,  and  the 
river  Lircai,  a  tributary  of  the  Maule,  close  in  the 
rear.  The  first  shot  was  fired  at  half-past  ten  in  the 
morning,  and  the  action  continued,  with  some  inter- 
vals in  effecting  changes  of  position,  until  nearly  four 
o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  when  the  rout  was  complete. 
The  result  is  said  to  have  been  doubtful  until  two 
o'clock,  at  which  period  Freire's  cavalry,  which  con- 
sisted of  about  six  hundred  men,  including  militia 
and  Indians,  and  commanded  by  Colonel  Viel,  being 
decoyed  too  far  in  a  charge,  was  taken  in  flank,  and 
fled  across  the  river  Lircai,  towards  the  north,  com- 
pletely discomfited,  and  accompanied,  w^e  believe,  by 
General  Freire,  who  thus  abandoned  the  infantry  to 
its  fate.  The  situation  of  the  three  weak  battahons, 
Nos.  1,  7  and  8,  was  now  indeed  desperate,  as  the 
ground  was  so  favourable  to  cavalry,  and  the  neigh- 
bourhood offered  them  no  accessible  place  of  defence 
or  refuge.  To  complete  the  disaster,  their  few  pieces 
of  artillery  were  yoked  to  oxen,  which  soon  became 
furious  and  unmanageable,  while  that  of  Prieto,  being 
drawn  by  horses,  was  moved  quickly  over  the  field. 
When  they  formed  into  squares  to  resist  the  hostile 
cavalry,  they  were  mowed  down  by  artillery,  and, 
when  they  deployed  into  line,  the  cavalry  was  upon 
them.  In  this  dreadful  emergency  they  maintainer' 
the  conflict  for  nearly  an  hour,  with  all  the  obstinacy 
of  despair ;  and  at  length,  in  attempting  to  charge  in 
column,  they  were  completely  broken.  There  are 
two  lines  by  the  immortal  Byron  so  concisely,  and 




)    I 

yet  SO  faithfully,  descriptive  of  a  similar  last  effort, 
that  we  cannot  avoid  transcribing  them : 

"One  t'ftoit— one  — to  break  the  circling  liost! 
They  form  —  unite  —  charge^ waver  — ail  is  lost!" 

The  loss  in  Freire's  army  fell  chiefly  on  the  devoted 
infantry,  and  appears  to  have  exceeded  considerably 
one  third  of  the  original  number,  including  eighteen 
officers  among  the  killed.  The  only  officers  mentioned 
as  slain  in  Prieto's  hurried  dispatch  of  the  17th  of 
April,  are  Colonel  Elizalde,  chief  of  the  staff,  Colo- 
nel Tupper,  and  his  gallant  Major  Varela,  a  young 
man  of  five  or  six  and  twenty.  Colonel  Tupper  is 
said  to  have  exhibited  the  most  reckless  valour  du- 
ring the  day,  and  to  have  rallied  his  little  battalion 
several  times.  Thrice  he  led  it  to  the  charge,  and 
in  the  last  charge  he  was  slightly  wounded  in  the 
foot  by  a  spent  cannon  ball.  Having  previously 
dismounted  to  encourage  his  men,  he  was  unable, 
in  the  mdlee  which  succeeded,  to  find  his  horse  ;  and 
the  accounts  of  the  manner  in  which  he  got  away, 
when  all  was  lost,  are  so  contradictory,  that  it  is 
impossible  lo  reconcile  them.  All  agree,  however, 
in  stating  that  he  was  particularly  sought  after, 
and  that  a  Major  Baquedano*  gave  orders  to  his 
dragoons  to  show  him  no  quarter.  A  party  of  these 
dragoons  and  some  Indians  overtook  him,  and  find- 
ing that  they  would  not  spare  his  life,  he  reproached 
them  with   their  brutality,   and   drew  his  sword  to 

*  This  miscreant  par  excellence,  it  seems,  had  some  private  pi()iic  against 
Colonel  Tupper,  who  hail  probably  treated  him  with  the  contempt  he  de- 
served. His  worthy  chief,  Prieto,  promoted  him  after  the  battle  for  this 
sicceptable  service.  Baquedano  had  been  a  domestic  servant  in  the  family  of 
General  Carrera,  and  boasted  that  he  had  killed  a  Spanish  officer,  a  prisoner 
and  defenceless,  in  the  battle  of  Maipu.  Long  shunned  by  every  man  of 
honor,  he  was  a  disgrace  even  to  the  cause  in  which  he  served,  and  in  1831 
he  was  brought  to  a  court  martial  by  his  own  officers,  for  embcx/.ling  money 
from  the  regimental  chest,  but  was  of  course  acquitted. 

!     A 



'  ) 

I  ' ; 


I  ^!'' 


1 1^1 





defend  himself ;  but  being  surrounded,  an  Indian 
from  behind  ran  him  through  the  body  with  his  lance, 
when  he  fell,  and  a  few  sabre  cuts  soon  terminated 
his  sufferings.  One  of  the  barbarians  immediately 
severed  a  finger,  on  which  the  victim  wore  a  ring, 
and  conveyed  it  to  his  commander  as  a  proof  that  one 
they  so  much  dreaded,  would  trouble  them  no  more. 
A  Captain  Garcia,  of  Baquedano's  regiment,  who  was 
also  promoted  after  the  battle,  stood  by  during  this 
barbarous  murder,  without  interfering  to  j)revent  it. 
The  corpse  was  sought  out  the  next  day  by  a  friend, 
and  interred  in  the  spot  on  which  the  deceased 
breathed  his  last.*  Another  brave  Englishman,  Cap- 
tain Bell,  of  the  Chilian  navy,  was  also  butchered 
in  the  pursuit.  It  was  the  general  opinion,  even  of 
the  natives  themselves,  that  had  Colonel  Tupper 
commanded  the  army  either  on  the  14th  of  December, 
near  Santiago,  or  on  this  unfortunate  day,  a  very 
different  result  would  have  awaited  the  constitutional 
cause.  A  private  letter  written  by  a  gentleman  in 
Chile,  the  charge  d'affaires  of  the  United  States  of 
America,  and  which  was  never  intended  to  meet  the 
eye  of  the  family,  as  it  was  addressed  to  a  British 
officer  commanding  a  ship  on  the  South  American 

*  Nearly  three  years  after,  tlie  corpse  was  exhiimctJ  for  the  purpose  of 
hcin;;  conveyed  to  the  capital  for  interment ;  but  being  found  in  an  extraor- 
dinary state  of  preservation,  it  was,  for  the  convenience  of  carriage,  con- 
sumed to  ashes,  which,  on  the  1st  of  February,  1833,  were  deposited  in  a 
plain  monument  raised  to  liis  memory  in  the  pantheon  of  Santiago,  with  the 
following  simple  inscription  : — 



Gl<II.LEIiMO    Di:    VIC  TUPPEH, 

NAtIO   EN    GlEHiVSEV,    EL  XXIX    UE   AIIKIL,    ir.DCCC, 

ML'ltIO    EL  XVII    DE    AURIL,   M.DCCC.XXX. 

•' PATKir  iM'Ei.Ki,"  were  to  have  been  added,  but  some  of  the 
rival  party  having  declared  that  they  woidd  deface  this  motto,  it  was  neces- 
sarily omitted  by  the  widuiv,  although  she  was  strongly  importuned  by  niuny 
to  inscribe  it. 



station,  also  a  perfect  stranger,  thus  speaks  of  their 
unfortunate  relative : — 

"  The  heroism  displayed  hy  Tupper  surpassed  the 
prowess  of  any  individual  that  I  ever  heard  of  in 
battle ;  but,  poor  fellow !  he  was  horribly  dealt  with 
after  getting  away  with  another  officer.  A  party  of 
cavalry  and  Indians  was  sent  in  pursuit,  and  they 
boast  that  poor  Tupper  was  cut  to  pieces.  They 
seemed  to  be  more  in  terror  of  him,  on  account  of  his 
personal  bravery  and  popularity,  than  of  all  the  others. 
Guernsey  has  cause  to  be  proud  of  so  great  a  hero, — 
a  hero  he  trulv  was,  for  nature  made  him  one." 
And  an  English  gentleman,  holding  a  high  consular 
appointment  in  that  country,  also  wrote: — :"  I  trust 
you  will  believe  that  any  member  of  the  family  of 
Colonel  Tupper,  who  may  require  such  services  as 
I  am  at  liberty  to  offer,  will  be  always  esteemed  by 
one,  who  for  many  years  has  looked  upon  his  gallant 
and  honorable  conduct  as  reflecting  lustre  upon  the 
English  name  in  these  new  and  distant  states." 

Thus  perished,  at  the  early  age  of  twenty-nine,  one 
who,  if  he  did  not  fall  in  the  service  of  his  own 
country,  at  least  did  honor  to  that  country  in  a 
foreign  clime.  From  his  earliest  youth  he  gave 
indications  of  that  fearless  and  daring  spirit  which 
marked  his  after-life ;  and  when  he  left  Europe  he 
was  generally  thought  to  bear  a  striking  resemblance 
to  his  late  uncle,  Major-General  Brock,  at  the  same 
age.  This  similarity  extended  in  some  degree  even 
to  their  deaths,  as  the  Indians  of  either  continent 
were  employed  as  auxiliaries  in  the  actions  in  which 
they  fell,  and  both  were  killed  in  the  months  that 
gave  them  birth.  It  was  observed  of  Colonel  Tupper 
by  no  mean  judge,  in  the  early  part  of  his  career: 
"  C'est  un  officier  k  toute  epreuve,  qui  reunit  a  sa 

^  ^ 



i'  ' 








I  .1; 






; ; 




brillante  valeur  des  connaissances  tres-distinguees." — 
His  tall,  manly,  and  strikingly  handsome  person, 
his  almost  Herculean  strength,  the  elegance  of  his 
manners,  and  his  impetuous  valour  in  battle,  gave  the 
impression  rather  of  a  royal  knight  of  chivalry,  than 
of  a  republican  soldier.*  The  influence  and  popularity 
which  in  a  few  short  years  he  acquired  in  his  adopted 
country,  by  his  own  unaided  exertions,  and  under 
the  many  disadvantages  of  being  a  stranger  in  a 
strange  land,  best  prove  that  his  talents  were  of  the 
first  order,  and  that  he  was  no  common  character. 
The  attachment  of  his  men  to  him  was  constant  and 
unbounded,  for  he  not  only  possessed  that  bravery 
which,  with  the  brave,  is  the  surest  passport  to 
affection,  but  that  kindness  of  heart  which  ever  wins 
a  way  to  the  human  breast.  The  union  of  so  many 
excellent  qualities,  joined  to  his  previous  services  to 
Chile,  ought  at  least  to  have  procured  him  quarter ; 
but  unfortunately  in  civil  wars,  they  who  aim  at  arbi- 
trary power  seldom  spare  any  one  who  may  success- 
fully oppose  their  despotic  views,  and  both  gratitude 
and  humanity  would  fain  throw  a  veil  over  his  last 
moments.  He  deserved  far  better  than  to  have  fallen 
by  the  order  of  a  band  of  assassins,  whose  cause  and 
conduct  were  in  every  way  worthy  of  so  foul  a  deed. 
The  opinion  of  his  friends,  however,  will  correct  the 
errors  of  fortune,  which  denied  him  a  better  field  for 
the  exercise  of  his  endowments.  He  is  dead,  but  his 
memory  lives,  and  though  his  mangled  corse  now  lies 
far  from  the  tombs  of  his  forefathers, 

"  Unknell'd,  uncoffin'd,  and  unknown." 

yet  it  is  some  melancholy  consolation  to  his  deeply 

*  In  height  he  was  about  six  feet  two  inches,  and  his  figure  was  a  perfect 
model  of  strength  and  symmetry.  His  countenance  was  benign  and  ^^  pleine 
de  franchise,"—his  complexion  florid,— and  he  bad  a  profusion  of  beautiful 
dark  cbcsnut  hair. 

' » 

MEMOIR    0«"    COLONEL    TUl'l'Ell. 


afflicted  family  to  reflect,  that  he  is  not  lamented 
hy  them  only,  and  that  his  false,  perjured,  blood- 
thirsty murderers  cannot  deprive  their  unhappy  vic- 
tim of  his  fair  name.  But,  as  a  French  traveller 
wrote  of  him,  "N'est-il  pas  deplorable  que  de  tels 
hommes  en  soient  reduits  k  se  consacrer  k  une  cause 
etrangere  ?"* 

Colonel  Tupper  married,  at  Santiago,  in  1820, 
Maria  Isidora  de  Zegers,t  a  native  of  Madrid,  and 
grand -daughter  of  Manuel  de  Zegers,  Count  de 
Waserberg,  in  Flanders.  He  left  two  infant  daugh- 
ters ,  and  his  young  widow,  from  whom  his  death  was 
kept  concealed  for  some  time,  gave  birth  a  few  weeks 
after  to  a  son,  who,  it  is  to  be  hoped,  will  resemble 
his  father  in  every  thing  but  his  misfortunes.  The 
British  and  a  few  of  the  foreign  merchants  in  Chile, 
most  liberally  united  to  present  the  unhappy  widow 
with  some  solid  proof  of  the  estimation  in  which  they 
held  the  worth  and  gallantry  of  her  unfortunate 
husband,  and  being  joined  by  a  small  number  of  the 
natives,  the  amount  raised  was  about  seven  thousand 
dollars,  several  of  the  English  contributing  five 
hundred  dollars  each. — An  act  of  such  unusual  gene- 
rosity should  not  go  unrecorded,  as,  while  it  redounds 
so  much  to  the  credit  of  those  engaged  in  it,  it  speaks 
volumes  in  favour  of  the  deceased. 

Of  the  fatality  attending  some  families  there  are 
many  melancholy  proofs  on  record,  but  perhaps  few 
instances  of  modern  date  will  exceed,  in  the  number 
of  victims,  the  following  series,  which  may  not  prove 
uninteresting  even  to  the  general  reader.  It  has  al- 
already  been  mentioned  that  Colonel  Tupper  was  one 

*  Viilc  Appendix  C,  No.  9. 
t  Her  motlier  was  a  Montc-negio,  of  the  noble  family  of  that  name,  in  Spain. 

;  i 


>  1 

I    I  '■ 

<  i 

:  I 

'I       i 





of  ten  brothers.  The  eldest,  John,  a  contem])orary  ot 
Lord  Byron  at  Harrow,  perished  at  sea,  in  the  Medi- 
terranean, in  1812,  aged  twenty  ;  the  vessel  in  which 
he  was  a  passenger  from  Catalonia  to  Gibraltar  having 
never  been  heard  of  since.*  The  third  brother,  William, 
aged  twenty-eight,  was  mortally  wounded  near  Can- 
dia,  in  182G,  as  related  in  the  preceding  memoir.  The 
fourth,  Charles,  aged  sixteen,  a  midshipman  of  the 
Primrose,  a  fine  18-gun  brig,  was  drowned  in  1815 
at  Spithead,  by  the  upsetting  of  the  boat  in  which  he 
was  accompanying  his  commander,  Captain  C.  G.  R. 
Phillott,  from  Portsmouth  to  the  ship  at  St.  Helen's  ; 
he  had  just  returned  from  the  North  American  station, 
where  the  crew  of  the  Primrose  had  been  actively 
engaged  during  the  war,  in  the  destruction  of  priva- 
teers and  in  boat  expeditions.  The  fifth  brother, 
De  Vic,  is  the  subject  of  this  memoir.  The  sixth, 
Brock,  aged  thirty,  died  in  1833,  on  board  H.  M's. 
packet  Rinaldo,  on  his  passage  from  Rio  de  Janeiro 
to  Falmouth,  for  change  of  climate,  and  his  remains 
were  committed  to  the  deep.  The  seventh,  Frederick, 
when  only  nine  years  of  age,  was  brought  home  insen- 
sible and  speechless,  and  apparently  at  the  point  of 
death,  having,  in  an  attempt  to  reach  the  mast  head 
of  a  vessel  in  the  pier  of  Guernsey,  fallen  about  twenty- 
five  feet  head  foremost  on  the  edge  of  the  quay, 
whence  he  rebounded  off  into  the  harbour  at  low 
water,  a  further  distance  of  sixteen  feet :  his  skull  was 
frightfully  fractured  and  indented,  and  his  life  des- 
paired of  for  some  time.  A  young  officer  of  the  45th 
regiment,  who  was  betrothed  to  their  eldest  sister,  was 

*  He  went  to  the  Peninsiiia  with  a  friend  of  the  family,  Lieut.-Colonel 
Frederick  Barlow,  of  the  6lst  regiment,  and  with  his  first  cousin,  M'illiam 
Potenger.  The  former  fell  gallantly  soon  after,  at  the  head  of  his  battalion, 
and  the  latter,  an  officer  of  the  22d  regiment,  died  of  the  fever  at  Jamaica. 

i  I  1 

i      I 



1  ()') 

orary  ot 
e  Medi- 
n  which 
"  having 
ar  Can- 
3ir.  The 
I  of  the 
in  1815 
rhich  he 
y.  G.  R. 
lelen's ; 
f  priva- 
3  sixth, 
I.  M's. 

&  insen- 

oint  of 
st  head 


at  low 

uU  was 


r,  was 


niuitally  wounded  at  the  siege  of  Badajos,  in  ]H\2, 
— this  hcreavcnient,  and  tlie  untimely  end  of  so  many 
of  iicr  brothers,  undermined  a  naturally  vigorous  con- 
stitution, and  iiurried  her  prematurely  to  the  grave  : 
she  died  in  December,  1830,  and,  possessing  tlic 
graces  both  of  mind  and  person,  her  memory  is  still 
fondly  cherished  by  those  who  knew  her  worth.  Of 
their  uncles,  four  fell  by  the  bullet,  viz.  their  mother's 
brothers,  Major- General  Sir  Isaac  lirock,  K.  13., 
Lieut. -Colonel  John  Brock,  and  Lieutenant  Ferdinand 
Brock,  and  their  father's  brother,  William  De  Vic 
Tupper,  Esq.,  as  already  mentioned.  Another  near 
relative,  Lieutenant  Carre  Tupper,  of  the  Victory, 
Lord  Hood's  flag  ship,  and  only  son  of  Major-General 
Tupper,  was  also  slain  in  the  Mediterranean :  after 
distinguishing  himself  at  Toulon  and  being  in  con- 
sequence assured  of  the  first  commander's  vacancy, 
he  volunteered  to  bring  oflf  an  enemy's  sentinel  from 
Bastia  to  the  fleet,  for  the  purpose  of  gaining  intel- 
ligence, and  was  shot  dead  in  the  gallant  but  des- 
perate attempt. 

General  Freire,  irretrievably  undone  by  the  defeat 
at  Lircai,  was  discovered  some  weeks  subsequently 
in  concealment  at  or  near  Santiago,  and  banished 
to  Peru ;  while  Colonel  Viel,  after  capitulating  witli 
the  remnant  of  the  cavalry,  with  which  he  escaped  to 
the  northward  of  the  capital,  was  compelled  to  take 
refuge  on  board  a  French  ship  of  war  at  Valparaiso, 
Prieto  having  again  attempted  to  violate  the  treaty 
between  them.  His  desertion  of  the  infantry  in  the 
hour  of  need  perhaps  could  not  be  avoided,  as  he 
may  have  been  unable  to  prevent  the  shameful  flight 
of  the  cavalry,  but  his  behaviour  on  this  day,  as 
well  as  on  the  14th  of  December,  will  not  tend  to 





;,    li 


I    : 


'i '' 

>:  i 



:  I' 







establish  a  military  reputation,  which  a])i)ears  to  iiave 
been  ])reviously  somewhat  equivocal.  Of  Freire's 
inex|)licable  movements  at  Lircai  we  would  fain 
s])eal\  with  leniency :  he  is  in  exile,  and  as  he  was 
even  more  sinned  against  than  sinning,  our  feelings 
towards  him  are  those  of  commiseration,  not  of 
resentment, — but  manifest  it  is  that  as  at  the  com- 
mencement of  the  unfortunate  contest,  his  conduct 
was  weak  and  vacillating,  so  at  its  melancholy  ter- 
mination it  was  marked  neither  by  ordinary  prudence 
nor  capacity,  and  that  an  onset  of  tergiversation  was 
succeeded  by  a  close  of  disastrous  unskilfulness,  to 
both  of  which  the  constitutional  cause  and  many 
of  its  supporters  were  sacrificed.  Prieto  was  elected 
president  of  Chile  in  1831,  as  the  reward  of  his 
perfidy,  although  the  liberal  and  enlightened  Chilenos 
were  decidedly  averse  to  the  change  of  rulers  thus 
forcibly  effected.  When  the  country  is  more  worthy 
of  liberty,  the  people  will  achieve  it ;  but  until  then, 
it  is  neither  to  be  expected  nor  desired  that  a  party, 
whose  cause  was  so  wretchedly  mismanaged  during 
this  unhappy  contest,  wall  succeed  in  returning  again 
to  power.  Despotism  is  ever  vigilant,  while  freedom 
too  often  slumbers  in  fancied  security, — the  one  main- 
tains itself  by  its  fears,  the  other  is  frequently  lost  by 
its  fearlessness, — but  as  a  government  based  on  deceit, 
inhumanity,  and  violence,  can  flourish  only  for  a 
season,  those  who  would  break  the  chains  which  now 
bind  Chile  in  thraldom  may  be  assured,  that 

"  They  never  fail  who  die 
In  a  great  cause :  the  block  may  soak  their  gore ; 
Their  heads  may  sodden  in  the  sun,  their  limbs 
Be  strung  to  city  gates  and  castle  walls— 
But  still  their  spirit  walks  abroad  ! ! " 


February,  1832. 

1  to  have* 
ukl    fain 
he  was 
not   of 
lie  com- 
loly  ter- 
;ion  was 
ness,   to 
d  many 
1  of  his 
Jrs  thus 
il  then, 
g  again 
B  main- 
lost  by 
for  a 
;h  now 

NoTK. — April,  IH.'}.'). — As  the  iviuk-r  nmy  wi^li  fo  know  llic 
present  political  sdite  of  (  hile,  the  editor  suhjoiiis  the  following; 
extract  from  the  last  letter  which  lie  has  received  from  that  country, 
and  dated  Santiatjo,  J'id  September,  IH.'M  : — "  I  am  happy  to  say 
tliat  the  country  still  enjoys  perfect  quiet.  Liberal  ideas,  and  the 
freedom  of  the  press,  are  daily  becominsj;  more  unknown.  The 
power  of  the  priesthood  is  every  where  unchecked  ;  but  you  know 
too  well  the  value  of  tranquillity  to  us  foreigners  in  these  countries 
to  suppose  that  we  repine." 

"Amongst  the  guests  was  a  (  hileno  who  had  been  in  the  United 
States  as  charge  d'attaires.  Speaking  of  our  country,  and  those 
things  which  struck  him  as  curious,  he  told  the  gentlemen  that  our 
'  prisons  are  secure  without  military  guards,  and  that  he  had  seen 
no  soldiers  in  the  country  except  the  volunteer  corps  on  holidays  :' 
contrasted  with  the  countries  of  South  America,  where  even  the 
municipal  police  consists  of  soldiers,  this  circumstance  is  striking. 
'J'his  gentleman  remarked  farther,  that  '  previous  to  the  revolution 
of  1829,  Chile  had  advanced  in  slow  vsure  steps;  but  since  that 
period  society  had  split  into  political  parties,  and  the  social  inter- 
course created  and  cherished  by  the  Sociedad  Filarmonica  had 
almost  ceased.' 

"  The  Philharmonic  Society  was  instituted  in  182",  for  improving 
and  fostering  the  native  taste  for  music,  and  creating  a  more  gene- 
rally social  intercourse." — Three  Years  in  the  Pavijic,  1831-1834, 
by  an  Officer  in  the  United  States'  Navy." 

From  the  same  author  we  learn  that,  in  the  Chilian  constitution 
of  May  1833,  it  is  decreed  that  the  religion  of  the  republic  is  "  the 
Roman  Catholic  Apostolic.  The  nation  protects  it  by  all  the 
means  that  conform  to  the  spirit  of  the  Evangelist,  and  will  not 
permit  the  exercise  of  any  other." 


i  1 



n  '^  • 



.t  1? 


Ti      -n 



'       i    1 


'  H     ■ 

4     V 

\     V; 













T»is  officer,  the  tliird  son  of  Daniel  Tupper,  Esq,,  by 
his  wife,  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  E.  Dohree,  Esq.,  of 
Beauregard,  was  born  in  Guernsey,  25th  September, 
1727,  and  was  brother  of  E.  Tupper,*  jurat,  grand- 
father of  the  subjects  of  the  two  preceding  memoirs. 
He  obtained  his  commission  by  purchase  in  General 
Churchill's  regiment  of  marines,  that  corps  being 
then  somewhat  differently  constituted  to  what  it  is 
now ;  and  it  also  then  appears  to  have  been  a  more 
favorite  service,  although  none  has  ever  been  more 
distinguished,  as  in  the  annual  army  list  for  1777 
we  tind  the  only  six  majors  to  be 

John  Tupper ]Mar.3(),  1771  I  William  Souter  . . .  July  27,  177."» 

Hon.  Frs.  Napior .  .  J uly  21,  1771  '  Hon.  J.  Maitland . .  Oct..  1 ,  1 77^* 
Jolm  Hughes Apr.  1 2.  1 773  I  Alf xander  Trotter  .  Nov.  1 5, 1 77 o 

Major  Tupper  was  employed  in  North  America  at 
the  commencement  of  the  revolutionarv  war,  and  he 
succeeded  to  the  command  of  the  marines,  of  whom 
there  were  two  battalions  at  Bunker's  Hill,  in  1775, 
after  the  fall  of  the  gallant  Major  Pitcairn,  when  he 
was  honorably  mentioned  in  the  general  orders  of  the 
day.  A  bullet  grazed  his  right  cheek,  and  drew 
blood.  In  this  sanguinary  attack  the  marines  behaved 
with  their  usual  gallantry,  and  it  was  they  who,  after 
the  regiments  of  the  line  had  been  twice  repulsed  by 
a  most  murderous  tire,  carried  the  provincial  defences 
by  storm.     Cooper,  the  American  novelist,  in  his 

*  See  page  48. 

!  \ 


A- A 





,!  \' 


M  A  J  O  R  -  G  E  N  E  U  A  L    T  I'  I'PE  R . 

"Lionel   Lincoln,"    thus    describes   a   scene    in    the 
battle  :— 

"  Push  on  with  the th !  "  cried  tlie  veteran  major  of  marines 

—  "push  on,  or  the  IHtli  will  get  the  honor  of  the  day  !" 

"  We  cannot,"  murmured  the  soldiers  of  the  th  ;   "  their 

fire  is  too  heavy  !" 

"  Then  break,  and  let  the  marines  pass  through  you."  * 

'I'lie  feeble  battalion  melted  away,  and  the  warriors  of  the  deep, 
trained  to  conflicts  of  hand  to  hand,  sprang  forward,  with  a  shout, 
in  their  ])laces  The  Americans,  exhausted  of  their  ammunition, 
now  sunk  sullenly  back,  a  few  hurling  stones  at  their  foes,  in 
desperate  indignation.  The  cannon  of  the  British  had  been 
brought  to  enfilade  the  short  breast-work,  which  was  no  longer 
tenable ;  and  as  the  columns  approached  closer  to  the  low  ram- 
part, it  became  a  mutual  protection  to  the  adverse  parties. 

"Hurrah  !  for  the  Royal  Irish  !"  again  shouted  M'Fuse,  rushing 
up  the  trifling  ascent,  \\hich  was  but  of  little  more  than  his  own 

"Hurrah!"  repeated  Pitcairn,  waving  his  sword  on  another 
angle  of  the  work — "the  day's  our  own  !" 

One  more  sheet  of  flame  issued  out  of  the  bosom  of  the  work, 
and  all  those  brave  men,  who  had  emulated  the  examples  of  their 
oflicers,  were  swept  away,  as  if  a  whirlwind  passed  along.  The 
grenadier  gave  his  war-cry  once  more,  and  pitched  headlong  among 
his  enemies ;  while  Pitcairn  fell  back  into  the  arms  of  his  own 
child.  The  cry  of  "Forward,  47th!"  rang  through  the  ranks, 
and  in  their  turn  this  veteran  battalion  mounted  the  ramparts.  In 
the  shallow  ditch  Lionel  passed  the  expiring  marine,  aud  caught 
the  dying  and  despairing  look  from  his  eye,  and  in  another  instant 
he  found  himself  in  the  presence  of  his  foes.  As  company  followed 
company  into  the  defenceless  redoubt,  the  Americans  sullenly 
retired  by  its  rear,  keeping  the  bayonets  of  the  soldiers  at  bay,  with 
clubbed  muskets  and  sinewy  arms.  When  the  whole  issued  upon 
the  open  ground,  the  husbandmen  received  a  close  and  fatal  fire 
from  the  battalions,  which  were  now  gathering  around  them  on 
three  sides.  A  scene  of  wild  and  savage  confusion  succeeded  to  the 
order  of  the  fight,  and  many  fatal  blows  were  given  and  taken,  the 
m(;l^e  rendering  the  use  of  fire-arms  nearly  impossible  for  several 

*  Tliis  circnmst.ince,  as,  iiulotul,  most  of  tlio  otliers,  is  believed   to   he 
accurately  true. 





in    the 

of  marines 

li ;   "  their 

."  * 

the  deep, 
h  a  shout, 
■  foes,  in 
liad  been 
10  longer 
low  ram- 

,  rushing 
1  his  own 


he  work, 

of  their 

f.     The 
a;  among 

lis  own 


rts.     In 



Ely,  with 

d  upon 
iital  fire 
lem  on 
1  to  the 

en,  the 


I   to  I 




Major  Tupper  was  promoted  about  two  years  after, 
and  on  the  16th  May,  1781,  obtained  the  rank  of 
colonel.  In  the  life  and  correspondence  of  Lord 
Rodney  we  find  two  letters  in  the  second  volume,  of 
which  the  following  are  extracts  : — 

SiK  Georgk  Rodxey  to  Philip  Stkpiikxs,  Esq.,  Secretary  of 

the  Admiralty. 

Arrogant,  Cawsnnd  Bay, 
3Uth  Dec.  1781. 

On  considering  the  great  number  of  marines  belonging  to  the 
fleet  their  Lordships  have  put  under  my  command,  and  that  the 
very  important  service  on  which  I  am  ordered  may  render  it  neces- 
sary for  his  Majesty's  service  to  land  bodies  of  them  to  attack  the 
public  enemy,  and  co-operate  with  his  Majesty's  land  forces,  I  must 
beg  leave  to  suggest  to  their  lordships  the  utility  of  field-othcers  to 
command  the  different  bodies  of  marines  that  it  may  be  necessary 
to  land  in  the  different  operations  in  which  I  may  be  employed. 

Experience  has  taught  me  that  captains  of  marines  are  not 
proper  officers  to  command  large  detachments  of  troops,  and  that 
discipline  is  not  so  well  maintained  as  when  field-olficers  of  rank 
command  them.  I  therefore  hope  their  lordships  will  take  the 
matter  into  consideration,  and  that  I  shall  have  the  pleasure  of 
seeing  marine  field-olHcers  arrive  in  the  West  Indies  in  the  squa- 
dron which  their  lordships  have  appointed  to  follow  me. 

I  will  venture  to  affirm  that  it  will  be  attended  with  great 
consequences  to  his  INIajesty's  service,  and  may  prevent  mucli 
confusion,  whenever  it  may  be  necessary  to  employ  the  marines 
on  shore. 

Eakl  of  Sandwich  to  Sir  Gkobcje  Rodnky. 

January  '2(1,  17f<-2. 

Though  I  hope  this  letter  will  not  find  you  still  at  Plymouth,  I 
cannot  avoid  letting  it  take  its  chance,  in  order  to  tell  you  that  I 
entirely  approve  of  your  idea  of  having  some  field-officers  of 
marines.  We  shall  therefore  give  immediate  orders,  that  three 
field-officers  of  that  corps  do  either  go  with  you,  or  come  out  in  the 
next  ships  that  are  ordered  to  join  you. 

Colonel  Tupper  was  in  consequence  selected  to 
command  the  marines  in  the  fleet,  consisting  of  nearly 
forty  sail  of  the  line,  ten  or  twelve  frigates,  and  seve- 



>  I 




1  i. 

\  i 

t  r. 



ral  smaller  vessels ;  and  taking  his  passage  in  the 
Duke,  of  90  guns,  Captain  Gardner,  he  arrived  in  the 
West  Indies  in  March,  and  thus  participated  in  the 
victory  of  12th  April,  1782,  over  the  French  fleet, 
being  on  board  the  Repulse,  64,  Captain  Dumaresq. 
Sir  George  Rodney  had  at  once  offered  him  a  birth 
on  board  his  flag  ship,  but  as  Captain  Dumaresq  was 
an  intimate  friend,  he  requested  permission  to  join 
the  Repulse.  Colonel  Tupper  became  a  major-general 
on  the  12th  October,  1793,  and,  having  attained  the 
rank  of  commandant  in  chief  of  the  marines,  he  died 
in  London  in  January,  1795,  his  decease  being  pro- 
bably hastened  by  the  fall  of  his  only  son,  at  Bastia, 
a  few  months  previously. 

Major  General  Tupper  married,  at  Cork,  Ann  Chil- 
cott,  the  daughter  of  a  gentleman  who  had  been 
a  captain  in  the  fusileers.  He  had  two  children, 
Carre*  and  Ann ;  the  latter,  famed  for  her  beauty, 
survived  him, — she  was  the  wife  of  Lieut. -Colonel 
'Council,  of  the  Limerick  militia. 

Subjoined  is  an  extract  from  the  London  Star  of 
19th  November,  1794:— 

The  marine  corps  feel  the  utmost  satisfaction  at  the  appoint- 
ment of  Major-General  Tupper  to  be  colonel  commandant  of  that 
corps,  in  the  room  of  the  late  Lieut.-General  Smith. 

On  Friday  last  the  officers  of  the  Chatham  division,  which 
General  Tupper  has  for  some  time  commanded  with  great  credit 
and  honor  to  himself,  waited  on  him  in  a  body  to  congratulate  him 
on  his  appointment,  and  to  express  their  sincere  acknowledgments 
for  his  kind  and  polite  attentions  to  them,  so  uniformly  and  happily 
blended  upon  every  occasion  with  the  due  and  necessary  authority 
of  military  discipline.  On  Saturday  the  officers  gave  a  dinner  to 
the  general,  at  their  mess-room,  on  his  resignation  of  the  divisional 
command  to  Colonel  Barclay  until  the  arrival  of  Major-General 
Innes,  who  is  appointed  to  it. 

*  So  named  from  Mr,  Carri',  his  mother's  uncle,  and  a  wealthy  banker 
in  Dublin. 


A  brief  mention  is  made  of  this  officer  at  page  105. 
He  was  born  on  the  11th  February,  17G5,  and  ob- 
tained his  lieutenantcy  in  1782,  at  the  early  age  of 
seventeen,  but  the  peace  between  1783  and  1793 
retarded  his  further  advancement.  Soon  after  the 
declaration  of  the  war  in  1793,  he  was  actively  em- 
ployed in  the  Mediterranean,  and  he  had  already  given 
fair  promise  of  reaching  the  summit  of  his  profession 
when  he  was  suddenly  cut  off*  at  Bastia,  in  the  island 
of  Corsica.  We  have  heard  that  he  was,  unknown  to 
himself,  a  commander,  having  been  promoted  by  the 
admiralty  for  his  recent  services  at  Toulon  ;  and  it  is 
certain  that  Lord  Hood,  from  the  same  cause,  promised 
him  the  first  commander's  vacancy,  which  occurred  a 
very  few  days  after  his  death,  and  which  was  given 
in  consequence  to  the  present  Vice-Admiral  Sir  John 
Gore,  K.C.B.,  then  also  a  lieutenant  of  the  Victory. 
In  person  he  was  tall  and  remarkably  handsome,  and 
"  Tupper  was  a  dashing,  gallant  fellow,"  was  an  ob- 
servation made  to  the  editor  by  a  distinguished  British 
admiral,  now  living,  who  knew  him. 

The  following  are   extracts  relative   to  his   brief 
career : — 

From  Sir  Sidney  Smith's  official  Letter  to  Admiral  Lord  Hood,  describing 
the  destruction  of  the  ships  and  arsenal  at  Toulon,  on  the  night  of  the 

18th  December,  1793. 

In  this  situation  we  continued  to  wait  most  anxiously  for  the 

hour  concerted  with  the  governor  for  the  inflammation  of  the  trains. 

The  moment  the  signal  was  made,  we  had  the  satisfaction  to  see 

tlie  flames  rise  in  every  quarter.     Lieutenant  Tupper  was  charged 

with  the  burning  of  the  general  magazine,  the  pitch,  tar,  tallow, 
















i  r  i; 

and  oil  store  houses,  and  succeeded  most  perl'ectly  :  the  hemp 
magazine  was  included  in  this  bla/e.  It  being  nearly  calm  was 
unfavorable  to  the  spreading  of  the  flames,  but  two  hundred  and 
fifty  barrels  of  tar,  divided  among  the  deals  and  other  timber, 
insured  the  rapid  ignition  of  the  whole  quarter  which  Lieutenant 
Tupper  had  undertaken. 

From  James'  Naval  History.     Third  Edition. 

After  describing  minutely  the  conflagration  at  Toulon,  &c.,  the 
author  adds  : — 

As  well  as  we  can  collect  from  the  official  accounts  published  on 
the  subject,  the  following  were  the  British  naval  officers  who  ac- 
companied Sir  Sidney  Smith  in  his  perilous  undertaking  :  Captains 
C.  Hare  and  W.  Edge,  Lieutenants  C.  Tupper,  John  Gore, — 
(and  several  others  whose  names  follow.) — Vol.  I,  page  114. 

At  length  on  the  21st  May,  1/91,  after  a  siege  of  thirty-seven 
and  a  negociation  of  four  days,  the  town  and  citadel  of  Kastia,  with 
the  several  posts  upon  the  neighbouring  heights,  surrendered  on 
terms  highly  honorable  to  the  besieged,  whose  bravery  in  holding 
out  so  long  excited  the  admiration  of  the  conquerors. 

The  possession  of  this  important  post  was  accomplished  with  the 
slight  loss  to  the  army  of  seven  privates  killed  and  dead  of  their 
wounds,  two  captains  and  nineteen  privates  wounded,  and  six  pri- 
vates missing ;  and  to  the  navy,  of  one  lieutenant  (Carr^  Tupper,  of 
the  Victory,)  and  six  seamen  killed,  :\nd  one  lieutenant  (G.  Andrews^ 
of  the  Agamemnon,)  and  twelve  men  wounded. — Ibid,  page  2/2. 

Lieutenant  Tupper  was  buried  in  a  sequestered  spot 
under  the  walls  of  Bastia,  with  this  epitaph  : — 








ON  THE  24th  APRIL,   1/94, 







HE   WAS   BORN  THE    11th   FEBRUARY,    I76r,. 


Transcript  of  a  Letter  from  Irving  Brock,  Esq.,  to  Miss  Caroline 
'Flipper,  dated  London,  ^pril  12,  1825. 

"  I  went  to  Windsor  on  Wednesday  last  with  the 

four  Indians,  accompanied  by  my  friend  Mr.  W , 

to  show  them  the  castle,  Frogmore,  &c.  ;  but  the 
chief  object,  which  I  had  secretly  in  mind,  was  to 
have  them  introduced   to   his  Majesty.      Sir  John 

C ,  the  late  mayor  of  Windsor,  assisted  me  very 

effectually,  and  the  upshot  of  the  matter  is,  that  the 
king  expressed  his  desire  to  see  the  Indian  chiefs, 
although  every  body  treated  this  as  a  most  chimerical 
idea.  They  wore,  for  the  first  time,  the  brilliant 
clothes  which  Mr.  Butterworth  had  had  made  for 
them,  and  you  cannot  conceive  how  grand  and  impo- 
sing they  appeared. 

' '  The  king  appointed  half-past  one  on  Thursday  to 
receive  our  party  at  the  royal  lodge,  his  place  of 
residence.  We  were  ushered  into  the  library ;  and 
now  I  am  going  to  say  somewhat  pleasing  to  your 

uncle  Savery.     As  Sir  John  C was  in  the  act 

of  introducing  me,  but  before  he  had  mentioned  my 
name.  Sir  Andrew  Barnard  interrupted  him,  and  said  : 
'  There  is  no  occasion  to  introduce  me  to  that  gentle- 
man,— I  know  him  to  be  General  Brock's  brother, — 
he  and  Colonel  Brock,  of  the  8 1st,  were  my  most 
intimate  friends, — I  was  in  the  81st  with  the  colonel. 
There  was  another  brother  whom  I  knew, — he  who 
was  also  in  the  49th, — he  was  a  gallant  fellow.     By 




■■  « 


I   ! 



;        I 

I  i, 

»     t 

the  bye,  sir,  1  beg  your  pardon  ;  perhaps  I  am  speak- 
ing to  that  very  gentleman.' 

"  In  the  library  there  was  also  present  Marquess 
Conyngham,  Lord  Mount  Charles,  Sir  Edmund  Nagle, 
&c.  &c.  We  remained  chatting  in  the  house  above 
half  an  hour,  expecting  every  moment  to  see  the 
king   enter,    and  I  was  greatly   amused  to  observe 

Mr.  W and  Sir  John  C start  and  appear 

convulsed  every  time  there  was  a  noise  outside  the 
door.  We  were  admiring  the  fine  lawn  when  the 
Marquess  Conyngham  asked  the  Indians  if  they 
would  like  to  take  a  turn,  at  the  same  time  opening 
the  beautiful  door  that  leads  to  the  lawn.  The  party 
was  no  sooner  out  than  we  saw  the  king  standing 
quite  still,  and  as  erect  as  a  grenadier  on  a  field  day, 
some  forty  yards  from  us.  We  were  all  immediately 
uncovered,  and  advanced  slowly  towards  the  hand- 
somest, the  most  elegant,  the  most  enchanting  man 
in  the  kingdom,  the  Indians  conducted  by  Marquess 
Conyngham,  Sir  Edmund  Nagle,  Sir  Andrew  Barnard, 
Lord  Mount  Charles,  &c.  &c.     The  range  of  balconies 

was  filled  with  ladies.     Sir  John  C ,  Mr.  W 

and  I,  allowed  the  party  to  approach  his  Majesty, 
while  we  modestly  halted  at  a  distance  of  twenty 
yards.  It  was  worth  while  being  there  only  to  see 
the  benign  countenance  of  the  greatest  monarch  in 
the  world,  and  to  witness  his  manner  of  uncovering 
his  head.  The  four  chiefs  fell  on  their  knees.  The 
king  desired  them  to  rise,  and  entered  into  a  great 
deal  of  preliminary  conversation.  I  saw  him  turn 
towards  the  marquess,  and  after  a  few  seconds  he 
said,  with  his  loud  and  sonorous  voice :  '  Pruy,  Mr. 
Brock,  come  near  me, — I  pray  you  come  near  me.' 
I  felt  a  little  for  my  companions  who  continued  un- 

t    i 


I      < 



noticed,  and  especially  for  Sir  John  C ,  to  whom 

I  was  principally  indebted  for  the  royal  interview. 

"The  king  addressed  the  Indians  in  French,  very 
distinctly,  fluently,  and  loud :  *  I  observe  you  have 
the  portrait  of  my  father  ;  will  you  permit  me  to 
present  you  with  mine?'  The  marquess  then  pro- 
duced four  large  and  weighty  gold  coronation  peer 
medallions  of  his  Majesty,  suspended  by  a  rich  maza- 
reen  blue  silk  riband.  The  chiefs,  seeing  this,  dropped 
again  upon  their  knees,  and  the  king  took  the  four 
medallions  successively  into  his  hand,  and  said : 
*  Will  some  gentleman  have  the  goodness  to  tie  this 
behind  ?' — upon  which  Sir  Edmund  Nagle,  with  whom 
we  had  been  condoling  on  account  of  the  gout,  while 
waiting  in  the  library,  and  who  wore  a  list  shoe, 
skipped  nimbly  behind  the  chiefs,  and  received  the 
string  from  the  king,  tying  the  cordon  on  the  necks 
of  the  four  chiefs.  We  were  much  amused  to  observe 
how  the  royal  word  can  dispel  the  gout.  The  instant 
the  grand  chief  was  within  reach  of  the  medallion, 
and  before  the  investiture  was  completed,  he  seized 
the  welcome  present  with  the  utmost  earnestness,  and 
kissed  it  with  an  ardour  which  must  have  been  wit- 
nessed to  be  conceived.  The  king  appeared  sensibly 
affected  by  this  strong  and  unequivocal  mark  of 
grateful  emotion.  The  other  chiefs  acted  in  a  similar 
way,  and  nothing  could  have  been  managed  more 
naturally,  or  in  better  taste.  After  this  ceremony 
the  king  desired  them  to  rise  and  to  be  covered. 
They  put  on  their  hats,  and  which  appeared  extraor- 
dinary to  me,  his  Majesty  remained  uncovered  all  the 
time.  Here  it  was  that  the  grand  chief,  as  if  inca- 
pable of  repressing  his  feelings,  poured  out  in  a  most 
eloquent  manner,  by  voice  and  action,  the  following 


i  i 


I  : 












I!  > 



unpremeditated  speech  in  his  native  Indian  tongue, 
I  say  unpremeditated,  because  that  fine  allusion  to 
the  sun  could  not  have  been  contemplated  while  we 
were  waiting  in  the  library,  the  room  where  we  ex- 
pected the  interview  to  take  place.  I  was  pleased  to 
find  that  the  presence  of  this  mighty  sovereign,  who 
governs  the  most  powerful  nation  upon  earth,  did  not 
drive  from  the  thoughts  of  the  pious  chief,  the  King 
of  kings  and  the  Lord  of  lords. 

"The  instant  he  had  finished,  the  chief  of  the 
warriors  interpreted  in  the  French  language,  and  I 
wrote  down  the  speech  as  soon  as  I  left  the  royal 
lodge.  It  should  be  observed,  that  the  chiefs  had 
been  previously  informed  by  me  that,  according  to 
etiquette,  they  should  answer  any  questions  which  his 
Majesty  might  be  pleased  to  ask,  but  not  introduce 
any  conversation  of  their  own.  The  sun  was  shining 


I  was  instructed  not  to  speak  in  the  royal  presence,  unless  in 
answer  to  your  Majesty's  questions.  But  my  feelings  overpower 
me.  My  heart  is  full.  I  am  amazed  at  such  unexpected  grace 
and  condescension,  and  cannot  doubt  that  I  shall  be  pardoned  for 
expressing  my  gratitude.  The  sun  is  shedding  his  genial  rays  upon 
our  heads.  He  reminds  us  of  the  great  Creator  of  the  universe, — 
of  Him  who  can  make  alive  and  who  can  kill.  Oh  !  may  that 
gracious  and  beneficent  Being,  who  promises  to  answer  the  fervent 
prayers  of  his  people,  bless  abundantly  your  Majesty.  May  He 
grant  you  much  bodily  health,  and,  for  the  sake  of  your  happy 
subjects,  may  He  prolong  your  valuable  life  !  It  is  not  alone  the 
four  individuals,  who  now  stand  before  your  Majesty,  who  will 
retain  to  the  end  of  their  lives  a  sense  of  this  kind  and  touching 
reception, — the  whole  of  the  nations,  whose  representatives  we  are, 
will  ever  love  and  be  devoted  to  you,  their  good  and  great  father. 

"  His  Majesty  felt  deeply  every  word  of  the  speech, 
when  interpreted  by  the  chief  of  the  warriors.     The 

i^  It. 



king  answered,  that  he  derived  high  satisfaction  from 
the  sentiments  they  had  expressed,  and  assured  theai 
that  he  should  always  be  much  interested  in  the  ha 
piness  of  his  North  American  subjects,  and  would 
avail  himself  of  every  opportunity  to  promote  their 
welfare,  and  to  prove  that  he  was  indeed  their  father. 
After  acknowledging  in  gracious  terms  the  pleasure 
which  the  speech  of  the  grand  chief  had  afforded 
him,  he  mentioned,  in  an  easy  and  affable  manner, 
that  he  had  once  before  in  his  life  seen  some  indivi- 
duals of  the  Indian  nations,  but  that  was  fifty-five  or 
fifty- six  years  ago.  He  inquired  of  their  passage  to 
this  country,  the  name  of  the  ship  and  of  the  master, 
and  was  persevering  in  his  questions  as  to  the  treat- 
ment they  had  experienced  at  his  hands,  whether  they 
had  been  made  comfortable  in  all  respects,  and  if  he 
had  been  polite  and  attentive. 

*' While  the  grand  chief  was  delivering  his  speech 
in  the  Huron  language,  it  seemed  as  if  it  would  never 
end,  and,  observing  the  king  look  a  little  surprised, 
I  informed  the  Marquess  Conyngham,  in  a  loud  whis- 
per, that  this  was  the  mode  in  which  they  expressed 
their  sense  of  any  honor  conferred,  and  that  the  chief 
of  the  warriors  would  interpret  the  speech  in  the 
French  language.  The  king  asked  me  to  repeat  what 
I  had  been  saying,  and  George  and  Irving  conversed 
for  some  time.  His  Majesty,  on  another  occasion, 
asked  me  under  what  circumstances  the  Indians  had 
been  introduced  to  me.  I  answered  that  they  were 
recommended  to  my  notice,  because  they  had  been 
invested  with  the  medallions  of  his  late  Majesty  by 
my  brother. 

"  His  Majesty  hoped  the  Indians  had  seen  every 
thing  remarkable  in  Windsor,  and  told  us  we  were 


'  1' 



[  ^ 



1r  V 

:4  '' 




welcome  to  see  the  interior  of  the  lodge  and  pleasure 
grounds,  that  Sir  Andrew  Barnard  would  accompany 
us  everywhere,  to  his  stables,  menagerie,  aviaries,  &c., 
and  afterwards  he  trusted  we  would  partake  of  some 
refreshment.  He  also  offered  us  the  use  of  his  car- 
riages. The  refreshment  was  a  truly  royal  repast, — 
we  eat  on  silver, — the  table  groaned,  as  Mr.  Heathfield 
would  say,  under  the  king's  hospitality.  We  made  a 
famous  dinner, — pine  apple,  champagne,  claret,  &c. — 
servants  in  royal  liveries  behind  our  chairs.  After 
dinner  the  Indians  gave  us  the  war  song,  when  (in 
your  uncle  Savery's  poetry  about  Maria  Easy), 

Tho'  the  dogs  ran  out  in  a  great  fright, 
The  ladies  rush'd  in  with  much  delight." 

Note. — These  four  Indians  carae  to  England  for  the  purpose  of 
endeavouring  to  recover  lands  which  had  been  given  to  their  tribe 
by  Louis  XIV.  but  it  appears  that  they  did  not  succeed.  They  were 
very  pious  Roman  Catholics,  and  those  who  saw  them  were  much 
amused  with  their  simple  and  primitive  manners. — Ed. 

Extract  of  a  Letter  from    Walter  Bromley,  Esq.,  dated  London, 
\5th  April,  1825. — From  a  Halifax  N.  S.  newspaper. 

"The  Indian  chief,  who  accompanied  me  to  Eng- 
land, sailed  in  the  Ward,  for  New  Brunswick,  a  few 
days  ago,  loaded  with  presents  to  his  family  and 
people.  I  think  his  appearance  here  has  been  more 
beneficial  than  if  volumes  had  been  printed  on  Indian 
civilization,  and  I  am  in  hope  that  on  both  sides  of 
the  Atlantic  a  general  sympathy  has  been  excited. 
The  four  Canadian  chiefs  have  attracted  much  atten- 
tion, and  have  been  presented  to  his  Majesty  by  the 
brother  of  the  late  General  Brock  ;  they  are  the  most 
interesting  characters  I  ever  saw, — are  extremely 
polite, — and  speak  French  very  fluently." 

I  t 

'ies,  &c., 
of  some 
his  car- 
epast, — 
made  a 
t,  &c. — 
hen  (in 

urposc  of 
leir  tribe 
hey  were 
ire  much 



)  Eng- 
a  few 
y  and 
des  of 
jy  the 
i  most 

''  .!• 










No.   I. 

Extract  of  a  Letter  to  one  of  the  (  aptains  of  the  Vjth,  at  Fort  Georye, 
dated  Montreal,  March  17,  ISO  I. — .Sec  pp.  '.i  to  ;'). 
"The  execution  of  the  four  mutineers  and  three  deserters  took 
place  at  Quebec  on  the  '2d  instant,  and  as  I  have  a  letter  of  the  3d, 
giving  the  most  minute  account  that  I  have  seen  of  it,  1  t]iereft)re 
transcribe  part  of  the  same  to  you.  — '  I  embrace  the  earliest 
opportunity  of  saying  that  the  seven  mutineers  and  deserters  were 
executed  yesterday.  At  a  quarter  past  ten,  a.m.,  tlie  procession 
moved  off  from  the  prison  in  the  following  order : — 

Two  Bu^lc.  Horns. 

Mf\jor  Campbell  with  a  large  party  of  the  4Ist  as  the  advanced  guard. 

Artillery  with  a  Field  Piece. 

The  Firing  Party,  fifty-six  in  number. 

Seven  Coffins  borne  by  two  men  each. 

Escort  with  the  Prisoners  attended  by  four  Roman  Catholic  Priests  and  the 

Rev.  Mr.  Mountain. 

Surgeons  of  the  Garrison  and  Regiments. 

Band  of  Music  of  the  41st  playing  a  Dirge. 

General  Mann  and  Staff  Officers  of  the  Garrison. 

Field  Piece. 

Colonel  Glasgow  with  the  main  body  of  the  Artillery. 

Field  Piece. 

Colonel  Proctor  at  the  head  of  the  41st  Regiment,  with  the  Colours. 

Major  Muter,  of  the  0th,  with  the  two  flank  Companies  of  that  Regiment. 

New  Brunswick  Volunteers,  about  seventy  in  number,  without  arms. 

*At  about  half-past  ten  they  arrived  on  the  ground,  when  the 
sentence  and  warrant  of  execution  were  read  ;  after  which  the 
prisoners  about  to  suffer  were  led  to  their  coffins,  upon  which  they 
respectively  kneeled  :  they  were  kep*  nearly  three  quarters  of  an 
hour  in  prayer,  during  which  time  the  weather  was  very  cold  and 
bad,  a  strong  wind  blowing  from  the  eastward  with  a  great  drift  of 
snow.  The  whole  was  conducted  with  the  greatest  propriety  till  it 
came  to  the  firing,  when,  by  some  mistake,  instead  of  the  party 


I ' 


1^1  ' 

'J  ■     ! 

'   ii 





t  ! 




!  I 





advancing  to  within  eight  yards  of  the  prisoners  and  firing  in  three 
divisions,  upon  the  signal  being  given  for  tliat  purpose,  the  ser- 
geants, commanding  the  divisions,  ordered  the  men  to  make  ready, 
and  immediately  after  about  ten  muskets  in  the  centre  went  off; 
this  created  confusion,  and  many  other  single  shots  were  fired,  and 
from  a  distance  of  at  lei's^  fifty  yards;  the  consequence  was,  that 
the  poor  wretches  fell  one  after  another,  and,  being  partially 
wounded,  some  of  them  cried  out  bitterly.  Forty  shots  must  have 
been  fired  before  one  poor  fellow  in  the  centre  fell,  although  it 
appeared  that  he  received  a  ball  through  the  lower  part  of  the  belly 
on  the  first  discharge,  as  he  was  seen  to  put  his  hands  down  and 
cry  out :  the  party  was  now  ordered  up  singly,  that  is,  each  man, 
who  had  not  fired  off  his  piece,  went  and  lodged  the  contents  of  it 
in  the  breasts  of  the  culprits,  and  by  that  means  put  them  out  of 
torture.  It  was  on  the  whole  an  awful  and  affecting  sight,  and 
from  the  appearance  of  the  soldiery,  seemed  to  have  made  a  very 
proper  impression.' 

"  Requesting  my  best  compliments  to  Colonel  Brock  and  the 
other  gentlemen  of  the  regiment,  I  remain,"  &c. 

No.  2. 

Extract  from  General  Order,  Head  Quarters,  Montreal,  August  3 1 , 

1812.— See  p.  15. 
"  Captain  Pinkney,  aid-de-camp  to  General  Dearborn,  arrived  at 
nine  o'clock  last  night,  being  the  bearer  of  despatches  from  the 
commander  in  chief  of  the  American  forces,  with  the  information 
that  the  president  of  the  United  States  of  America  had  not  thought 
proper  to  authorise  a  continuance  of  the  provisional  measures  entered 
into  by  his  Excellency  and  General  Dearborn,  through  the  adjutant- 
general.  Colonel  Baynes,  and  that  consequently  the  armistice  was 
to  cease  in  four  days  from  the  time  of  the  communication  reaching 

Montreal,  and  the  posts  at  Kingston  and  Fort  George That 

the  conquest  of  the  Canadas,  either  for  the  purpose  of  extending 
their  own  territories  or  of  gratifying  their  desire  of  annoying  and 
embarrassing  Great  Britain,  was  one  amongst  others  of  these  objects, 
cannot  be  doubted.  The  invasion  of  the  Upper  Province,  under- 
taken so  immediately  after  the  declaration  of  war,  shews  in  the 
strongest  manner  how  fully  they  had  prepared  themselves  for  that 
event,  and  how  highly  they  had  flattered  themselves  with  finding  it 
an  easy  conquest,  from  the  supposed  weakness  of  the  force  opposed 
to  them,  and  the  spirit  of  disaffection  which  they  had  previously 

.(  *;■' 





g  in  three 
,  the  ser- 
ike  ready, 
went  off; 
fired,  and 
was,  that 
nust  have 
though  it 
'  the  belly 
lown  and 
ach  man, 
ents  of  it 
im  out  of 
ight,  and 
de  a  very 

and  the 

endeavoured  to  excite  amongst  its  inhabitants.  Foiled  as  they 
have  been  in  this  attempt  by  the  brave  and  united  efforts  of  the 
regular  forces,  militia,  and  Indians  of  that  province,  under  the 
command  of  their  distinguished  leader,  their  whole  army  with  its 
general  captured,  and  their  only  remaining  fortress  and  post  in  the 
adjoining  territory  wrested  from  them,  it  is  not  to  be  doubted  but 
that  the  American  government  will  keenly  feel  this  disappointment 
of  their  hopes,  and  consequently  endeavour  to  avail  themselves  of 
the  surrender  of  Detroit,  to  term  it  an  invasion  of  their  country, 
and  to  make  it  a  ground  for  calling  upon  the  militia  to  march  to 
the  frontiers  for  the  conquest  of  the  Canadas.  A  pretext  so  weak 
and  unfounded,  though  it  may  deceive  some,  will  not  fail  to  be 
received  in  its  proper  light  by  others,  and  it  will  be  immediately 
perceived  by  those  who  will  give  themselves  the  trouble  to  reflect 
on  the  subject,  that  the  pursuit  of  an  invading  army  into  their  own 
territory,  is  but  a  natural  consequence  of  the  first  invasion,  and  the 
capture  of  the  place  to  which  they  may  retire  for  safety,  a  measure 
indispensably  necessary  for  the  security  and  protection  of  the 
country  originally  attacked." 


I  ! 


■    \ 


tgust  31, 

rrived  at 

'rom  the 





tice  was 




ing  and 



in  the 

for  that 

iding  it 



No.  3. 

Extracts  of  a  Letter  from  Major  Glcgg  to   IVilliam  Brock,  Esq., 
dated  York,  Upper  Canada,  25th  October,  1812. 

"Since  announcing  to  you  on  the  14th  the  heavy  public  and 
private  loss  that  we  sustained  on  the  preceding  day,  by  the  fall  of 
my  beloved  general,  at  the  battle  of  Queenston,  I  have  devoted 
every  thought  and  m.oment  to  the  painful  discharge  of  my  remaining 
duties.  His  funeral  took  place  on  the  IGth,  and  a  more  solemn 
and  affecting  spectacle  was  perhaps  never  witnessed.  I  enclose  a 
plan  of  the  melancholy  procession,  but  no  pen  can  describe  the 
real  scenes  of  that  mournful  day.  As  every  arrangement  connected 
with  that  afflicting  ceremony  fell  to  my  lot,  a  second  attack  being 
hour!/  expected,  and  the  minds  of  all  being  fully  occupied  with  the 
duties  of  their  respective  stations,  I  anxiously  endeavoured  to  per- 
form this  last  tribute  of  affection  in  a  manner  corresponding  with 
the  elevated  virtues  of  my  departed  patron.  Conceiving  that  an 
interment  in  every  respect  military  would  be  the  most  approprisite 
to  the  character  of  our  dear  friend,  I  made  choice  of  a  cavalier 
bastion  in  Fort  George,  which  his  aspiring  genius  had  lately  sug- 
gested, and  which  had  been  just  finished  under  his  daily  superin- 
tendence.    Not  trusting,  however,  wholly  to  my  own  ideas  on  a 








point  of  so  much  interest,  I  consulted  with  Major-General  MieaH'c 
and  some  other  friends,  who,  I  am  happy  to  assure  you,  were 
unanimous  in  preferring  military  ground  as  the  place  of  interment. 
His  remains,  by  being  always  guarded  by  the  respectful  vigilance 
of  admiring  valour,  will  for  ever  remain  sacred  ;  his  public  and 
private  worth  have  been  justly  appreciated  in  this  province,  and 
the  high  character,  which  he  so  modestly  supported  when  living, 
will  remain  recorded  in  the  memory  of  those  who  survive  him. 
Our  lamented  friend  was  interred  with  every  military  honor  that 
was  due  to  his  exalted  station  ;  at  the  same  time  recollecting  his 
decided  aversion  to  every  thing  that  bore  the  appearance  of  osten- 
tatious display,  1  endeavoured  to  clothe  the  distressing  ceremony 
conformably  with  his  native  simplicity.  My  gallant  friend  and 
colleague  Lieut. -Colonel  M'Donell,  whose  noble  soul  hurried  him 
on  to  revenge  the  fall  of  our  beloved  chief,  appeared  determined  to 
accompany  him  to  the  regions  of  eternal  bliss.  Wounded  in  four 
places,  he  was  carried  off  the  field,  and,  though  one  ball  passed 
through  his  body,  he  survived  twenty  hours,  and,  during  a  constant 
period  of  excruciating  suffering,  his  words  and  thoughts  appeared 
ever  occupied  with  lamentations  for  his  lost  friend.  My  heart  is 
overpowered  with  sorrow  when  I  reflect  on  that  awful  and  eventful 
day.  I  can  almost  fancy  I  see  and  hear  your  brave  brother's 
cheering  voice  when  our  small  band  of  49th  heroes  were  a  third 
time  charging  the  enemy  in  the  streets  of  Queenston,  who  were 
treble  our  numbers  ;  forgetful  of  himself,  he  was  occasionally 
exhorting  others  to  be  more  prudent, — every  one  did  more  than  his 
duty, — and  alas  !  in  this  glorious  struggle  for  the  country  two  heroes 
fell.    They  were  deposited  in  the  same  grave  close  to  each  other." 

Note. — ^The  contents  of  Major  Glegg's  first  letter,  dated  Fort  George, 
14th  October,  are  embodied  in  Sir  Isaac  Brock's  Memoir ;  the  remainder 
of  the  second  letter,  as  above,  relates  chiefly  to  the  private  affairs  of  the 
general. — Ed. 

No.  4. 

Conclusion  of  Extract  from  Quebec  Gazette  of  29th  October,  1812, 

given  in  pp.  20,  2 ! . 

"  It  is  indeed  true  that  the  spirit,  and  even  the  abilities,  of  a 
distinguished  man  often  carry  their  influence  beyond  the  grave,  and 
the  present  event  furnishes  its  own  example,  for  it  is  certain,  not- 
withstanding General  Brock  was  cut  off  early  in  the  action,  that  he 
had  already  given  an  impulse  to  his  little  army,  which  contributed 




,  1812. 




to  accomplish  the  victoi^"  when  he  was  no  more.  Let  us  trust  that 
the  recollection  of  him  will  become  a  new  bond  of  union,  and  that, 
as  he  sacrificed  himself  for  a  community  of  patriots,  they  will  find 
a  new  motive  to  exertion  in  the  obligation  to  secure  his  ashes  from 
the  pestilential  dominion  of  the  enemy. 

"(ienerul  Brock  was  a  native  of  Guernsey.  His  family  always 
belonged  to  the  profession  of  arms.  He  entered  the  army  early  in 
life,  and  has  been  continually  on  service  during  the  last  and  present 
wars.  He  made  several  campaigns  on  the  European  continent, 
and  particularly  distinguished  himself  in  Holland,  where  he  had  a 
horse  killed  under  him.  He  was  shortly  afterwards  employed  on 
board  the  Ganges,  with  his  favorite  49th  regiment,  in  the  battle  of 
Copenhagen,  on  the  famous  2d  of  April,  1801.  In  the  following 
year  he  came  to  this  country  as  lieutenant-colonel  commanding 
that  regiment.  His  strong  attachment  to  it  made  it  a  distinguish- 
ing feature  in  his  character.  There  was  a  correspondence  of  esteem 
and  regard  between  him  and  his  orticers  and  privates,  with  an 
addition  of  veneration  on  the  part  of  these,  that  produced  the 
picture  of  a  happy  family.  Those  movements  of  feeling,  which  the 
exactions  of  discipline  will  sometimes  occasion,  rarely  reached  his 
men.  He  governed  them  by  that  sentiment  of  esteem  which  he 
himself  had  created.  The  consolation  was  given  him  to  terminate 
an  useful  and  brilliant  course  in  the  midst  of  his  professional  family. 
They  have  performed  his  last  funeral  obsequies,  and  those  who 
knew  the  commander  and  his  men  will  be  convinced  that  on  the 
day  of  his  interment  there  was  an  entire  regiment  in  tears. 

"  His  fate  has  been  attended  by  a  circumstance  almost  intolerable 
to  a  high-minded  soldier.  His  enemy  was  not  worthy  such  a 
catastrophe.  The  spirit  of  the  victim  often  rebuked  the  hard 
destiny  that  denied  him  a  field  where  it  might  be  desirable  to  die. 
But  brave  and  generous  Brock  the  opinion  of  your  country  shall 
correct  the  errors  of  fortune.  It  shall  estimate  your  efforts  the 
more  for  having  been  made  against  an  enemy  without  reputation, 
though  powerful,  and  who,  in  waging  this  war,  has  shewn  how 
destitute  he  is  of  every  principal  element  that  can  constitute  true 
greatness.  It  shall  grant  you  all  the  fame  that  manly  courage  and 
heroic  enterprise,  skilfully  and  successfully  employed,  have  the 
power  to  yield.  Monuments  shall  rise  to  your  glory  in  the  public 
square  of  that  province  you  have  twice  saved,  and  under  the  dome 
of  the  first  cathedral  in  Europe." 

i; : 


)    > 


i  f 







\ ' 





".f^/  «  General  Couticil  of  Condolence  held  at  the  Council  House,  Fori 
George,  Gth  November,  1812, 

"Present — The  Six  Nations,  Hurons,  Potawatimics,  and 

William  Claus,  Deputy  Superintendent-Gen'. 
Captain  Norton. 
Captain  J.  B.  Rosseaux,  and  several  others 

of  the  Indian  Department. 
Kasencayont  Cayonga  Chief,  Speaker. 

"  Brother, — The  Americans  have  long  threatened  to  strike  us, 
and  in  the  beginning  of  the  summer  they  declared  war  against  us, 
and  lately  they  recommenced  hostility  by  invading  the  country  at 
Queenston.  In  this  contest,  which,  with  the  help  of  God,  termi- 
nated in  our  favor,  your  much  lamented  commander  and  friend 
General  Brock,  his  aid-de-camp  Colonel  M'Donell,  and  several 
warriors,  have  fallen. 

"Brother, — We  therefore  now,  seeing  you  darkened  with  grief, 
your  eyes  dim  with  tears,  and  your  throats  stopped  with  the  force 
of  your  affliction,  with  these  strings  of  wampum  we  wipe  away 
your  tears  that  you  may  view  clearly  the  surrounding  objects.  We 
clear  the  passage  in  your  throats  that  you  may  have  free  utterance 
for  your  thoughts,  and  we  wipe  clean  from  blood  the  place  of  your 
abode,  that  you  may  sit  there  in  comfort,  without  having  renewed 
the  remembrance  of  your  loss  by  the  remaining  stains  of  blood. 
Delivered  eight  strings  of  white  wainpum.* 

"  Brother, — That  the  remains  of  our  late  beloved  friend  and 
commander  General  Brock  shall  receive  no  injury,  we  cover  it 
with  this  be]'  of  wampum,  which  we  do  from  the  grateful  sensations 
which  his  kindness  towards  us  continually  inspired,  as  also  in  con- 
formity with  the  customs  of  our  ancestors ;  and  we  now  express, 
with  the  unanimous  voice  of  the  chiefs  and  warriors  of  our  respec- 
tive bands,  the  great  respect  in  which  we  hold  his  memory,  and  the 

*  Wampum  is  the  current  mon^y  among  the  Indians.  It  is  of  two  sorts, 
wliite  and  piu'ple :  the  white  is  worked  out  of  the  insidcs  of  the  great  Congnes 
into  the  form  of  a  bead,  and  perforated  so  as  to  be  strung  on  leather;  the 
purple  is  worked  out  of  the  inside  of  the  muscle  shell.  They  are  wove  as 
broad  as  one's  hand,  and  about  two  feet  long ;  these  they  call  belts,  and  give 
and  receive  them  at  their  treaties,  as  the  seals  of  friendship.  For  lesser 
motives  a  single  string  is  given  ;  every  bead  is  of  a  known  value ;  and  a  belt 
of  a  less  number  is  made  to  c(iual  one  of  a  greater,  by  so  many  as  is  wanted 
being  fastened  to  the  belt  by  a  string. — Buchanan's  North  American  Indians. 

'\  i:i 



sorrow  and  deep  regret  with  which  his  loss  has  tilled  our  breasts, 
although  he  has  taken  his  departure  for  a  better  abode,  wliere  his 
many  virtues  will  be  rewarded  by  the  great  Dispenser  ot'good,  who 
has  led  us  on  the  road  to  victory. 

A  large  white  belt. 

"  Brother, — We  now  address  the  successor  of  our  departfd  friend 
to  express  the  confidence  we  feel  that  his  heart  is  warmed  with 
similar  sentiments  of  aflection  and  regard  towards  us.  \Ve  also 
assure  him  of  our  readiness  to  support  him  to  the  last,  and  therefore 
take  the  ^i  )erty  to  speak  strong  to  all  his  people  to  co-operate  with 
vigour,  and  trusting  in  the  powerful  arm  of  God,  not  to  lioubt  of 

"Although  our  numbers  are  small,  yet,  counting  Him  on  our 
side,  who  ever  decides  on  the  day  of  battle,  we  look  for  victory 
whenever  we  shall  come  in  contact  with  our  enemy. 
Five  strhtgs  of  white  wampum. 

(Signed)  "W.  CLAUS,  J).  S.(,." 

It  ■ 


No.  6. 



Whence  sprung  that  sigh  of  sorrow  deep. 
Those  plaints  that  pierce  the  troubled  air  ! 
Whose  that  fair  form  that  seems  to  weep 
With  tresses  loose,  and  bosom  bare  ? 

Ah  !    now  I  know  that  form  divine. 
Whose  looks  her  heartfelt  grief  declare ; 
Queen  of  the  seagirt  isle  !    'tis  thine. 
And  thine  those  plaints  that  pierce  the  air. 

Thou  mourn' st  thy  brave  defender's  fate 
Far  distant  o'er  yon  western  tide, — 
The  victim  of  illiberal  hate 
Fostered  by  French  intrigue  and  pride  ! 

Thou  mourn'st  the  loss  of  valiant  Brock, 
Chastiser  of  o'erweening  pride, 
Who  fell  in  battle's  furious  shock, 
By  Niagara's  thundering  side  ! 


.1  *• 





I  . 

rr ' 






II; 'If 




In  freedom's  cause  the  liero  fell, — 

His  relics  rest  on  glory's  bed ; 

Twice  vanquished,  let  Columbia  tell 

How  gallantly  he  fought  and  died.  hakisc. 



Low  bending  o'er  the  rugged  bier 
The  soldier  drops  the  mournful  tear. 
For  life  departed,  valour  driven. 
Fresh  from  the  field  of  death  to  heaven. 

But  time  shall  fondly  trace  the  name 

Of  Brock  upon  the  scrolls  of  fame, 

And  those  bright  laurels,  which  should  wave 

Upon  the  brow  of  one  so  brave, 

Shall  flourish  vernal  o'er  his  grave.  j.  h.  r. 

No.  7. 

Extracts  from  "James  Military  Occurrences  of  the  late  War  between 
Great  Britain  and  the  United  States  of  America." — 2  vols.  8vo. 
London,  1818. 

"Major-General  Brock,  the  president  of  Upper  Canada,  was  at 
York  when  the  news  of  war  reached  him.  He,  with  his  accustomed 
alacrity,  sent  immediate  notice  of  it  to  Lieut. -Colonel  St.  George, 
commanding  a  small  detachment  of  troops  at  Amherstburg,  and 
to  Captain  Roberts,  commanding  part  of  a  company  of  the  1 0th 
R.  V.  battalion,  at  St.  Joseph's.  A  second  despatch  to  the  last 
named  officer  contained  the  major-general's  orders,  that  he  should 
adopt  the  most  prudent  measures,  either  for  offence  or  defence. 
Captain  Roberts,  accordingly,  on  the  day  succeeding  the  arrival  of 
his  orders,  embarked  with  forty -five  officers  and  men  of  the  1 0th 
royal  veteran  battalion,  about  one  hundred  and  eighty  Canadians, 
three  hundred  and  ninety-three  Indians,  and  two  iron  six  pounders, 
to  attack  the  American  fort  of  Michilimacinac.  This  force  reached 
the  island  on  the  following  morning.  A  summons  was  immediately 
sent  in  3  and  the  fort  of  Michilimacinac,  with  seven  pieces  of 
ordnance,  and  sixty-one  officers  and  privates  of  the  United  States 
army,  surrendered,  by  capitulation,  without  a  drop  of  blood  having 
been  spilt. — Vol.  I.,  pp.  56,  57. 

\   ■ 

I .  !S  a.' 



"General  Brock  had  just  arrived  at  Fort  George  from  \'ork, 
when  he  heard  of  General  Hull's  invasion.  It  was  his  intention  to 
attack,  and  there  is  no  doubt  he  would  have  carried,  Fort  Niagara ; 
but,  Sir  George  Prevt  c  not  having  sent  him  any  official  account 
of  the  war,  nor  any  orddr  to  guide  his  proceedings,  the  general  was 
restrained  from  acting  according  to  the  dictates  of  his  judgment 
and  the  natural  energy  of  his  mind.  After  issuing  a  proclamation, 
to  defeat  the  object  of  that  circulated  by  General  Hull,  General 
Brock  returned  to  York,  to  meet  the  legislature  of  Upper  Canada ; 
which,  on  account  of  the  war,  he  had  called  together  for  an  extra 
session.  This  session  was  short ;  and,  on  the  5th  of  August,  the 
general  again  left  York  for  Fort  George,  and  for  Long  Point  on 
Lake  Erie.  On  the  8th  he  embarked  at  the  latter  place,  with  foi  ty 
rank  and  file  of  the  4 1  st  regiment,  and  two  hundred  and  sixty  of 
the  militia  forces  ;  leaving  the  important  command  on  the  Niagara 
frontier  to  his  quarter- master-general,  Lieut.-Colonel  Myers,  an 
able  and  intelligent  officer. 

"  General  Brock  and  his  little  party  landed  safe  at  Amherstburg 
on  the  evening  of  the  12th,  when  that  enterprising  officer  lost  not 
a  moment,  but,  with  the  reinforcement  he  procured  at  this  place, 
pushed  on  for  Sandwich.  Here  he  found  that  the  Americans  had 
evacuated  and  destroyed  a  small  fort  which  they  had  constructed 
soon  after  their  arrival.  On  the  morning  of  the  15th,  General 
Brock  sent  across  a  flag  of  truce,  with  a  summons,  demanding  the 
immediate  surrender  of  the  garrison  j  to  which  an  answer  was 
returned,  that  "the  town  and  fort  would  be  defended  to  the  last 
extremity."  That  being  the  case,  at  four  o'clock  in  the  afternoon, 
the  British  batteries,  which  had  been  constructed  for  one  eighteen 
pounder,  two  twelve  pounders,  and  two  5^  inch  howitzers,  opened 
upon  the  enemy,  and  continued  to  throw  their  shells  into  the  fort 
until  midnight.  One  shell  killed  three  or  four  officers,  and  pro- 
duced great  alarm  in  the  garrison.  The  fire  was  returned  by  seven 
twenty-four  pounders,  but  without  the  slightest  effect. 

"  At  daylight  the  next  morning  the  firing  recommenced ;  and 
the  major-general,  taking  with  him  thirty  of  the  royal  artillery,  two 
hundred  and  fifty  of  the  41st  regiment,  fifty  of  the  royal  Newfound- 
land regiment,  and  four  hundred  militia,  crossed  the  river,  and 
landed  at  Springwell,  a  good  position,  three  miles  west  of  Detroit. 
The  Indians,  six  hundred  in  number,  under  the  brave  Tecumseh, 
had  effected  their  landing  two  miles  below ;  and  they  immediately 
occupied  the  woods  about  a  mile  and  a  half  on  the  left  of  the  army. 


'f  :    'J 







I'l  -..i 


The  direction  of  the  batteries  on  the  opposite  shore  had,  in  the 
mean  time,  been  left  to  an  intelligent  oilicer. 

"  At  about  ten  o'clock  the  troops  advanced,  in  close  column, 
twelve  in  front,  along  the  bank  of  the  river  towards  the  fort,  and 
halted  at  about  a  mile  distant  j  by  which  time  the  Indians  had 
penetrated  the  enemy's  camp.  When  the  head  of  the  British 
column  had  advanced  to  within  a  short  distance  of  the  American 
line,  General  Hull,  and  the  troops  under  his  command,  retreated  to 
the  fort,  without  making  any  use  of  two  twenty-four  pounders, 
advantageously  posted  on  an  eminence,  and  loaded  with  grape  shot. 

"Just  as  the  British  were  about  to  commence  the  attack,  a  white 
flag  was  seen  suspended  from  the  walls  of  the  fort.  So  unexpected 
a  measure  caused  General  Brock  to  despatch  an  officer  in  front,  to 
ascertain  the  fact.  Shortly  afterwards  the  capitulation  was  signed ; 
and  the  fort  of  Detroit,  its  ordnance  and  military  stores,  a  fine 
vessel  in  the  harbour,  the  whole  north-western  army,  including  the 
detached  parties,  also  the  immense  territory  of  Michigan,  its  forti- 
fied posts,  garrisons,  and  inhabitants,  were  surrendered  to  the 
British  arms. — Ibid,  pp.  68  to  70. 

"One  reason  for  General  Brock's  marching  so  comparatively 
small  a  force  against  Detroit,  was  a  deficiency  of  arms  wherewith 
to  equip  the  Upper  Canada  militia.  Many  of  the  latter  were 
obliged,  in  consequence,  to  remain  behind  ;  and  even  the  arms  that 
had  been  distributed  among  their  companions,  were  of  the  very 
worst  quality ;  so  that  General  Hull's  '  two  thousand  five  hundred 
stands  of  arms,'  which  were  indeed  of  the  very  best  quality,  became 
a  valuable  acquisition.  The  success  that  attended  this  first  enter- 
prise in  which  the  militia  had  been  called  upon  to  act,  produced  an 
electrical  eft'ect  throughout  the  two  provinces.  It  inspired  the 
timid,  settled  the  wavering,  and  awed  the  disaffected ;  of  which 
latter  there  were  many.  It  also  induced  the  Six  Nations  of  Indians, 
who  had  hitherto  kept  aloof,  to  take  an  active  part  in  our  favor. — 
Ibid,  pp.  73,  74. 

"  Brigadier-General  Hull  was  arlerwards  exchanged  for  thirty 
British  prisoners ;  and  his  trial  commenced  at  Albany  on  the  5th 
of  January,  and  ended  on  the  8th  of  March,  1814.  The  particulars 
may  not  be  uninteresting,  and  are  therefore  extracted  from  the 
pages  of  Mr.  O'Connor's  book  : — 

"  '  Three  charges  were  presented  against  him  ;  to  wit,  treason 
against  the  United  States ;  cowardice;  and  neglect  of  duty,  and  unofficer- 
Hke  conduct;   to  all  which  he  pleaded  Not  Guilty. — The  general 

id,  in  tlic 

i  column, 
fort,  and 
(lians  had 
le  British 
treated  to 
;rape  shot, 
k,  a  white 
1  front,  to 
as  signed ; 
■es,  a  fine 
[uding  the 
,  its  forti- 
ed  to  the 



Ltter  were 

arms  that 

the  very 


,  became 

rst  enter- 

duced  an 

pired  the 

of  which 

|f  Indians, 

favor. — 

•r  thirty 
the  5th 
Ifrom  the 





having  protested  against  the  competency  of  the  court  to  try  the 
first  charge,  the  court  declined  making  any  formal  decision  on  it ; 
but  yet  gave  an  opinion  that  nothing  appeared  to  them  which  coiild 
justify  the  charge. 

"  'The  court  acquitted  him  of  that  part  of  the  third  specification, 
which  charges  him  with  having  forbidden  the  American  artillery  to 
fire  on  the  enemy,  on  their  march  towards  the  said  Fort  Detroit, 
and  found  him  guilty  of  the  first,  second  part  of  the  third,  and  the 
fourth  specifications.  On  the  third  charge,  the  court  found  the 
accused  guilty  of  neglect  of  duty,  in  omitting  seasonably  to  inspect, 
train,  exercise,  and  order  the  troops  under  his  command,  or  cause 
the  same  to  be  done.  They  also  found  him  guilty  of  part  of  the 
fourth  and  fifth  specifications,  and  the  whole  of  the  sixth  and 
seventh ;  and  acquitted  him  of  the  second  and  third,  and  part  of 
the  fourth  and  fifth  specifications. 

"  '  The  court  sentenced  the  said  Brigadier-General  William  Hull 
to  be  shot  to  death,  two-thirds  of  the  court  concurring  in  the  sen- 
tence ;  but,  in  consideration  of  his  revolutionary  services,  and  his 
advanced  age,  recommended  him  to  the  mercy  of  the  president  of 
the  United  States.  The  president  approved  the  sentence,  remitted 
the  execution,  and  ordered  the  name  of  General  Hull  to  be  erased 
from  the  list  of  the  army.' — Ibid,  pp.  75,  76. 

"The  chagrin  felt  at  Washington,  when  news  arrived  of  the  total 
failure  of  this  the  first  attempt  at  invasion,  was  in  proportion  to 
the  sanguine  hopes  entertained  of  its  success.  To  what  a  pitch  of 
extravagance  those  hopes  had  been  carried,  cannot  better  appear 
than  in  two  speeches  delivered  upon  the  floor  of  congress,  in  the 
summer  of  1812.  Dr.  Eustis,  the  secretary  at  war  of  the  United 
States,  said  :  '  We  can  take  the  Canadas  without  soldiers ;  we 
have  only  to  send  officers  into  the  provinces,  and  the  people, 
disaffected  towards  their  own  government,  will  rally  round  our 
standard.'  The  honorable  Henry  Clay  seconded  his  friend  thus  : 
'It  is  absurd  to  suppose  we  shall  not  succeed  in  our  enterprise 
against  the  enemy's  provinces.  We  have  the  Canadas  as  much 
under  our  command  as  she  (Great  Britain)  has  the  ocean  ;  and  the 
way  to  conquer  her  on  the  ocean  is  to  drive  her  from  the  land.  I 
am  not  for  stopping  at  Quebec,  or  any  where  else ;  but  I  would 
take  the  whole  continent  from  them,  and  ask  them  no  favors.  Her 
fleets  cannot  then  rendezvous  at  Halifax  as  now ;  and,  having  no 
place  of  resort  in  the  north,  cannot  infest  our  coast  as  they  have 
lately  done.     It  is  as  easy  to  conquer  them  on  the  land,  as  their 







li . 





whole  navy  would  conquer  ours  on  the  ocean.  We  must  take  the 
continent  from  them.  /  wish  never  to  see  a  peace  till  we  do.  God 
has  given  us  the  power  and  the  means  ;  vvc  are  to  blame  if  we  do 
not  use  them.  If  we  get  the  continent,  she  must  allow  us  the 
freedom  of  the  sea.'  This  is  the  gentleman  who,  afterwards,  in  the 
character  of  a  commissioner, — and  it  stands  as  a  record  of  his 
tmblushing  apo.stacy, — signed  the  treaty  of  peace. 

"  Upon  Major-General  lirock's  arrival  at  Fort  George,  he  first 
iieard  of  that  most  impolitic  armistice,  which,  grounded  on  a  letter 
from  Sir  (ieorge  Prevost  to  Major-General  Dearborn,  had  been 
concluded  between  the  latter  and  Colonel  Baynes,  Sir  George's 
adjutant-general.  It  provided  that  neither  party  should  act  offen- 
sively before  the  decision  of  the  American  government  was  taken 
on  the  subject.  To  the  circumstance  of  the  despatch,  announcing 
the  event,  not  having  reached  the  gallant  Brock  before  he  had 
finished  the  business  at  Detroit,  may  the  safety  of  the  Canadas,  in 
a  great  measure,  be  attributed.  The  armistice  was  already  suffi- 
ciently injurious.  It  paraly/ed  the  efforts  of  that  active  officer, 
who  had  resolved,  and  would  doubtless  have  succeeded,  in  sweeping 
the  American  forces  from  the  whole  Niagara  line.  It  enabled  the 
Americans  to  recover  from  their  consternation,  to  fortify  and 
strengthen  their  own,  and  to  accumulate  the  means  of  annoyance 
along  the  whole  of  our  frontier.  It  sent  nearly  eight  hundred  of 
our  Indian  allies,  in  disgust,  to  their  homes.  It  admitted  the  free 
transport  of  the  enemy's  ordnance  stores  and  provisions  by  Lake 
Ontario,  which  gave  increased  facility  to  all  his  subsequent  opera- 
tions in  that  quarter. — Ibid,  pp.  7G  to  78. 

''  This  army,  comaiiiaded  by  Major-General  Van  Rensselaer,  of 
the  New  York  militia,  consisted,  according  to  American  official 
returns,  of  five  thousand  two  hundred  and  six  men ;  exclusive  of 
three  hundred  field  and  light  artillery,  eight  hundred  of  the  6th, 
13th,  and  23d  regiments,  at  Fort  Niagara;  making  a  total  of  six 
thousand  three  hundred  men.  Of  this  powerful  force,  sixteen  hun- 
dred and  fifty  regulars,  under  the  command  of  Brigadier-General 
Smyth,  were  at  Black  Rock  ;  three  hundred  and  eighty-six  militia 
at  the  latter  place  and  Buffaloe  ;  and  nine  hundred  regulars,  and 
two  thousand  two  hundred  and  seventy  militia,  at  Lewistown,  dis- 
tant from  Black  Rock  twenty-eight  miles.  So  that,  including  the 
eleven  hundred  men  at  Fort  Niagara,  the  Americans  had,  along 
thirty-six  miles  of  their  frontier,  a  force  of  six  thousand  three  hun- 
dred men,  of  whom  nearly  two-thirds  were  regular  troops ;    while 



I  hu  Hritish,  alon<^  their  line  from  Fort  (ieorge,  where  Mujor-Cicnenil 
Sheaffe  commanded,  to  Fort  Erie,  whitlier  JMajor-General  lirock 
had  just  proceeded,  could  not  muster  twelve  hundred  men,  nearly 
iialf  of  whom  were  militia. — Ibid,  p,  80. 

"  The  only  British  batteries  from  which  the  troops  could  be 
annoyed  in  the  passage,  were  one,  mounting  an  eighteen  pounder, 
upon  Queensto'vu  heights,  and  another,  mounting  a  twenty-four 
pound  carrwnade,  situate  a  little  below  the  town.  The  river  at 
Queenstown  is  scarcely  a  quarter  of  a  mile  in  width,  and  the  point 
chosen  for  crossing  was  not  fully  exposed  to  either  of  the  British 
batteries ;  v/hile  the  American  batteries  of  two  eighteen  and  two 
six  pounders,  and  the  two  six  pounder  field  pieces,  brought  up  by 
Lieut. -Colonel  Scott,  completely  commanded  every  part  of  the  op- 
posite shore,  from  which  musketry  could  be  effectual  in  opposing  a 
landing.  With  these  important  advantages  the  troops  embarked  ; 
but,  a  grape  shot  striking  the  boat  in  which  Lieut. -Colonel  Christie 
was,  and  wounding  him  in  the  hand,  the  pilot  and  boatmen  became 
so  alarmed,  that  they  suffered  the  boat  to  fall  beloVv  the  point  of 
landing,  and  were  obliged,  in  consequence,  to  put  back.  Two  other 
boats  did  the  same.  The  remaining  ten,  with  two  hundred  and 
twenty-five  ."egulars,  besides  officers,  including  the  commander  of 
the  expedition.  Colonel  Van  Rensselaer,  struck  the  shore ;  and, 
after  disembarking  the  men,  returned  for  more  troops. 

"  The  only  force  at  Queenstown  consisted  of  the  two  flank  com- 
panies of  the  49th  regiment,  and  a  small  detachment  of  militia  j 
amounting,  in  all,  to  about  three  hundred  rank  and  file.  Of  these 
about  sixty,  taken  from  the  49th  grenadiers  and  Captain  Hatt's 
company  of  militia,  having  in  charge  a  three  pounder,  advanced,  at 
four  o'clock  in  the  morning,  with  Captain  Dennis  of  the  49th  at 
their  head,  towards  the  river,  near  to  which  Colonel  Van  Rensselaer 
had  formed  his  men,  to  await  the  arrival  of  the  next  boats.  A 
well  directed  and  warmly  continued  fire  killed  and  wounded  several 
American  officers  and  privates,  including,  among  the  wounded. 
Colonel  V^an  Rensselaer  and  three  captains,  and  drove  the  Ameri- 
cans behind  a  steep  bank,  close  to  the  water's  edge.  In  the  mean 
time,  a  fresh  supply  of  troops  had  effected  a  landing,  and  remained, 
with  the  others,  sheltered  behind  the  bank ;  whence  they  returned 
the  fire  of  the  British,  killing  one  man  and  wounding  four.  The 
remaining  subdivisions  of  the  49th  grenadiers  and  of  the  militia 
company  had  now  joined  Captain  Dennis ;  and  the  49th  light  in- 
fantry, under  Captain  Williams,  with  Captain  Chisholm's  company 

•?>  / 



i   '< 

of  militirt,  slalionod  on  tin-  brow  ot"  llie  hill,  were  firing  down  upon 
the  invaders. 

"  Of  five  or  six  boats  tluit  attempted  to  land  a  body  of  American 
regulars  inider  Major  INIullany,  one  was  destroyed  by  a  shot  from 
the  hill  battery,  commanded  by  Lieutenant  Crowther,  of  the  4 1st 
regiment ;  two  others  were  capturt-d  ;  and  the  remainder,  foiled  in 
their  object,  returned  to  the  American  side.  Daylight  appeared ; 
and,  at  the  same  instant,  General  lirock  arrived  at  the  hill  battery 
from  Fort  (Jeorge.  Observing  the  strong  reinforcements  that  were 
crossing  over,  the  general  instantly  ordered  Captain  Williams  to 
descend  the  hill,  and  support  Captain  Dennis.  No  sooner  were 
Captain  Williams  and  his  men  seen  to  depart,  than  the  Americans 
formed  the  resolution  of  gaining  the  heights.  Accordingly,  sixty 
American  regulars,  headed  by  Captain  ^Vool,  and  accompanied  by 
Major  Lush,  a  volunteer,  also  by  a  captain,  six  lieutenants,  and  an 
ensign  of  the  13th  regiment,  ascended  a  fisherman's  path  up  the 
rocks,  which  had  been  reported  to  General  IJrock  as  impassable, 
Ri^d  therefore  was  not  guarded.  The  Americans  were  thus  enabled, 
unseen  by  our  troops,  to  arrive  at  a  brow,  about  thirty  yards  in  the 
rear  of  the  hill  battery.  Reinforcements  kept  rapidly  arriving  by 
the  concealed  path  ;  an^!  the  whole  formed  on  the  brow,  with  their 
front  towards  the  village  of  Qiueenstown. 

"  The  moment  General  Brock  discovered  the  unexpected  advance 
of  the  American  troops,  he,  with  the  twelve  men  stationed  at  the 
battery,  retired ;  and  Captain  Wool,  advancing  from  the  rear  with 
his  more  tiian  ten-fold  force,  '  took  it  without  much  resistance.' 
Captain  Williams,  and  his  detachment  of  regulars  and  militia,  were 
now  recalled ;  and  General  Brock,  putting  himself  at  the  head  of 
this  force,  amounting,  in  all,  to  about  ninety  men,  advanced  to 
meet  a  detachment  of  one  hundred  and  fifty  picked  American  regu- 
lars, which  Captain  Wool  had  sent  forward  to  attack  him.  The 
American  captain  says  that,  in  consequence  of  the  general's  '  supe- 
rior force,'  his  men  retreated ;  adding,  '  I  sent  a  reinforcement, 
notwithstanding  which,  the  enemy  drove  us  to  the  edge  of  the 
bank.'  While  animating  his  little  band  of  regulars  and  militia  to 
a  charge  up  the  heights.  General  Brock  received  a  mortal  wound 
in  the  breast,  and  immediately  fell. 

"  At  this  moment  the  two  flank  companies  of  the  York  militia, 
with  Lieut. -Colonel  M'Donell,  the  general's  provincial  aid-de-camp, 
at  their  head,  arrived  from  Brown's  Point,  three  miles  distant.  By 
this  time,  also,  Captain  Wool  had  sent  additional  reinforcements  to 





Captain  Ogih'ie,  making  the  latter's  force  '  three  hundred  and 
twenty  reguhirs,  supported  by  a  few  militia  and  vohmteers,'  or,  in 
the  whole,  full  five  hundred  men.  Colonel  M'Donell  and  his  one 
hundred  and  ninety  men, —  more  than  two-tliirds  Canadian  militia, — 
rushed  boldly  up  the  hill,  in  defiance  of  the  continued  stream  <>f 
mu-lccti-y  pouring  down  upon  them  ;  compelled  the  Americans  to 
spike  the  eighteen  pounder  ;  and  would  have  again  driven  them  to 
the  rocks,  had  not  the  colonel  and  Captain  ^^'illiams  been  wounded, 
almost  at  the  sjime  instant, — the  former  mortally.  The  loss  of 
their  commanders  created  confusion  among  the  men,  and  they 
again  retreated.  Hearing  of  the  fall  of  (ieneral  Jirock,  Captain 
Dennis  proceeded  from  the  valley  towards  the  foot  of  the  heights, 
and,  mounting  the  general's  horse,  rode  up,  and  tried  to  rally  the 
troops.  He  succeeded  in  forming  a  few  ;  but  the  number  was  so 
inconsiderable  that,  to  persist  in  a  contest,  would  have  been  mad- 
ness. A  retreat  wxs  accordingly  ordered,  by  the  ground  in  the 
rear  of  the  town  ;  and  the  men  of  the  lOtli,  accompanied  by  many 
of  the  militia,  formed  in  front  of  Vromont's  battery,  there  to  await 
the  expected  reinforcement  from  Fort  Geor    ■. 

"  While  we  had,  at  this  period,  not  ab(>\  c  two  hundred  unwounded 
men  at  Queenstown,  the  Americans,  by  their  own  account,  had 
upwards  of  eight  hundred,  and  General  Van  Rensselaer  tells  us, 
that  *  a  number  of  boats  now  crossed  over  unannoyed,  except  by 
the  one  unsilenced  gun,'  or  that  at  Vromont's  battery ;  conse- 
quently, more  troops  were  hourly  arriving.  lirigadier-Generai 
Wadsworth  was  left  as  commanding  officer  of  the  Americans  on 
the  Queenstown  hill ;  and  General  Van  Rensselaer,  considering  the 
victory  as  complete,  had  himself  crossed  over,  in  order  to  give 
directions  about  fortifying  the  camp  which  he  intended  to  o(cupy 
on  the  British  territory. — Ibid,  pp.  8C  to  91. 

"  When  General  Wilkinson  complains  that  the  executive  has  not 
rendered  '  common  justice  to  the  principal  actors  in  this  gallant 
scene,' — not  exhibited  it  to  the  country  *  in  its  true  light,  and  shewn 
what  deeds  Americans  are  still  capable  of  performing,'* — who 
among  us  can  retain  his  gravity  ?  '  It  is  true,'  says  the  general, 
'  complete  success  did  not  ultimately  crown  this  enterprise ;  but 
two  great  ends  were  obtained  for  the  country  :  it  re-established  the 
character  of  the  American  arms  ;' — it  did  indeed  ! — 'and  deprived 
the  enemy,  by  the  death  of  General  Brock,  of  the  best  officer  that 

*  From  an  Americaii  work,— Major-Gcneral  James  Wilkinson's  "Memoirs 
of  my  own  Time,"  piiMiancd  in  1816. 

i  ' 




<i  ■ 



I  i 



■  ill ""     ,  '  *■; 

has  headed  their  troops  in  Canada  throughout  the  warj' — truth 
undeniable  ! — 'and,  with  his  loss,  put  an  end  to  their  then  brilUant 
career/ — yet  the  capture  of  General  VVadsworth  took  place  in  less 
than  five  hours  afterwards. 

"  The  instant  we  know  what  the  Americans  expected  to  gain,  a 
tolerable  idea  may  be  formed  of  what  they  actually  lost  by  the 
attack  upon  Queenstown.  General  Van  Rensselaer,  in  a  letter  to 
Major- General  Dearborn,  written  five  days  previously,  says  thus  : 
'Should  we  succeed,  we  shall  effect  a  great  discomfiture  of  the 
enemy,  by  breaking  their  line  of  communication,  driving  their 
shipping  from  the  mouth  of  this  river,  leaving  them  no  rallying 
point  in  this  part  of  the  country,  appalling  the  minds  of  the  Cana- 
dians, and  opening  a  wide  and  safe  communication  for  our  supplies ; 
we  shall  save  our  own  land, — wipe  away  part  of  the  score  of  our 
past  disgrace, — get  excellent  barracks  and  winter  quarters,  and  at 
least  be  prepared  for  an  early  campaign  another  year.' — Who  could 
believe  that  this  very  letter  is  given  at  length  in  General  Wilkin- 
son's book,  and  precedes,  but  a  few  pages,  those  ridiculous  remarks 
into  which  an  excess  of  patriotism  had  betrayed  him. 

"  It  is  often  said,  that  we  throw  away  by  the  pen  what  we  gain 
by  the  sword.  Had  General  Brock  been  less  prodigal  of  his  valu- 
able life,  and  survived  the  Queenstown  battle,  he  would  have  made 
the  13th  of  October  a  still  more  'memorable'  day,  by  crossing  the 
river  and  carrying  Fort  Niagara,  which,  at  that  precise  time,  was 
nearly  stripped  of  its  garrison.  Instead  of  doing  this,  and  thus 
putting  an  end  to  the  campaign  upon  the  Niagara  frontier,  Major- 
General  Sheaffe,  General  Brock's  successor,  allowed  himself  to  be 
persuaded  to  sign  an  armistice ;  the  very  thing  General  Van  Rens- 
selaer wanted.  The  latter,  of  course,  assured  his  panic-struck  mili- 
tia, that  the  British  general  had  sent  to  implore  this  of  him  ;  and 
that  he.  General  Van  Rensselaer,  had  consented  merely  to  gain 
time  to  make  some  necessary  arrangements. — Ibid,  pp.  99  to  101. 

"Considering  the  character  of  the  distinguished  chief  who  fell 
on  the  British  side,  at  the  Queenstown  battle, — of  him  who, 
undoubtedly,  was  '  the  best  officer  that  headed  their  troops  through- 
out the  war,' — it  will  surely  be  deemed  a  pardonable  digression 
to  give  a  brief  sketch  of  the  more  prominent  features  of  his  life  and 

"  Sir  Isaac  Brock  was  born  at  Guernsey,  in  October,  1/69 ;  con- 
sequently, was  but  forty-three  when  he  received  the  fatal  bullet. 
He  had  entered  the  army  at  the  age  of  sixteen,  and  been  lieutenant- 

rj' — truth 
in  brilliant 
ace  in  less 

to  gain,  a 
)st  by  the 
1  letter  to 
lays  thus : 
ire  of  the 
zing  their 
0  rallying 
the  Cana- 
supplies ; 
)re  of  our 
rs,  and  at 
/^ho  could 
,1  Wilkin- 
s  remarks 

t  we  gain 
his  valu- 
ive  made 
ssing  the 
ime,  was 
and  thus 
',  Major- 
elf  to  be 
m  Rens- 
ick  mili- 
to  gain 
to  101. 
who  fell 
life  and 

9;  con- 




colonel  of  the  49th  regiment  since  1 797.  During  the  campaign  in 
Holland  in  1799,  he  distinguished  himself  at  the  head  of  his  regi- 
ment, and  was  second  in  command  of  the  land  forces  at  the  battle 
of  Copenhagen.  He  was  gallant  and  undaunted,  yet  prudent  and 
calculating  5  devoted  to  his  sovereign,  and  romantically  fond  of  his 
country ;  but  gentle  and  persuasive  to  those  whose  feelings  were 
less  ardent  than  his  own.  Elevated  to  the  government  of  Upper 
Canada,  he  reclaimed  the  disaffected  by  mildness,  and  fixed  the 
wavering  by  argument :  all  hearts  were  conciliated  ;  and,  in  the 
trying  moment  of  invasion,  the  whole  province  displayed  a  zealous 
and  an  enthusiastic  loyalty. 

"  Over  the  minds  of  the  Indians  General  Brock  had  acquired  an 
ascendency,  which  he  judiciously  exercised  for  purposes  conducive 
no  less  to  the  cause  of  humanity,  than  to  the  interests  of  his  coun- 
try. He  engaged  them  to  throw  aside  the  scalping  knife ;  endea- 
voured to  implant  in  their  breasts  the  virtues  of  clemency  and 
forbearance ;  and  taught  them  to  feel  pleasure  and  pride  in  the 
compassion  extended  to  a  vanquished  enemy.  Circumscribed  in  his 
means  of  repelling  invasion,  he  studied  to  fix  the  attachment  of  that 
rude  and  wavering  people  ;  and,  by  reducing  their  military  opera- 
tions to  the  known  rules  of  war  and  discipline,  to  improve  the 
value  of  their  alliance. 

*'  His  strong  attachment  to  the  service,  and  particularly  to  his 
regiment,  formed  a  distinguishing  feature  in  his  character.  There 
was  a  correspondence  of  regard  between  him  and  his  officers,  and 
even  the  non-commissioned  officers  and  privates,  with  an  addition 
of  reverence  on  the  part  of  the  latter,  that  produced  the  picture  of 
a  happy  family'.  Those  movements  of  feeling  which  the  exertions 
of  discipline  will  sometimes  occasion,  rarely  reached  his  men.  He 
governed  them  by  a  sentiment  of  esteem  which  he  himself  had 
created ;  and  the  consolation  was  given  him,  to  terminate  a  useful 
and  brilliant  course  in  the  midst  of  his  professional  family." — Ibid, 
pp.  103,  104. 

Note. — ^There  is  some  discrepancy  between  the  text,  (p.  18,)  and  'James,' 
as  to  the  circumstances  of  the  fall  of  Lieut.-Colonel  M'Donell ;  but  from 
Mr\jor  Glegg's  letters,  written  at  the  time  and  on  the  spot,  he  appears  to 
have  accompanied  Sir  Isaac  Brock  from  Fort  George, — to  have  remained 
near  him  at  Queenston, — and  to  have  been  mortally  wounded  immediately 
after  the  death  of  the  general. — Ed. 



'  .  i 

'.     i 

■  1 

1  . 


"1  i     i 



I   If 

No.  8. 
Extracts  from  Quarterly  Review  for  July,  1822. 

"  liut  far  more  important  consequences  than  these  resulted 
from  the  surrender  of  Hull.  I'he  whole  of  the  Michigan  territory, 
an  extensive  peninsula  watered  by  the  lake  of  that  name,  by  Lake 
Huron  and  the  Detroit,  and  which  separates  the  Indian  country 
from  Canada,  was  ceded  to  the  British  by  the  same  capitulation. 
No  acquisition  could  so  effectually  have  secured  the  north-western 
frontier  of  Upper  Canada  by  cementing  our  alliance  with  the 
Indian  nations,  whose  confidence  and  respect  were  gained  by  this 
success.  Its  effects  upon  the  militia  who  had  shared  in  it,  and 
upon  the  population  of  the  Canadas  generally,  were  hardly  less 
beneficial :  it  inspired  the  timid,  fixed  the  wavering,  and  awed 
the  disaffected. 

"  Leaving  Colonel  Proctor  in  command  on  the  Detroit  frontier 
and  in  the  newly  acquired  territory,  General  Brock  hastened  his 
return  to  the  Niagara  line,  with  the  intention  of  sweeping  it  of  the 
American  garrisons,  which  he  knew  were  then  unprepared  for 
vigorous  resistance.  But  the  first  intelligence  which  he  received 
on  his  arrival  at  Fort  George  paraly/>ed  his  exertions.  The  com- 
mander in  chief,  Lieut. -General  Sir  George  Prevost,  had  concluded 
an  armistice  with  the  American  general.  Dearborn,  which  provided 
that  neither  party  should  act  offensively  until  the  government  at 
AVashington  should  ratify  or  annul  the  suspension  of  hostilities  ! 
Of  the  inactivity  thus  forced  upon  General  Brock,  the  enemy  made 
the  best  use.  As  the  armistice  did  not  prohibit  them  from  trans- 
porting ordnance,  stores,  and  provisions,  of  all  of  which  they  were 
greatly  in  need,  from  Lake  Ontario  along  the  Niagara  line,  they 
had  time  to  recover  the  panic  which  had  seized  them  on  the  sur- 
render of  Hull,  and  to  fortify  their  frontier.  The  president  of  the 
United  States  then  refused,  as  might  have  been  anticipated,  to 
confirm  the  armistice,  but  not  before  an  American  force  of  six 
thousand  three  hundred  men  had  assembled  on  the  Niagara  frontier. 
The  British  on  the  same  frontier  under  General  Brock,  who  now 
received  orders  from  Sir  George  Prevost  to  act  upon  the  defensive 
only,  did  not  exceed  twelve  hundred  regulars  and  militia. 

"  The  enemy  now  prepared  to  carry  the  war  across  the  Niagara. 
Opposite  the  village  of  Queenston  on  that  strait,  they  concentrated 
three  thousand  men  of  their  force,  and  at  daylight,  on  the  13th  of 
October,  effected  a  landing  on  the  Canadian  shore,  notwithstanding 



'.M'  f-' 



e  resulted 
1  territory, 
!,  by  Lake 
n  country 
with  the 
ed  by  this 
in  it,  and 
ardly  less 
and  awed 

it  frontier 

>tened  his 

?  it  of  the 

pared  for 

I  received 

rhe  com- 



nment  at 

)stilities  ! 

tny  made 

m  trans - 

ley  were 

ne,  they 

the  sur- 

it  of  the 

ated,  to 

of  six 


ho  now 




13th  of 


the  gallant  opposition  of  a  British  detachment  of  three  hundred 
men  which  was  posted  at  the  village.  By  this  handful  of  troops 
the  passage  was  long  and  obstinately  contested,  until  General  Brock, 
who  arrived,  unattended,  from  Fort  George  during  the  struggle,  fell 
in  the  act  of  cheering  on  his  little  band  to  a  charge.  With  him 
the  post  was  lost :  a  retreat,  was  effected,  and  sixteen  hundred 
of  the  enemy  established  themselves  in  position  on  the  heights  of 
Queenston.  Mc  iiiwhile,  the  whole  of  the  British  disposable  force 
on  the  Niagara,  of  about  one  thousand  men,  of  whom  five  hun- 
dred and  sixty  were  regulars,  had  assembled  near  Queenston  ;  at 
three  in  the  afternoon,  they  advanced  against  the  American  line, 
and,  after  a  short  and  spirited  contest,  put  the  enemy  completely  to 
rout,  capturing  on  the  field  Brigadier-General  Wadsworth,  nine 
hundred  men,  a  piece  of  cannon,  and  a  stand  of  colours.  Many  of 
the  enemy  were  drowned  in  the  attempt  to  swim  to  their  own 
shore,  and  four  hundred  of  them  were  killed  and  wounded,  while 
the  whole  British  loss  did  not  exceed  one  hundred  men. 

"  Such  was  the  dismay  of  the  enemy  at  the  result  of  the  action 
at  Qi  'cr  on.  that  had  General  Sheaffe,  who  commanded  after  the 
death  o.  .  )>  :,  crossed  over  immediately  afterwards,  as  it  is  said 
he  was  „\y..giy  urged  by  his  officers  to  do,  the  fort  of  Niagara, 
which  its  garrison  had  even  evacuated  for  some  time,  might  have 
been  captured,  and  the  whole  of  that  line  cleared  of  the  American 
troops.  But  General  Sheaffe,  like  his  superior,  was  a  lover  of 
armistices,  and  after  the  action  he  concluded  one  of  his  own  with 
the  American  general,  for  which  no  reason,  civil  or  military,  was 
ever  assigned.  Such  were  the  principal  occurrences  of  the  cam- 
paign of  1812,  in  Upper  Canada  3  those  in  the  lower  province  were 
utterly  insignificant. 

"  In  reviewing  the  campaign  in  the  Canadas  of  1812,  the  most 
striking  feature  is  the  failure  of  the  enemy  in  attempting  the 
subjugation  of  the  British  provinces.  So  extravagant  were  the 
hopes  of  the  American  government  regarding  the  issue  of  the 
contest,  that  their  secretary  at  war  declared  from  his  seat  in 
congress,  that  they  *  could  take  the  Canadas  without  soldiers ;  they 
had  only  to  send  officers  into  the  provinces,  and  the  people, 
disaffected  towards  their  own  government,  would  rally  round  the 
American  standard.'  Mr.  Clay,  of  Virginia,  added,  that  '  it  was 
absurd  to  suppose  that  the  enterprise  would  fail  of  success ;  he 
was  not  for  stopping  at  Quebec,  or  any  where  else  ;  he  would 
take  the  continent  from  the  British  ;    he  never  wished  to  see  a 

i  :  ) 







peace  until  this  was  done.'  Yet  this  Mr.  Clay  was  afterwards 
one  of  the  American  commissioners  who  signed  the  treaty  of 
Ghent ! 

"  The  first  act  of  the  commander  in  chief,  on  learning  the  Ame- 
rican declaration  of  war,  was  an  earnest  of  his  future  irresolution. 
He  dispatched  orders  to  the  commanding  officer  at  fort  St.  Joseph's 
to  re.aain  upon  the  defensive  ;  but  Captain  Roberts  knew  that, 
if  attacked,  his  post  was  untenable  ;  he  was  aware  that  the  enemy 
at  Michilimackinac  must  shortly  be  reinforced,  and  he  boldly 
preferred  to  follow  the  directions  of  his  immediate  commander, 
General  Brock,  to  assault  that  place  if  he  found  it  advisable.  The 
important  result  has  already  been  told.  To  General  Brock  him- 
self. Sir  George  Prevost  sent  no  instructions  whatever  for  some 
weeks  after  he  received  intimation  of  the  war.  Whether  this 
neglect  was  intentional,  to  leave  that  officer  to  his  own  respon- 
sibility, or  was  merely  the  natural  effect  of  the  infirmity  of  purpose 
which  the  commander  in  chief  afterwards  so  repeatedly  evinced, 
the  consequences  were  equally  mischievous ;  for  General  Brock 
had  moved  from  York  to  Fort  George  with  the  intention  of  attack- 
ing the  American  fort  of  Niagara,  then  unprepared  for  defence, 
and  was  only  restrained  from  that  measure  by  the  perplexity  of  his 
situation  in  being  left  without  orders.  Hull's  invasion,  however, 
put  it  beyond  doubt  that  he  should  do  right  in  opposing  him, 
and  the  capture  of  that  force  preceded  his  receipt  of  the  first 
dispatches  from  the  commander  in  chief.  These  dispatches,  indeed, 
were  of  such  a  nature,  that  it  was  fortunate  they  arrived  no  sooner. 
They  announced,  as  we  have  already  stated,  the  conclusion  of  that 
impolitic  armistice  between  Sir  George  Prevost  and  General  Dear- 
born at  the  moment  which  should  have  been  devoted  to  active 
exertion  against  the  American  posts  on  the  frontier.  By  the 
terms  of  this  truce.  General  Hull  was  to  determine,  at  his  option, 
whether  or  not  the  suspension  of  arms  should  be  binding  upon  his 
division.  If  he  had  not  already  capitulated  before  he  could  make 
his  choice,  what  might  not  have  been  the  fatal  consequences  of 
permitting  him  to  claim  the  benefit  of  the  armistice  ? 

"  No  sooner  was  the  suspension  of  arms,  to  which  Sir  George 
had  agreed,  at  an  end,  than  he  issued  positive  orders  along  the 
whole  extent  of  frontier,  that  no  offensive  operations  whatever 
should  be  attempted  against  the  different  points  of  the  enemy's 
line.  The  short-sightedness  of  such  a  system  of  defence  needs 
perhaps  little  exposition,  but  a  practical  illustration  of  its  tendency 





;  treaty  of 

J  the  Ame- 
it.  Joseph's 
knew  that, 
the  enemy 
he  boldly 
ible.  The 
•rock  him- 

for  some 
ether  this 
n  respon- 
of  purpose 
f  evinced, 
ral  Brock 
of  attack- 
r  defence, 
ity  of  his 

sing  him, 

the  first 
s,  indeed, 
o  sooner, 
n  of  that 
ral  Dear- 
to  active 

By  the 
s  option, 
upon  his 
lid  make 

ences  of 

*  George 
ong  the 
!e  needs 

was  afforded,  before  the  close  of  the  year,  in  the  unopposed  devas- 
tation of  great  part  of  the  Indian  country  by  General  Harrison, 
while  Colonel  Proctor  was  compelled  by  his  orders  to  refrain  from 
advancing  to  the  aid  of  our  allies.  This  want  of  co-operation  had 
a  most  unfavourable  effect  upon  the  minds  of  the  Indians,  and  was 
an  impolitic  and  unmanly  desertion  of  them." — Campaigns  in  the 

Note. — Although  the  editor  does  not  approve  of  the  spirit  of  acrimony 
towards  Sir  George  Prevost,  which  is  manifested  throughout  tlie  article  in 
the  Quarterly  Review,  from  which  the  preceding  extracts  are  tiaken,  yet  he 
feels  it  a  sacred  obligation  due  to  the  memory  of  Sir  Isaac  Brock  to  with- 
hold nothing  descriptive  of  his  energetic  views  and  intentions,  and  of  the 
obstacles  he  experienced  in  the  vigorous  prosecution  of  the  contest, — 
obstacles  which  his  gallant  spirit  could  not  brook,  and  which  necessarily 
exposed  "  his  valuable  life"  much  more  than  it  would  have  been  in  offen- 
sive operations.  Sir  George  Prevost  was  most  unfortunately  induced  to 
propose  the  armistice,  in  the  expectation  that  the  American  government 
would  stay  all  hostility  on  learning  the  repeal  of  the  British  orders  in 
council,  which  were  the  chief  among  the  alleged  causes  of  the  war ;  and 
this  measure  was  attended  with  very  prejudicial  consequences,  as  it  ren- 
dered un.ivailing  the  command  of  the  lakes,  which  was  then  held  by  the 
British.  It  also  caused  a  delay  of  nearly  a  fortnight  in  the  contemplated 
attack  of  Sackett's  Harbour  by  Sir  Isaac  Brock,  as  he  returned  from  Detroit 
to  Fort  George  on  the  24th  August,  and  the  cessation  of  the  armistice  waa 
not  known  at  the  latter  post  until  the  4th  September.  This  attack,  how- 
ever, could  have  been  still  carried  into  effect,  and  it  was  only  relinquished 
by  express  orders  from  the  commander  in  chief.  The  armistice  was  doubt- 
less entered  into  as  well  from  an  error  in  judgment  as  from  expectations 
which  were  not  realized ;  but  as  the  official  intelligence  of  the  president's 
refusal  to  continue  the  suspension  of  hostilities  reached  Sir  George  Prevost, 
at  Montreal,  on  the  30th  August, — a  day  or  two  before  Captain  Glegg,  with 
the  dispatches  of  the  capture  of  Detroit, —  it  is  difficult  to  account  for  his 
motive  (unless  it  were  that  assigned  at  page  15)  in  preventing  the  attempt 
on  Sackett's  Harbour,  as  proposed  to  him  by  Major-General  Brock,  through 
his  gallant  aid-de-camp,  a  meritorious  and  talented  officer. 

The  distance,  by  water,  between  Fort  George  and  Kingston,  riA  York,  is 
one  hundred  and  eighty  miles,  and  from  Kingston  to  Snckett's  Harbour 
only  thirty-six  miles,  so  that  the  destruction  of  the  arsenal  at  the  last 
named  post  could  have  been  effected  by  the  1st  of  September,  had  not  the 
armistice  prevented  it. 

Since  the  first  memoir  was  printed,  the  editor  has  been  informed  by  a 
provincial  officer,  who  commanded  the  schooner  Lady  Prevost,  of  14  guns, 
that  on  the  23d  August  he  met  Major-General  Brock  on  Lake  Erie,  return- 
ing in  the  schooner  Chippewa  from  the  capture  of  Detroit,  and,  after 
saluting  him  with  seventeen  guns,  he  went  on  board  the  latter  vessel,  and 
gave  the  first  intelligence  of  the  armistice  to  the  general,  who,  on  hearing 
it,  could  not  conceal  his  deep  regret  and  mortification. — Ed. 

, ) :  i  - 



i  :H'^ 

'  L    I 


■'.  ?  I 


;  11 





j   i'i 









No.  9. 

Prr/ace  to  the  Second  Edition  of  Travels  in  Canada  and  the  United 
States,  in  ISIG  and  1817,  by  Lieutenant  Francis  Hall,  Wth  Liyht 
Dragoons,  II.  P. 

"  Soon  after  the  publication  of  these  travels,  the  author  received 
an  anonymous  communication,  charging  him  with  misrepresenting 
the  conduct  of  the  officer  who  succeeded  Sir  Isaac  Jirock  in  the 
command  of  our  forces  in  Upper  Canada.  The  passages  com- 
plained of  are  :  the  expression,  (p.  227.,)  that  Tecumseh,  after 
that  general's  death,  '  found  no  kindred  spirit  with  whom  to  act ; ' — 
the  passages  of  Tecumseh's  speech,  quoted  in  the  notej — and  the 
expression  he  is  said  to  have  subsequently  used,  *  Tell  the  dog,'  &c. 

"The  author  regrets  that  this  communication,  (which  was  con- 
veyed in  the  most  gentlemanly  terms,)  by  being  anonymous,  left 
him  no  opening  for  private  explanation,  which  he  cannot  but  think 
would,  on  the  whole,  have  proved  more  satisfactory  than  a  discus- 
sion in  print :  as  it  is,  it  only  remains  for  him  to  commit  the 
litigated  points  to  the  judgment  of  the  public. 

"The  only  insinuation  intended  to  be  conveyed  by  the  terms 
'  no  kindred  spirit,'  was,  that  the  general  who  succeeded  Sir  Isaac 
Brock  was  inferior  to  him  in  talents,  and  was  so  considered  by 
Tecumseh.  This  is  mere  matter  of  opinion ;  but  such  as  the 
author  conceives  every  man  is  free  to  deliver,  with  respect  to  the 
conduct  of  an  individual  employed  in  a  public  capacity  ;  nor, 
however  he  may  be  unfortunate  enough  to  differ  in  it  from  his 
correspondent,  does  he  believe  it  would,  by  any  means,  be  consi- 
dered a  singular  opinion  by  the  officers  who,  at  that  time,  served  in 
Upper  Canada. 

"  With  regard  to  the  application  of  the  passages  quoted  from 
Tecumseh's  speech,  the  author  conceives  he  cannot  do  better  than 
make  his  readers  the  judges  of  it,  by  printing  an  entire  copy  of  the 
speech,  with  which  his  correspondent  has  been  kind  enough  to 
furnish  him. 

"  His  correspondent  denies  that  Tecumseh  ever  used  the  ex- 
pressions, '  Tell  the  dog,'  &c.  ;  upon  which  the  author  cannot 
forbear  observing,  that,  as  he  has  stated  no  particular  occasion 
on  which  they  were  used,  it  seeiu-  "arcely  possible  his  correspon- 
dent, unless  he  was  never  from  >cumseh's  side,  can  have  the 
means  of  proving  they  were  n  ver  uttered  at  all.  The  author 
conceives  his  authority  on  this  )  jint  to  be  such,  as  fully  to  warrant 

<  V 



the  Unitrd 
MM  Light 

tr  received 
jck  in  the 
ages  com- 
iseh,  after 
to  act  J ' — 
— and  the 
J  dog,'  &c. 
.  was  con- 
mous,  left 
but  tliink 
1  a  discus- 
•mmit  the 

the  terms 

Sir  Isaac 

idered  by 

^\i  as  the 

ct  to  the 

tyj    nor, 

rom  his 

De  consi- 

served  in 

ited  from 
tter  than 
py  of  the 
ijugh  to 

the  ex- 
lave  the 

him  in  believing  his  statement  to  be  correct ;  at  the  same  time,  he 
would  be  understood  as  drawing  no  conclusion  fi-om  it  to  the  dispa- 
ragement of  the  officer  in  question  :  he  quoted  it  merely  to  show 
the  nature  of  the  Indian  chieftain's  feelings,  and  the  light  in  which 
he  regarded  measures,  on  the  propriety  of  which  the  author  wishes 
to  be  considered  as  stirring  no  controversy." 

Note. — ^The  officer  alluded  to  in  the  precedinp;  preface  was  not  Major- 
General  Sheaffe,  the  successor  of  Sir  Isiiac  Brock,  but  tlie  officer  coinmiind- 
ing  at  Detroit,  Amherstburgh,  &c.  The  passages  and  speecli  will  be  given 
in  the  notice  of  Tecuraseh. —  Vide  Post. — Ed. 

No.   10. 
Extracts  from  Howisons  Sketches  of  Upper  Canada. — London,  1821. 

"  The  village  of  Queenston  is  beautifully  situated  at  the  foot  of 
a  hill,  and  upon  the  side  of  the  Niagara  river,  the  bank  of  which 
is  high  and  precipitous.  The  imagination  is  agreeably  struck  with 
the  first  view  of  the  place.  On  one  side  of  the  village  is  a  moun- 
tain covered  with  shrubbery  and  verdure ; — behind,  a  rich  and 
cultivated  plain  extends  backwards,  which  is  bounded  in  every 
direction  by  luxuriant  woods,  while  in  front,  the  Niagara  river 
glides  in  majestic  stillness,  and  may  be  traced,  with  all  its  windings, 
till  its  waters  are  swallowed  up  in  the  vast  expanse  of  Lake  Ontario. 
The  soil  around  Queenston  consists  chiefly  of  a  red  clay,  the  bright 
colour  of  which,  upon  the  roads  and  declivities  where  it  is  exposed, 
forms  a  singular  contrast,  during  summer,  with  the  pure  green  of 
the  trees  and  fields  in  the  vicinity. 

"  The  narrowness  of  the  river  here,  and  its  suitableness  for  a 
ferry,  renders  this  one  of  the  principal  channels  of  communication 
between  Upper  Canada  and  the  United  States ;  consequently,  there 
is  a  continual  interchange  of  waggons,  cattle,  passengers,  &c.  which 
makes  Queenston  rather  more  lively  than  it  would  otherwise  be. 
However,  all  its  external  attractiveness  depends  upon  the  fineness 
of  its  situation.  The  buildings  are  irregular  and  inelegant  j  and  an 
air  of  depression  and  inactivity  pervades  the  whole  place,  to  a 
degree  I  never  saw  equalled  in  any  village  of  the  same  extent. 

"  Queenston  must  infallibly  acquire  magnitude  and  importance 
when  the  province  becomes  populous  and  flourishing,  for  it  is 
situated  at  the  commencement  of  a  portage,  which  never  can  be 
evaded  by  any  improvement  in  the  navigation,  it  being  rendered 
necessary  by  the  falls  of  Niagara ;  therefore,  all  vessels  containing 
goods  and  stores  destined  for  the  western  parts  of  Upper  Canada, 


i  '< 

f  [■! 




must  unload  and  leave  their  cargoes  at  Queenston,  that  they  may 
be  conveyed  overland  to  Chippewa,  where  the  Niagara  river  again 
becomes  navigable.  Even  now,  •.  good  deal  of  this  carrying 
business  goes  on  during  the  summer  months.  The  north-west 
company  forward  a  considerable  quantity  of  stores  to  the  Indian 
territories  by  this  route,  and  the  country  merchants  receive  annual 
supplies  of  goods  from  Montreal,  and  send  down  po.K,  flour,  staves, 
and  potash,  in  return. 

"  The  environs  of  Queenston  arc  beautifully  picturesque  and 
romantic,  and  nothing  can  be  finer  than  the  prospect  up  the 
Niagara  river.  Immediately  above  the  village  its  channel  narrows 
very  much,  and  the  banks  rise  to  the  height  of  three  hundred  feet 
perpendicular,  while  at  the  same  time  they  become  wilH  and  rocky, 
and  are  thickly  covered  with  trees  of  various  kinds.  In  some  places 
they  partly  over-arch  the  river,  and  throw  an  appalling  gloom  upon 
its  waters,  now  dashed  into  turbulence  find  impetuosity  by  the 
ruggedness  of  their  sloping  bed.  It  was  night  when  I  first  view 
this  scene,  and  as  the  moon  gradually  rose,  she  threw  a  broken 
light  successively  upon  different  portions  of  the  stream,  and  some- 
times brought  to  view  the  foamy  bosom  of  a  rapid,  at  other  times 
unveiled  the  struggling  and  heaving  waters  of  a  whirlpool,  while 
the  mingled  roar,  on  all  sides,  excited  a  shuddering  curiosity  about 
those  parts  of  the  river  that  rolled  along  in  darkness. 

"  Over  the  precipice,  on  the  summit  of  which  I  stood  while  I 
contemplated  this  scene,  many  of  the  American  soldiers  had  rushed 
at  the  close  of  the  battle  of  Queenston  heights.  They  were  so 
warmly  pressed  by  our  troops  and  the  Indians,  and  had  so  little 
prospect  of  obtaining  quarter  from  the  latter,  that  a  great  number 
wildly  flung  themselves  over  the  steep,  and  tried  to  save  their  lives 
by  catching  hold  of  the  trees  that  grew  upon  it  j  but  many  were 
frightfully  dashed  to  pieces  by  the  rocks,  and  others  who  reached 
the  river  perished  in  their  attempts  to  swim  across  it.  Several,  who 
had  dropped  among  the  cliffs  without  receiving  any  injury,  were 
afterwards  transfixed  and  killed  by  falling  upon  their  own  bayonets, 
while  in  the  act  of  leaping  from  one  spot  to  another.  I  almost 
imagined  I  saw  these  unfortunate  men  writhing  in  all  the  agonies 
of  a  protracted  death,  and  gazing  with  envy  at  their  companions, 
who  were  convulsively  catching  for  breath  among  the  sullen  waters 
below.  AVere  the  Canadians  inclined  to  be  superstitious,  they 
could  not  select  a  more  suitable  place  than  this  for  the  haunt  and 
appearance  of  unearthly  beings.     The  wildness  of  the  scenery,  the 




gloom  of  the  clip's,  and  the  melancholy  incident  I  have  just  related, 
would  subject  Queenston  heights  to  the  suspicion  of  any  people 
more  under  the  influence  of  imagination  than  the  Canadians  are, 
and  make  them  conjure  up  half  a  dozen  bleeding  sentinels  at  the 
top  of  the  precipice  every  night  after  sunset. 

"  At  the  ferry,  the  Niagara  river  is  twelve  hundred  and  fifty  feet 
in  breadth,  and  from  two  to  three  hundred  in  depth.  The  current 
is  very  rapid,  and  the  wreathing  and  perturl)ed  appearance  of  the 
water  shews  that  its  course  is  much  impeded  by  the  narrowness  of 
the  channel,  which  must  be  entirely  composed  of  rocks  ;  for,  other- 
wise, the  continual  and  rapid  attrition  of  such  a  large  river  as  that 
which  flows  through  it,  would  undermine  and  wear  away  the  banks, 
and  thus  gradually  enlarge  and  widen  its  course.  I  could  not 
survey  this  noble  stream  witliout  awe,  when  I  contrasted  it  in  the 
state  in  which  it  flowed  before  me,  with  the  appearance  it  has  when 
mingling  with  the  ocean.  I  recollected  having  beat  about  the  mouth 
of  the  St.  Lawrence  during  two  days,  and  having  been  alarmed  by 
the  prospect  of  shipwreck,  while  in  the  vessel  that  conveyed  me  to 
Lower  Canada ;  but  now  the  waters  which  formed  the  dangerous 
gulf  all  passed  silently  before  me,  within  the  narrow  limits  occupied 
by  the  Niagara  river.  The  St.  Lawrence  derives  but  a  small  pro- 
portion of  its  torrents  from  tributary  streams,  the  Ottawa  being  the 
only  river  of  great  magnitude  that  joins  it.  The  rivers  Chaudi^re, 
Saguenai,  Pepechaissinagau,  IJlack  River,  &c.,  are  trifling  indeed, 
when  compared  with  that  into  which  they  discharge  themselves. 

"  The  Niagara  river  is  subject  to  those  periodical  alterations  in 
height,  which,  as  I  have  already  mentioned,  occur  in  the  lakes. 
This  can  be  satisfactorily  proved  by  the  wharfs  at  Queenston,  some 
of  which  are  five  feet  higher  above  the  surJ'ace  of  the  river  than 
they  were  in  the  year  1817,  and  also  by  the  water  marks  left  on  the 
perpendicular  sand  banks  near  the  ferry. 

"  General  Brock  was  killed  at  the  battle  of  Queenston  heights, 
and  the  place  where  he  fell  was  pointed  out  to  me.  The  Canadians 
hold  the  memory  of  this  brave  and  excellent  man  in  great  venera- 
tion, but  have  not  yet  attempted  to  testify  their  respect  for  his 
virtues  in  any  way,  except  by  shewing  to  strangers  the  spot  on 
which  he  received  his  mortal  wound.  He  was  more  popular,  and 
more  beloved  by  the  inhabitants  of  Upper  Canada,  than  any  man 
they  ever  had  among  them,  and  with  reason  ;  for  he  possessed,  in 
an  eminent  degree,  those  virtues  which  add  lustre  to  bravery,  and 
those  talents  that  shine  alike  in  the  cabinet  and  in  the  field.      His 

'  ( 


\    I 

.  1 

I    i 

I    i 




'    ). 

manners  and  dispositions  were  so  conciliating  as  to  gain  the  affec- 
tion of  all  whom  he  commanded,  while  his  innate  nobleness  and 
dignity  of  mind  secured  him  a  respect  almost  amounting  to  venera- 
tion. He  is  now  styled  the  Hero  of  Upper  Canada,  and,  had  he 
lived,  there  is  no  doubt  but  the  war  would  have  terminated  very 
differently  from  what  it  did.  The  Canadian  farmers  are  not  over- 
burthened  with  sensibility,  yet  I  have  seen  several  of  them  shed 
tears  when  an  eulogium  was  pronounced  upon  the  immortal  and 
generous-minded  deliverer  of  their  country. 

"  General  Brock  was  killed  close  to  the  road  that  leads  through 
Queenston  village,  and  an  aged  thorn  bush  now  marks  the  place 
where  he  fell,  whefi  the  fatal  ball  entered  his  vitals.  This  spot 
may  be  called  classic  ground,  for  a  view  of  it  must  awaken  in  the 
minds  of  all  those  who  duly  appreciate  the  greatness  of  his  cha- 
racter, and  arc  acquainted  with  the  nature  of  his  resources  and 
exertions,  feelings  as  warm  and  enthujiastic  as  the  contemplation  of 
monuments  consecrated  by  antiquity  can  ever  do. — Pages  70  to  76. 

"  The  prospect  from  the  top  of  Queenston  mountain  is  the  finest 
and  most  extensive  that  Upper  Canada  affords,  and,  in  an  eminent 
degree,  combines  the  beautiful  and  the  magnificent.  The  wild  and 
majestic  precipices  which  engulf  one  part  of  the  Niagara  river,  the 
windings  and  mirrored  expanse  of  that  noble  body  of  water,  the 
dim  and  undiscoverable  extent  of  Lake  Ontario,  together  with  the 
verdant  orchards,  thick  forests,  and  improved  fields,  glowing 
beneath  a  pure  sky,  collectively  form  a  scene  of  admirable  effect 
and  composition.  Even  York,  which  is  thirty-six  miles  distant, 
and  lies  very  low,  can  be  seen  from  the  summit  of  this  hill  during 
clear  weather. — Page  87. 

"The  Detroit  river,  which  connects  Lake  St.  Clair  and  Lake 
Erie,  is  forty  miles  long,  and  divides  tha  part  of  Canada,  which  it 
traverses,  from  the  United  States.  Its  banks  are  in  many  places 
thickly  peopled,  and  in  a  high  state  of  cultivation.  The  inhabitants 
here  are  chiefly  French  Canadians,  who  began  to  occupy  the  coun- 
try when  Canada  was  still  under  the  jurisdiction  of  France.  They 
still  retain  that  amenity  of  manners  wJiich  distinguishes  them  from 
the  peasantry  of  most  countries.  The  houses  are  so  numerous  and 
so  close  together  upon  the  banks  of  the  Detroit  river,  that  there  is 
the  appearance  of  a  succession  of  villages  for  more  than  ten  miles. 
The  farms  are  very  narrow  in  front,  and  extend  a  great  way  back. 
The  lots  were  laid  out  in  this  awkward  and  inconvenient  form,  that 
iheir  respective  occupants  might  be  able  to  render  one  another 



Hssistiince  wlien  attacked  by  the  Indians,  wlio  wero  ul  one  time 
very  numerous  and  troublesome  in  this  part  of  the  country. 

"The  banks  of  the  Detroit  river  arc  the  Eden  of  Upper  Canada, 
in  so  far  as  regards  the  production  of  fruit.  Apples,  pears,  plums, 
peaches,  grapes,  and  nectarines,  attain  the  highest  degree  of  per- 
fection there,  and  exceed  in  si/c,  beauty,  and  flavour,  those  raised 
in  any  other  part  of  the  province.  Cider  abounds  at  the  table  of 
the  meanest  peasant,  and  there  is  scarcely  a  farm  that  has  not 
a  fruitful  orchard  attached  to  it.  This  fineness  of  the  fruit  is  one 
consequence  of  the  amelioration  of  climate,  which  takes  place  in 
the  vicinity  of  the  Detroit  river  and  Lake  St.  Clair.  The  seasons 
there  are  much  milder  and  more  serene  than  they  are  a  few  hun- 
dred miles  below,  and  the  w  atlier  is  likewise  drier  and  less  variable. 
Comparatively  little  snow  falls  during  the  winter,  though  the  cold  is 
often  sufficiently  intense  to  freeze  over  the  Detroit  river  so  strongly, 
that  persons,  horses,  and  even  loaded  sleighs,  cross  it  with  ease  and 
safety.  In  summer  the  country  presents  a  forest  of  blossoms,  which 
exhale  the  most  delicious  odours  j  a  cloud  seldom  obscures  the  sky  } 
while  the  lakes  and  rivers,  which  extend  in  every  direction,  com- 
municate a  reviving  freshness  to  the  air,  and  moderate  the  warmth 
of  a  dazzling  suuj  and  the  clearness  and  elasticity  of  the  atmo- 
sphere render  it  equally  healthy  and  exhilarating. 

'*  About  twenty  miles  down  the  Detroit  river  stands  the  village  of 
Sandwich,  which  contains  thirty  or  forty  houses,  and  a  neat  church. 
Below  this  the  soil  becomes  rather  inferior  in  quality,  being  some- 
what cold  and  swampy.  The  settlement  is  likewise  partial  and 
circumscribed,  and  a  tract  of  land  six  miles  in  length,  which  belongs 
to  the  Huron  Indians,  does  not  contain  a  single  inhabitant.  A 
little  above  the  mouth  of  the  Detroit  river,  and  head  of  Lake  Erie, 
is  the  town  of  Amherstburgh,  which  forms  the  most  westerly  settle- 
ment in  the  Upper  Province.  The  population  of  this  place  amounts 
to  more  than  a  thousand  souls,  a  proportion  of  whom  are  merchants, 
who  derive  support  in  the  way  of  trade  from  the  farmers  residing 
upon  the  shores  of  Lake  Erie.  Many  of  the  inhabitants  of  Am- 
herstburgh are  persons  of  wealth  and  respectability,  and  the  circle 
which  they  collectively  compose  is  a  more  refined  and  agreeable  one 
than  is  to  be  met  with  in  any  other  village  in  the  province. 

"The  mouth  of  the  Detroit  river,  in  which  there  are  several 
islands,  forms  a  safe  and  commodious  harbour.  The  river  itself  is 
navigable  for  vessels  of  any  size ;  and  a  chain  of  water  communica- 
tion extends  westward,  without  interruption,  to  the  head  of  Lake 



SIR    ISAAC    nnocK. 

Superior,  which  is  more  than  a  thousand  niiles  distant  from  Lake 
Erie.  The  country  nortli-west  of  Amherstburu;h  being  entirely 
uninhabited,  except  by  tribes  of  wandering  Indians,  is  but  littii- 
known  ;  however,  it  wouhl  appear  that  many  parts  of  it  are  well 
adapted  for  agriculture." — Pages  I!)!)  to  202. 

I  1 

No.   II. 

"  This  chief  of  the  branch  of  the  once  great  tribe  of  the  Ilurons 
visited  England  sonic  time  ago.  I  afterwards  saw  him  in  Quebec, 
and  had  a  good  deal  of  conversation  with  him.  When  asked  what 
had  struck  him  most  of  all  that  he  had  seen  in  England,  he  replied, 
without  hesitation,  that  it  was  the  monument  erected  in  St.  Paul's 
to  the  memory  of  General  Brock.  It  seemed  to  have  impressed 
him  with  a  high  idea  of  the  considerate  beneficence  of  his  great 
father,  the  king  of  England,  that  he  not  only  had  remembered  the 
exploits  and  death  of  his  white  child,  who  had  fallen  beyond  the 
big  salt  lake,  but  that  he  had  even  deigned  to  record,  on  the  marble 
sepulchre,  the  sorrows  of  the  poor  Indian  weeping  over  his  chief 
untimely  slain." — Hon.  F.  F.  I)e  Itoos'  Travels  in  North  America, 
in  1826. 

No.   12. 

"To  Colonel  Brock,  of  the  49th,  who  commanded  at  the  fort, 
I  am  particularly  indebted  for  his  kindness  to  me  during  the  fort- 
night I  remained  at  Niagara.  Among  many  pleasant  days  which  I 
passed  with  him  and  his  brother  officers,  that  of  our  visit  to  the 
Tuscorora  Indians  was  not  the  least  interesting.  They  received  us 
in  all  their  ancient  costume  ;  the  young  men  exhibited  for  our 
amusement  in  the  race,  the  bat  game,  &c.,  while  the  old  and  the 
women  sat  in  groups  under  the  surrounding  trees,  and  the  picture 
altogether  was  as  beautiful  as  it  was  new  to  me." — Note  in  Moore's 
Epistles,  Odes,  SfC. 

"At  Queenston  the  battle  was  fought  in  which  General  Brock 
fell,  and  the  inhabitants  point  out  a  thorn  bush  at  the  bottom  of 
the  heights,  where  it  is  said  that  he  received  his  mortal  wound. 
His  career  was  a  short  but  a  brilliant  one ;  and  had  the  direction 
of  the  affairs  of  the  Upper  Province,  after  his  death,  been  charac- 
terized by  an  equal  degree  of  courage,  prudence,  and  humanity,  a 
very  different  series  of  subsequent  events  would  have  claimed  the 
attention  of  the  historian." — Duncans  Travels  in  the  United  States 
and  Canada,  in  1818  and  1819. 

h  ' 



from  Laki- 
ig  entirely 
i  but  little- 
it  arc  well 

he  Ilurons 
in  Quebec, 
isked  what 
he  replied, 
St.  Paul's 
'  his  great 
d)ered  the 
eyond  the 
;he  marble 
'  his  chief 
!  America, 

the  fort, 
the  fort- 
s  which  I 
sit  to  the 
ceived  us 
for  our 
1  and  the 
e  picture 
1  Moore  s 

al  Brock 
ottom  of 


nanity,  a 
med  the 
?d  States 

"('lose  to  the  spot  where  we  landed  in  Canada  there  stands  a 
monument  to  the  gallant  (ieneral  l»r(»ck,  who  was  killed  during 
the  battle  of  Qucenston,  in  the  act  (»f  repelling  an  invasion  of  tiiu 

frontier  by  the  Americans,  during  the  late  war The  view 

from  the  top  of  the  monument  extended  far  over  Lake  Ontario, 
and  showed  us  the  windings  of  the  Niagara,  through  the  low  and 
woody  country  which  hangs  like  a  rich  green  fringe  along  the 
southern  skirts  of  that  great  sheet  of  water." — Captain  Basil  I  lull's 
Travels  in  North  Amnrica,  in  1827  and  1828. 

Travelling  in  the  state  of  New  York,  the  author  observes  :  "'J'he 
late  Sir  Isaac  Brock  was,  by  some  accident,  mentioned.  The  canal 
agent  spoke  of  him  in  terms  of  great  respect,  as  the  best  com- 
mander the  British  had  ever  sent  to  Canada, — equally  regretted  on 
both  sides  of  the  St.  Lawrence 

"From  Niagara  Falls  we  proceeded  by  the  stage  first  to  Queer- 
ston,  (seven  miles,)  near  which  a  monument  has  been  erected  to 
the  memory  of  Sir  Lsaac  Brock,  from  the  top  of  which,  about  one 
hundred  and  twenty  feet  high,  there  is  a  noble  view  of  Lake 
Ontario  and  the  adjoining  country,  and  thence  to  the  villaj.  (if 
Newark,  (seven  miles,)  formerly  called  Fort  George,  on  the  Ni  \gar:! 
river." — Stuart's  Three  Years  in  America. 

"  Immediately  above  Queenston  stands  Brock's  monument,  on 
the  heights  where  the  battle  was  fought  in  which  that  hero  was 
killed.  His  body  was  removed  to  it  from  Fort  George  in  1824. 
The  view  from  tliis  fine  column  is  probably  the  most  beautiful  in 
Upper  Canada. — M'Gregors  British  America,  Vol.  II. 

"Seven  miles  south  of  Fort  George,  and  at  the  foot  of  the 
romantic  heights  of  the  same  name,  which  have  become  famous  in 
Canadian  history  as  the  scene  of  a  battle  when  "n  General  Brock 
fell,  is  the  village  of  Queenston,  pleasantly  situaiv  '.I  v  xi  the  Niagara, 
and  opposite  to  the  American  village  of  Lewiston.  The  monument, 
built  to  the  memory  of  the  gallant  general  and  his  companions,  on 
the  loftiest  part  of  these  heights,  forms  a  prominent  object  to  the 
numerous  voyageurs  who  are  constantly  arriving  at  this  portage,  in 
elegantly  fitted  up  steam  boats,  from  York  and  Kingston,  to  view 
the  neighbouring  falls  of  the  Niagara.  The  village  contains  a 
church,  court  house,  large  government  stores,  and  a  population  of 
between  four  hundred  and  five  hundred  inhabitants." — The  Canadas, 
by  Andrew  Picken. 



I.    I 



i  ! 



»i    • 

No.  13. 

"Leaving  a  garrison  in  Detroit  sufficiently  strong  to  keep  the 
inhabitants  in  awe.  General  Brock  lost  no  time  in  leaving  the  con- 
quered post  and  hastening  to  Niagara, — a  command  he  had  only 
relinquished  for  the  purpose  of  undertaking  an  achievement  which 
the  gallantry  and  determination  of  his  character  could  alone  have 
Crowned  with  such  unqualified  success 

"The  month  of  October  was  marked  by  an  event  of  the  most 
melancholy  nature, — the  death  of  General  Brock,  who  fell  a  victim 

to  the  intrepidity  and  daring  of  his  character The  loss  of 

their  leader,  however,  cast  a  gloom  over  every  English  brow,  and 
an  advantage  thus  purchased  was  deemed  at  too  high  a  price. 
General  Brock  was  beloved  by  the  soldiery,  particularly  the  49th, 
of  which  he  had  long  been  lieutenant-colonel,  and  the  indignation 
of  their  grief  for  his  loss  cost  the  Americans  many  a  life  on  that 
day,  that  had  otherwise  been  spared.  At  Amherstburg,  the  account 
of  his  death  was  received  with  heartfelt  concern,  and  not  a  man 
was  there  of  those  he  had  lately  led  to  victory  who  failed  to  pay 
that  tribute  to  his  memory,  which  the  gallantry  and  magnanimity 
of  this  glorious  chief  were  so  every  way  calculated  to  awaken  in 
the  breast  of  the  soldier." — 'A  Canadian  Campaign,'  by  a  British 
Officer,  in  the  New  Monthly  Magazine  for  December,  1826,  and 
February,  1827. 

No.  14. 

"  Immediately  opposite  the  town  of  Prescott,  on  the  shore  of  the 
United  States,  is  the  town  of  Ogdensburg ;  and  twelve  miles 
higher  up,  on  the  Canadian  shore,  stands  the  delightful  village  of 
Brockville,  so  called  in  honor  of  the  late  lamented  Sir  Isaac  Brock. 
This  enchanting  little  spot  unites  in  its  situation  every  beauty  of 
nature.  In  front  of  it  flows  the  river  St.  Lawrence,  interspersed 
with  numerous  islands,  variously  formed  and  thickly  wooded ; 
behind  it  is  an  assemblage  of  small  hills,  rising  one  above  another 
in  'gay  theatric  pride;'  and  on  each  side  are  a  number  of  well 
cleared  farms,  in  an  advanced  state  of  cultivation.  Every  thing 
combines  to  render  it  pre-eminently  beautiful.  The  dwellings  are 
built  of  wood,  and  tastefully  painted ;  and  the  court  house,  in  an 
elevated  situation  at  the  back  of  the  village,  seems,  from  its  superior 
size,  to  be  the  guardian  of  the  villagers, — an  idea  of  my  fancy, 
which  I  did  not  seek  to  confirm  by  entering  within  its  doors. 
Brockville  contains  four  hundred  and  fifty  souls.      It  has  a  par- 

W  i 



keep  the 
J  the  con- 
had  only 
jnt  which 
lone  have 

the  most 
1  a  victim 
he  loss  of 
row,  and 
a  price, 
the  49th, 
i  on  that 
e  account 
ot  a  man 
d  to  pay 
vaken  in 
a  British 
i26,   and 

re  of  the 

ve  miles 

illage  of 

3  Brock. 

eauty  of 


/^ooded  J 


of  well 


ngs  are 

in  an 



a  par- 

sonage house,  but  no  church  has  hitherto  been  erected." — Five 
Years  in  Canada,  by  E.  A.  Talbot. 

Note. — Brockville  was  originally  named  Elizabpth  Town  in  compliniont 
to  the  general's  mother,  and  the  township  or  county,  in  which  the  village 
is  situated,  is  still  called  Elizabeth. — Ed. 

No.    15. 
Extract  from  a  Description  of  St.  Pauls  Cathedral. 

"  In  the  western  ambulatory  of  the  south  transept  is  a  tabular 
monument  to  the  memory  of  Sir  Isaac  Brock,  by  the  same  artist 

"  A  military  monument,  on  which  are  placed  the  sword  and 
helmet  of  the  deceased ;  a  votive  record,  supposed  to  have  been 
raised  by  his  companions  to  their  honored  commander. 

"  His  corpse  reclines  in  the  arms  of  a  British  soldier,  whilst  an 
Indian  pays  the  tribute  of  regret  his  bravery  and  humanity  elicited. 






ON  THE    13th   OF  OCTOBER, 






No.   16. 

"Anniversary  of  the  Battle  of  Queenston,  and  the  Re-interment  of 
the  late  much -lamented  Major- General  Sir  Isaac  Brock. 

"  There  is  something  so  grand  and  imposing  in  the  spectacle  of  a 
nation's  homage  to  departed  worth,  which  calls  for  the  exercise  of 
so  many  interesting  feelings,  and  which  awakens  so  many  sublime 
contemplations,  that  we  naturally  seek  to  perpetuate  the  memory 
of  an  event  so  pregnant  with  instruction,  and  so  honorable  to  our 
species.  It  is  a  subject  that  in  other  and  in  older  countries  has 
frequently  exercised  the  pens,  and  has  called  forth  all  the  descriptive 
powers  of  the  ablest  writers.*     But  here  it  is  new ;  and  for  the  first 

*  It  is  impossihlc  here  to  forget  (however  different  were  the  circumstances 
and  character  of  the  two  warriors)  that  fine  passage  by  the  splendid  historian 

1    '/ 

!    1 

r  } 




i 'I 


I    I 

I!      i 

5!  ' 








time,  since  we  became  a  separate  province,  have  we  seen  a  great 
public  funeral  procession  of  all  ranks  of  people,  to  the  amount  of 
several  thousands,  bearing  the  remains  of  two  lamented  heroes  to 
their  last  dwelling  on  earth,  in  the  vaults  of  a  grand  national 
monument,  overtopping  the  loftiest  heights  of  the  most  magnificent 
section  of  one  of  the  most  magnificent  countries  in  the  world. 

"The  13th  of  October,  being  the  anniversary  of  the  battle  of 
Queenston,  and  of  the  death  of  Brock,  was  judiciously  chosen  as 
the  most  proper  day  for  the  removal  of  the  remains  of  the  general, 
together  with  those  of  his  gallant  aid-de-camp,  Lieutenant-Colonel 
M'Donell,  to  the  vaults  prepared  for  their  reception  on  Queenston 
heights,  t 

"  The  weather  was  remarkably  fine,  and  before  ten  o'clock  a  very 
large  concourse  of  people,  from  all  parts  of  the  country,  had 
assembled  on  the  plains  of  Niagara,  in  front  of  Fort  George,  in  a 
bastion  of  which  the  bodies  had  been  deposited  for  twelve  years.  X 

"  One  hearse,  covered  with  black  cloth,  and  drawn  by  four  black 
horses,  each  with  a  leader,  contained  both  the  bodies.  Soon  after 
ten,  a  lane  was  formed  by  the  1st  and  4th  regiments  of  Lincoln 
militia,  with  their  right  on  the  gate  of  Fort  George,  and  their 
left  extending  along  the  road  towards  Queenston,  the  ranks  being 
about  forty  paces  distant  from  each  other  :  within  this  line  was 
formed  a  guard  of  honor  of  the  76th  regiment,  in  parade  order, 
having  its  left  on  the  fort.  As  the  hearse  moved  slowly  from  the 
fort,  to  the  sound  of  solemn  music,  a  detachment  of  royal  artillery 
began  to  fire  the  salute  of  nineteen  guns,  and  the  guard  of  honor 
presented  arms. 

"On  moving  forwards  in  ordinary  time,  the  guard  of  honor 

of  Rome,  wherein  he  iiniiiortulizes  the  deatli  and  funeral  of  the  ferocious 
Attila,  in  lan<^ua^'e  at  once  musical  and  sublime,  and  which  is  probably 
without  an  equal  in  the  whole  range  of  English  literature:  "His  body  was 
solemnly  exposed  in  the  midst  of  the  plain,  under  a  silken  pavilion;  and  the 
chosen  squadrons  of  the  Huns,  wheeling  round  in  measured  evolutions, 
chaunted  a  funeral  song  to  the  memory  of  a  hero,  glorious  in  his  life,  invinci- 
ble in  his  death,  the  fa'ier  of  his  people,  the  scourge  of  his  enemies,  and  the 
terror  of  the  world." 

t  The  monument  itself  is  not  yet  finished ;  we  shall  therefore  defer  our 
description  of  the  edifice  until  it  is  completed. 

t  It  is  remarkable  that,  on  inspecting  the  remains,  the  body  of  Colonel 
M*Donell  was  found  to  be  almost  entirely  decomposed,— whilst  that  of  the 
general  was  still  fiini  and  nearly  entire ;  some  of  the  flesh  and  lineaments  of 
his  martial  countenance  being  yet  visible. 



*  Vf 


en  a  great 
imount  of 

heroes  to 
I  national 

battle  of 
chosen  as 
e  general, 

)ck  a  very 
ntry,  had 
orge,  in  a 

years.  I 
four  black 
^oon  after 
f  Lincoln 
and  their 
nks  being 

line  was 
de  order, 

Tom  the 

of  honor 

of  honor 



body  was 

;  and  the 


e,  invinci- 

s,  and  tlie 

defer  our 

f  Colonel 
lat  of  the 
anients  of 

broke  into  a  column  of  eight  divisions,  with  the  right  in  front,  and 
the  procession  took  the  following  order  :  — 

\  Staff  Officer. 

i  i',1>''jvision  of  Grenadiers'. 

Band  of  Music. 

Riglit  Wing-  of  7(jtli  Regiment. 


Aid-de-Camp  to  the  late  Major-General  Sir  Isaac  Brock. 

Chief  Mourners. 

Relatives  of  the  late  Colonel  M'Donelf.. 

Commissioners  for  the  Monument. 

Heads  of  Public  Departments  of  the  Civil  tJovernment. 


Members  of  the  Executive  Council. 

His  Excellency  and  Suite. 

Left  Wing  of  the  7(>th  Regiment. 

Indian  Chiefs  of  the  Five  Nations. 

Officers  of  Militia  not  on  duty — junior  ranks — First  forwsxvd, 

Four  deep. 

Magistrates  and  Civilians, 

With  a  long  Cavalcade  of  Horsemen,  and  Carriages  of  every 


"As  the  procession  passed  along  the  lane  of  militia,  the  latter 
wheeled  inwards  by  subdivisions  in  succession,  as  soon  as  its  own 
front  was  clear,  and  followed  the  procession.  At  a  certain  distance 
from  Fort  George  the  quick  march  was  taken  up,  and  arms  were 
sloped ;  the  members  of  the  procession  then  took  their  carriages, 
preserving  as  nearly  as  possible  the  order  above  mentioned,  and  the 
whole  proceeded  on  the  road  to  Queenston.  The  2d  and  3d  regi- 
ments of  Lincoln  militia,  in  like  manner,  formed  a  lane,  its  left 
resting  on  the  heights,  near  the  entrance  to  the  monument,  and 
extending  along  the  road  towards  the  village  of  Queenston.  On 
reaching  the  commencement  of  this  lane,  the  procession  resumed  its 
formation,  all  horses,  carriages,  &c.,  keeping  in  the  rear ;  and  when 
the  head  of  the  column  approached  the  monument,  it  inclined  to 
the  right,  to  allow  the  body  to  proceed  direct  to  the  entrance.  The 
guard  of  honor  then  halted  and  formed  in  parade  order ;  the  2d 
and  3d  Lincoln  regiments  following  the  procession  in  like  manner 
as  the  1st  and  4th. 

"The  time  occupied  in  moving  from  the  fort  to  Queenston,  a 
distance  of  nearly  seven  miles,  was  about  three  hours,  including 
stoppages,  lieing  arrived  opposite  the  spot  where  the  lamented 
hero  received  liis  mortal  wound,  the  whole  procession  halted,  and 
remained  for  a  few  minutes  in  solemn  pause.     It  then  ascended  the 

!  I 

\    It 

M  i 






,  'Pi 




heights,  and  to  the  spectator  who  had  his  station  on  the  summit 
near  the  monument,  nothing  could  be  finer  than  the  effect  of  the 
lengthened  column  winding  slowly  up  the  steep  ascent  in  regular 
order,  surrounded  by  scenery  no  where  surpassed  for  romantic 
beauty.  On  the  bodies  being  removed  from  the  hearse  and  depo- 
sited in  the  vault,  the  guard  of  honor  presented  arms,  whilst  the 
artillery,  (which  had  been  taken  from  the  enemy  daring  the  last 
war,)  posted  on  the  heights,  fired  a  salute  of  nineteen  guns.  The 
troops  then  marched  in  ordinary  time  round  the  monument,  and 
immediately  separated  to  their  respective  parades. 

"All  those  who  were  inclined  to  visit  the  interior  of  the  vault 
were  then  permitted  to  enter  in  small  parties.  The  remains  of  the 
brave  M'Donell  lie  to  the  left  of  those  of  the  general.  On  the 
general's  coffin,  which  is  otherwise  quite  plain  and  covered  with 
black  cloth,  are  two  oval  plates  of  silver,  each  six  inches  ^y  four, 
one  above  the  other.     On  the  first  is  the  following  inscription  : — 

Here  lie  the  earthly  remains  of  a  brave 

and  virtuous  hero, 

Major-General  Sir  Isaac  Brock, 

Commander  of  the  British  Forces, 

and  President  administeriag 

the  Government  of  Upper  Canada, 

who  fell  when  gloriously  engaging  the  enemies 

of  his  country, 

at  the  head  of  the  Flank  Companies 

of  the  49th  Regiment, 

in  the  town  of  Queenston, 

on  the  morninr'  of  the  13th  of  October,  1812, 

Aged  42  years. 

J.  B.  GLEGG,  A.  D.  C. 

And  on  the  second  plate  the  following  additional  inscription  is 

"  ■  The  remains  of  the  late 

Major-Oeneral  Sir  Isaac  Brock,  K.  B. 

removed  from  Fort  George  to  this  vault, 

on  the  13th  of  October,  1824. 

Upon  a  similar  plate,  on  the  lid  of  the  aid-de-camp's  coffin,  was 

°  ■  The  remains  of 

Lieut.-Col.  John  M'Donell, 

Provincial  Aid-de-Camp  to  the  late 

Major -General  Brock, 

who  died  on  the  14th  of  October,  1812, 

of  wounds  received  in  action  the  day  before, 

Aged  25  years. 



"  Several  printed  papers,  having  the  following  extract  from  the 
government  dispatches  of  the  day,  were  handed  about : 

[See  dispatch  from  Earl  Bathurst  to  Sir  George  Prevost, 
pp.  21,  22.— Ed.] 

"  Besides  which,  on  large  placards,  to  the  number  of  several  hun- 
dreds, copies  of  the  inscription  to  be  placed  on  the  tablet,  over  the 
entrance  of  the  monument,  were  distributed  amongst  the  assembled 
multitudes,  and  which  is  as  follows  : — 

"The  Legislature  of  Upper  Canada  has  dedicated  this  Monument  to  llio 
very  eminent  civil  and  military  services  of  the  late  Sir  Isaac  Brock,  Knight 
of  the  Most  Hon.  Order  of  the  Bath,  Provisional  Lieutenant-Governor,  and 
Mtyor-General  commanding  the  Forces  in  this  Province,  whose  remains  are 
deposited  in  the  vault  beneath.  Having  expelled  the  North  Western  Army 
of  the  United  States,  achieved  its  capture,  received  the  surrender  of  Fort 
Detroit,  and  the  territory  of  Michigan,  under  circumstances  which  have 
rendered  his  name  illustrious,  he  returned  to  the  protection  of  this  frontier  ; 
and  advancing  with  his  small  force  to  repel  a  second  invasion  of  the  enemy, 
then  in  possession  of  these  heights ;  he  fell  in  action,  on  the  13th  of  Octo- 
ber, 1812,  in  the  forty-third  year  of  his  age,  honoured  and  beloved  by  the 
people  whom  he  governed,  and  deplored  by  his  Sovereign,  to  whose  service 
his  life  had  been  devoted." 

I  '/ 



('  i 


"By  the  best  computation  we  could  make,  and  avoiding  all 
exaggeration,  at  the  time  the  procession  reached  the  monument 
there  could  not  be  leas  than  five  thousand  persons  present,  many  of 
whom  were  from  the  United  States.  General  Brock,  indeed,  was  a 
man  no  less  esteemed  by  the  enemy  than  he  was  admired  and 
almost  adored  by  his  friends  and  soldiery ;  and  we  heard  several 
Americans  say,  who  had  served  against  him  and  saw  him  fall,  that 
they  lamented  his  death  as  much  as  they  would  have  done  that  of 
any  of  their  own  generals,  on  account  of  his  humanity,  and  the 
great  attention  he  had  uniformly  shewn  to  his  prisoners. 

"  His  excellency  the  lieutenant-governor  (Major- General  Sir 
Peregrine  Maitland,  K.  C.  B.)  was  in  full  dress,  and,  we  are  happy 
to  say,  appeared  in  good  health  after  his  late  fatiguing  journey  of 
inspection  to  the  Lower  Province.  The  two  M'Donells  and  Captain 
Dickinson,  of  the  2d  Glengarry  regiment,  relatives  of  the  deceased 
Lieut. -Colonel  M'Donell,  in  the  highland  costume,  appeared  in  the 
procession  to  great  advantage,  and  seemed  to  excite  much  attention. 

"  But,  amongst  the  assembled  warriors  and  civilians,  none  excited 
a  more  lively  interest  than  the  chiefs  of  tlie  Indian  nations  from 
the  Grand  River,  whose  warlike  appearance,  intrepid  aspect,  pic- 


t  i, 




tnresque  dress  and  ornaments,  and  majestic  demeanour,  accorded 
well  with  the  solemn  pomp  and  general  character  of  a  military  pro- 
cession— amongst  these,  young  Brant,  Bears  Foot,  and  Henry,  were 
distinguished.  In  our  mind  we  never  saw  a  dress  more  elegant  of  its 
kind,  and  fit  for  active  service  in  the  woods,  than  that  worn  by  young 
IJrant,  who,  with  his  tomahawk  in  hand,  was  a  perfect  resemblance 
of  all  that  could  be  imagined  of  the  accomplished  Indian  warrior. 

"  Amongst  the  numerous  gentlemen  in  the  procession,  we  ob- 
served that  old  veteran,  Lieutenant  M'Dougall,  of  his  Majesty's  8th, 
or  king's  regiment,  who,  like  a  brave  and  loyal  man,  came  from 
Sandwich  to  attend  the  re-interment." — Upper  Canada  Gazette, 
October,  1824. 


No.   1. 

Extracts  from  Niks'  Weekly  Register,  Baltimore,  1812. 

"  Extract  of  a  letter  fi'om  a  gentleman  at  Detroit  to  his  friend  in 
Pittsburg,  dated  July  7,  1812. —  'General  Hull  is  making  prepara- 
tions to  cross  the  river  this  evening  or  to-morrow,  and  it  is  expected 
that  an  immediate  attack  is  contemplated  on  Maiden  (Amherst- 
burg) .  The  works  of  that  place  are  not  very  strong,  but  they  are 
well  defended  with  artillery,  having,  I  am  told,  forty  pieces  mounted 
and  above  two  hundred  regulars,  with  all  the  militia  they  can 
collect,  the  number  not  known :  there  is  no  doubt  but  there  will 
be  hard  fighting  before  the  place  is  taken.  The  army  are  all  in 
health  and  good  spirits,  and  wait  with  a:  \iety  to  be  put  on  the 
other  shore  :    they  are  certainly  as  fine  looking  men  as  ever  I  saw.' 

"We  have  several  reports  of  the  capture  of  Fort  INIalden,  or 
Amherstburg.  General  Hull  has  sent  expresses  to  the  governor  of 
Ohio  and  Kentucky  for  further  supplies  of  troops,  supposed  for  the 
purpose  of  maintaining  the  ground  he  may  take,  and  to  keep  the 
allies  in  check.  We  trust  he  may  religiously  adhere  to  his  procla- 
mation, whatever  General  Brock  may  say,  and  give  no  quarters  to 
the  white  savages  when  found  fighting  by  the  side  of  the  Indians, 
for  whose  extensive  murders,  on  so  many  parts  of  our  frontier,  the 
British  should  be  made  responsible. 

"September  f). — We  have  this  week  to  announce  a  signal  cala- 
mity,— General  Hull,  with  the  whole  north  western  army,  consisting 



1  ;■)!) 

\     < 

of  two  thousand  five  hundred  men,  witli  twenty-five  j)ie('es  of 
cannon,  has  surrendered  ta  the  Hritish  and  Indians,  conunanded 
by  Major-Generul  lirock,  idthout  a  buttle, — without  any  apparent 
effort  to  maintain  the  honor  of  his  country. 

"As  yet  this  lamentable  transaction  is  involved  in  mystery. 
Our  army  appears  to  have  been  well  supplied  with  all  sorts  of 
stores, — to  have  had  an  abundance  of  provisions,  with  every  muni- 
tion of  war, — and  the  liritish  force  (without  taking  into  view  the 
advantages  that  might  have  been  expected  from  the  strong  fortifi- 
cations at  Detroit)  seems  inferior  in  point  of  numbers  to  the  troops 
under  General  Hidl.  We  are  lost  in  astonishment  on  reflecting  on 
this  disaster, — how  it  has  been  brought  about  is  yet  incomprehen- 
sible ;  a  strange  misfortune,  mighty  error,  or  horrid  treason  has 
befallen  us  ;  but  as  we  are  uninformed  of  the  particulars,  it  is  right 
to  suspend  our  opinion  until  the  facts  shall  appear,  all  of  which 
shall  be  carefully  recorded. 

"  The  western  papers,  and  private  letters  from  that  quarter, 
abound  with  the  severest  animadversions  on  General  Hull, — charg- 
ing him  with  incompetency,  or  insinuating  something  worse.  This 
is  also  surprising,  for  few  men  ever  entered  upon  a  command  with 
greater  popularity  than  that  gentleman. 

"  Extracts  of  a  letter  from  Colonel  Lewis  Cass,  3d  regiment  Ohio 
volunteers,  to  the  Honorable  William  Eustis,  secretary  of  war, 
dated  Washington,  September  10,  1812. —  'Sir,  having  been  or- 
dered on  to  this  place  by  Colonel  M'Arthur,  for  the  purpose  of 
communicating  to  the  government  such  particulars  respecting  the 
expedition  lately  commanded  by  Brigadier-General  Hull,  and  its 
disastrous  result,  as  might  enable  them  correctly  to  appreciate  the 
conduct  of  the  officers  and  men,  and  to  develope  the  causes  which 
produced  so  foul  a  stain  upon  the  national  character,  I  have  the 
honor  to  submit  for  your  consideration  the  following  statement : — 

" '  When  the  forces  landed  in  Canada,  they  landed  with  an 
ardent  zeal  and  stimulated  with  the  hope  of  conquest.  No  enemy 
appeared  within  view  of  us ;  and  had  an  immediate  and  vigorous 
attack  been  made  upon  Maiden,  it  would  doubtless  have  fallen  an 

easy  victory The  plan  of  attacking  Maiden  was  abandoned, 

and  instead  of  acting  offensively  we  broke  up  our  camp,  evacuated 
Canada,  and  re-crossed  the  river  in  the  night,  without  even  the 
shadow  of  an  enemy  to  injure  us.  We  left  to  the  tender  mercy  of 
the  enemy  the  miserable  Canadians  who  had  joined  us,  and  the 
protection  we  afforded  them  was  but  a  passport  to  vengeance 

I  GO 




On  the  13th  (August)  the  British  took  up  a  position  oj)posite  to 
Detroit,  and  began  to  throw  up  works.  During  that  and  the  two 
following  days,  they  pursued  their  object  without  interruption,  and 
established  a  battery  for  two  eighteen  pounders  and  an  eight-inch 
howitzer.  About  sunset  on  the  14th,  a  detachment  of  three  hun- 
dred and  fifty  men,  from  the  regiments  commanded  by  Colonel 
M'Arthur  and  myself,  was  ordered  to  march  to  the  river  Raisin,  to 
escort  the  provisions  which  had  some  time  remained  there,  pro- 
tected by  a  party  under  the  command  of  Captain  Brush. 

'"On  Saturday  the  l.'ith,  about  one  o'clock,  a  flag  of  truce 
arrived  from  Sandwich,  bearing  a  summons  from  General  Brock 
for  the  surrender  of  the  town  and  fort  of  Detroit,  stating  he  could 
no  longer  restrain  the  fury  of  the  savages.  To  this  an  immediate 
and  spirited  refusal  was  returned.  About  four  o'clock  their  batteries 
began  to  play  upon  the  town.'  The  fire  was  returned,  and  conti- 
nued without  interruption,  and  with  little  effect,  till  dark.  Their 
shells  were  thrown  till  eleven  o'clock. 

"  '  At  daylight  the  firing  on  both  sides  recommenced ;  about  the 
same  time  the  enemy  began  to  land  troops  at  the  Springwells,  three 
miles  below  Detroit,  protected  by  two  of  their  armed  vessels. 
Between  six  and  seven  o'clock  they  had  effected  their  landing,  and 
immediately  took  up  their  line  of  march.  They  moved  in  a  close 
column  of  platoons,  twelve  in  front,  upon  the  bank  of  the  river. 

"  *  The  4th  regiment  was  stationed  in  the  fort ;  the  Ohio  volun- 
teers and  a  part  of  the  Michigan  militia  behind  some  pickets,  in  a 
situation  in  which  the  whole  flank  of  the  enemy  would  have  been 
exposed.  The  residue  of  the  Michigan  militia  were  in  the  upper 
part  of  the  town,  to  resist  the  incursions  of  the  savages.  Two 
twenty-four  pounders,  loaded  with  grape  shot,  were  posted  on  a 
commanding  eminence,  ready  to  sweep  the  advancing  column.  In 
this  situation  the  superiority  of  our  position  was  apparent,  and  our 
troops,  in  the  eager  expectation  of  victory,  awaited  the  approach 

of  the  enemy When  the  head  of  their  column   arrived 

within  about  five  hundred  yards  of  our  line,  orders  were  received 
from  General  Hull  for  the  whole  to  retreat  to  the  fort,  and  for  the 
twenty-four  pounders  not  to  open  on  the  enemy.  One  universal 
burst  of  indignation  was  apparent  upon  the  receipt  of  this  order. 
Those,  whose  conviction  was  the  deliberate  result  of  a  dispassionate 
examination  of  passing  events,  saw  the  folly  and  impropriety  of 
crowding  eleven  hundred  men  into  a  little  work,  which  three  hun- 
dred could  fully  man,  and  into  which  the  shot  and  shells  of  the 



enemy  were  falling.  The  fort  was  in  this  manner  filled  ;  the  men 
were  directed  to  stack  their  arms,  and  scarcely  was  an  opportunity 
aftbrded  of  moving.     Shortly  after  a  white  flag  was  hung  out  upon 

the  walls.     A  British  officer  rode  up  to  inquire  the  cause 

Our  morning  report  had  that  morning  made  our  effective  men, 
present  fit  for  duty,  ten  hundred  and  sixty,  without  including  the 
detachment  before  alluded  to,  and  without  including  three  hundred 
of  the  Michigan  militia  on  duty.  About  dark  on  Saturday  evening, 
the  detachment,  sent  to  escort  the  provisions,  received  orders  from 
General  Hull  to  return  with  as  much  expedition  as  possible.  About 
ten  o'clock  the  next  day  they  afiived  within  sight  of  Detroit.  Had 
a  firing  been  heard,  or  any  resistance  visible,  they  would  have  im- 
mediately advanced  and  attacked  the  rear  of  the  enemy.  The 
situation  in  which  this  detachment  was  placed,  although  the  result 
of  accident,  was  the  best  for  annoying  the  enemy,  and  cutting  off 
his  retreat,  that  could  have  been  selected.  With  his  raw  troops 
enclosed  between  two  fires,  and  no  hopes  of  succour,  it  is  hazarding 
little  to  say  that  very  few  would  have  escaped. 

**  *  I  have  been  informed  by  Colonel  Findley,  who  saw  the  return 
of  the  quartermaster-general  the  day  after  the  surrender,  that  their 
whole  force,  of  every  description,  white,  red,  and  black,  was  ten 
hundred  and  thirty.  They  had  twenty-nine  platoons,  twelve  in  a 
platoon,  of  men  dressed  in  uniform.  Many  of  these  were  evidently 
Canadian  militia.  The  rest  of  their  militia  increased  their  white 
force  to  about  seven  hundred.  The  number  of  Indians  could  not 
'e  ascertained  with  any  degree  of  precision, — not  many  were 
visible.  And  in  the  event  of  an  attack  upon  the  town  and  fort,  it 
was  a  species  of  force  which  could  have  afforded  no  material  ad- 
vantage to  the  enemy That  we  were  far  superior  to  the 

enemy,  that  upon  any  ordinary  principles  of  calculation  we  would 
have  defeated  them,  the  wounded  and  indignant  feelings  of  every 

man  there  will  testify I  was  informed  by  General  Hull,  the 

morning  after  the  capitulation,  that  the  British  forces  consisted  of 
eighteen  hundred  regulars,  and  that  he  surrendered  to  prevent  the 
effusion  of  human  blood.  That  he  magnified  their  regular  force 
nearly  five-fold,  there  can  be  no  doubt.  ^Vhether  the  philanthropic 
reason  assigned  by  him  is  a  sufficient  justification  for  surrendering 
a  fortified  town,  an  army,  and  a  territory,  is  for  the  government  to 
determine.  Confident  I  am,  that  had  the  courage  and  conduct  of 
the  general  been  equal  to  the  spirit  and  zeal  of  the  troops,  the 

■  I 

i     > 

.i,  i 

;,  i 




i  1 

event,  would  have  been  brilliant  and  successful  as  it  is  now  disas- 
trous and  dishonorable.     I  have  the  honor  to  be,'  C<c. 

NoTii. — The  oiifirc  British  fore  was  ahont  thirtpi;ii  himdriMl  and  lliirty 
nipn.  (Sec  pn^t!  11.)  folmiel  Ciiss  spcaivs  only  of  tlie  American  tjf'irfirr 
force  ;  the  numerical  force  was  about  two  thousand  five  hundred  men.— lii). 

"  RKPOBT    OF    THE    BATTLE    OF    (JUKKNSTOWN." (ExtraCtS.) 

"  Captain  Wool  discovered  the  British  troops  fornning  at  Queens- 
town,  and  formed  the  troops  under  his  command  in  line.  General 
IJrock  was  at  the  head  of  the  British  troops,  and  led  them  round 
about  to  the  heights  in  the  rear  of  the  battery.  Captain  Wool 
detached  one  hundred  and  sixty  men  to  meet  the  British ;  this 
detachment  was  driven  back,  reinforced,  and  the  whole  driven  to 
the  brink  of  the  precipice,  forming  the  bank  of  the  Niagara  river, 
above  Queenstown. 

"  At  this  moment  some  of  the  officers  put  a  white  handkerchief 
on  a  bayonet  to  hoist  as  a  flag,  with  intention  to  surrender.  Cap- 
tain AVool  inquired  the  object.  It  was  answered  that  the  party 
were  nearly  without  ammunition,  and  that  it  was  useless  to  sacrifice 
the  lives  of  brave  men.  Captain  Wool  tore  off  the  flag,  ordered 
the  officers  to  rally  the  men,  and  bring  them  to  the  charge.  The 
order  was  executed,  but  in  some  confusion.  The  boasted  49th 
could  not  stand  the  American  bayonet.  The  British  troops  were 
routed,  and  Major-General  Brock,  in  gallantly  exerting  himself  to 
rally  them,  was  killed.  His  aid.  Colonel  M'Donell,  fell  mortally 
wounded  at  the  same  time. 

"  The  British  being  completely  driven  from  the  heights  about  ten 
o'clock,  the  line  was  reformed  and  flanking  parties  sent  out." 

No.  2. 

"  Revolutionary  Services  of  General  Hull,  as  taken  from  his  Defence 
before  the  Court  Martial,  in  March,  1814. —  (Seepage  14.) 

"  For  more  than  half  a  century  I  supported  a  character  without 
reproach.  My  youth  was  devoted  to  the  service  of  my  country; 
I  fought  her  battles  in  that  war  which  achieved  her  liberty  and 
independence,  and  which  was  ended  before  many  of  you,  gentlemen, 
who  are  my  judges,  were  born.  If  upon  any  occasion  a  man  may 
speak  of  his  own  merits,  it  is  at  such  a  time  as  this  ;  and  I  hope  I 
may  be  permitted  to  present  to  you,  in  very  few  words,  a  narration 
of  my  life,  while  I  was  engaged  in  scenes  which  were  calculated  to 

i)W  (lisiis- 

iirnl  fliirly 
III  cff'ictb'r 
iini. —  111). 


t  Queens- 
jm  round 
lin  Wool 
ish ;  this 
driven  to 
ara  river, 

;r.  Cap- 
the  party 
»  sacrifice 
,  ordered 
ge.  The 
ted  49th 
ops  were 
imself  to 

bout  ten 



ountry ; 
Tty  and 
lan  may 
'.  hope  I 
lated  to 



prove  a  man's  firmness  and  courage.  I  shall  do  it  with  less 
reluctance,  because  the  testimony  I  have  offered  of  the  venerable 
men  who  served  with  me  in  the  revolutionary  war,  will  vouch  for 
all  I  have  to  say.  In  the  year  1"7.'>,  at  the  age  of  about  twenty- 
one  years,  I  was  appointed  a  captain  in  one  of  the  Connecticut 
regiments  ;  during  that  campaign,  and  until  INIarch,  I  /  7(i,  when 
the  enemy  evacuated  Boston,  I  served  with  the  army  at  Cambridge 
and  Roxbury,  and  in  the  immediate  commatul  of  (Jeneral  Wash- 
ington. I  was  with  that  part  of  the  army,  in  March,  I77'>,  which 
took  possession  of  Dorchester  heights  ;  the  movement  which  com- 
pelled the  enemy  to  evacuate  Boston.  The  next  duv ,  the  regiment 
to  which  I  belonged  marched  for  New  York.  I  was  on  Long 
Island  when  the  enemy  landed,  and  remained  until  the  night  the 
whole  army  retreated.  I  was  in  several  small  skirmishes,  both  on 
Long  Island  and  York  Island,  before  the  army  retired  to  the  White 
Plains.  I  then  belonged  to  Colonel  Charles  Webb's  regiment,  of 

"  This  regiment  was  in  the  severest  part  of  the  action  on  Chat- 
terdon's  Hill,  a  little  advanced  of  the  White  Plains,  a  k\\  days 
after  the  main  body  of  the  army  abandoned  New  York.  This 
battle  is  memorable  in  the  history  of  our  country,  and  the  regiment 
to  which  I  belonged  received  the  particular  thanks  of  General 
Washington,  in  his  public  orders,  for  its  braTcry  and  good  conduct 
on  the  occasion.  It  was  particularly  distinguished  from  all  the 
other  troops  engaged  in  the  action.  I  received  a  slight  wound  by 
a  musket  ball  in  my  side,  but  it  did  not  prevent  me  from  remaining 
at  the  head  of  my  company. 

"  I  was  in  the  battle  of  Trenton,  when  the  Hessians  were  taken 
in  December,  177C,  and  being  one  of  the  youngest  captains  in  the 
army,  was  promoted  by  General  Washington  the  day  after  the 
battle,  to  a  majority,  for  my  coiuluct  on  that  occasion.  The  1st  of 
January,  1777,  I  was  in  the  battle  of  Princeton.  In  the  campaign 
of  the  same  year,  the  regiment  to  which  I  belonged  served  in  the 
northern  army.  I  was  early  in  the  spring  ordered  to  Ticonderoga, 
and  commanded  the  regiment  (being  the  senior  officer  present) 
under  General  St.  Clair,  and  I  was  with  that  officer  in  his  retreat 
from  that  post. 

"  After  General  St.  Clair's  army  formed  a  junction  with  General 
Schuyler's  army  on  the  North  River,  at  Fort  Edward,  the  regiment 
to  which  I  belonged  was  detached,  and  marched  to  Fort  Schuyler, 
and  relieved  that  post,  which  was  besieged  by  General  St.  Leger. 


1.    i 



>    l> 


"On  the  retrofit  of  (ieneral  Schuyler's  nrmy  froni  '  t-.'  Kdward, 
I  conimiinded  the  rear  miarti  of  the  army,  unci,  being  t,  aiiles  in 
the  rear,  was  attacked  by  a  hirge  body  of  British  troops  and  Indians 
at  daylight  in  the  morning,  in  which  action  were  killed  and  wounded 
between  thirty  and  forty  of  my  guard.  And  I  received  the  parti- 
cular thanks  of  General  Schuyler  for  my  conduct  r)n  the  occasion. 

"I  was  in  the  two  memorable  battles,  on  the  19th  of  Septen»ber 
and  the  7th  of  October,  on  Hemis'  heights,  against  General  Jiur- 
goyne's  army,  previous  to  its  surrender.  In  the  action  of  the  1 9th 
of  September,  I  commanded  a  detachment  of  three  hundred  men, 
who  fought  the  principal  part  of  the  afternoon,  and  more  than  one 
half  of  them  were  killed  or  wounded. 

"On  the  7th  of  October,  I  likewise  commanded  a  detachment 
from  the  brigade  which  assisted  in  attacking  the  enemy  on  the  left 
of  our  position,  defeated  him,  followed  him  to  the  right  of  his  lines, 
stormed  his  entrenchments,  and  took  and  held  possession  of  the 
right  of  his  position,  which  compelled  him  to  retreat  to  Saratoga, 
and  there  to  capitulate. 

"  After  the  memorable  event  of  the  capitulation  of  General  Bur- 
goyne's  army,  the  regiment  to  which  I  belonged  was  ordered  to 
Pennsylvania,  to  join  the  army  under  the  command  of  General 
Washington.  I  remained  with  the  army  the  winter  of  1777,  at 
Valley  Forge ;  and  in  the  spring  of  1778,  when  the  British  army 
evacuated  Philadelphia,  I  was  in  the  battle  of  Monmouth. 

"From  December,  1778,  to  May,  1779,  I  commanded  the  Ame- 
rican posts  in  advance  of  the  White  Plains,  near  Kingsbridge, 
during  which  time  I  had  various  skirmishes  with  the  enemy.  In 
May,  1779,  the  principal  part  of  the  British  army  advanced  up  the 
North  River  to  ^■erplank's  and  Stoney  Point,  and  I  was  ordered  to 
retreat  before  them  to  West  Point. 

"  I  then  joined  the  light  infantry,  under  the  command  of  General 
Wayne,  and  was  in  the  memorable  attack  on  Stoney  Point,  with  a 
separate  command  of  four  hundred  light  infantry. 

"For  my  conduct  on  this  occasion  I  received  the  particular 
thanks  of  General  Wayne,  General  Washington,  and  congress. 

"  In  the  summer  and  autumn  of  1 780, 1  commanded  the  advanced 
posts  of  the  army,  and  in  December  of  that  year,  I  commanded  an 
expedition  against  the  enemy,  stationed  at  Morrissina,  which  was 
successful,  and  for  which  I  received  the  thanks  of  General  Wash- 
ington, in  his  general  orders  to  the  army,  and  likewise  the  thanks 
of  congress.     General  Washington,  in  his  orders,  I  well  remember, 



I  or. 

tnude  of  these  words:  'lie  thanked  nic  for  my  Judicious  ar> 
ran^cments  in  the  plan  of  operations,  and  for  my  intrepidity  and 
vahmr  in  the  execution.' 

"From  the  conchision  of  the  revohitionary  war  I  have  lived  with 
the  respect  of  my  countrymen,  and  have  enjoyed  repeated  marks 
of  their  confidence  in  the  otFices  which  have  been  bestowed  upon 
me.  When  I  found  that  the  independence,  for  which  I  had  so 
often  fougiit,  was  assailed, — that  again  my  country  must  appeal  to 
arms  to  avenge  her  wrongs,  and  to  protect  her  rights, — I  felt  that 
I  might  yet  do  her  some  service.  For  though  many  years  had 
passed  since  I  had  fought  under  her  standard,  and  though  my  own 
arm  might  not  have  had  its  wonted  strength,  yet  my  spirit  was  un- 
broken, and  my  devotion  to  her  unimpaired.  I  thought  in  the 
field,  where  there  could  be  but  few  who  had  any  military  expe- 
rience, what  I  had  learned  in  the  most  active  scenes  of  a  seven 
years'  war,  might  be  useful.  I  fondly  hoped  that  in  ray  age,  as 
well  as  in  my  youth,  I  might  render  services  that  should  deserve 
the  gratitude  of  my  country.  That  if  I  fell  by  the  sword  of  her 
enemies,  my  grave  would  be  moistened  with  the  tears  of  my  coun- 
trymen ;  that  my  descendants  would  be  proud  of  my  name  and 
fame.  But  how  vain  is  anticipation  !  I  am  now  accused  of  crimes 
which  would  blast  my  former  honors,  and  transmit  my  memory 
with  infamy  to  posterity.  And  in  that  hideous  catalogue,  there  is 
none  from  the  imputation  of  which  my  nature  and  my  feelings 
have  more  recoiled  than  from  that  of  cowardice^  to  which  I  am  to 

"The  appearance  of  General  Hull  was  venerable  and  prepossessing. 
Beneath  snowy  locks,  of  sixty  winters'  bleaching,  he  exhibited  a  counte- 
nance as  fresh  and  blooming  as  a  youth  of  eighteen.  His  eloquence  was 
perspicuous  and  graceful." — American  History' 


No.  3. 
Letter  from  Captain  Wool  to  Colonel  Van  Rensselaer. 

"Buffaloe,  Oct.  23,  1812. 

"  Dkar  Sir, — I  have  the  honour  to  communicate  to  you  the 
circumstances  attending  the  storming  of  Queenstown  battery,  on 
the  1 3th  instant;  with  those  which  happened  previously  you  are 
already  well  acquainted. 

"  In  pursuance  of  your  order,  we  proceeded  round  the  point 
and  ascended  the  rocks,  which  brought  us  partly  in  rear  of  the 



1  t 

il  ii'; 


p  I 

battery.  We  took  it  without  much  resistance.  I  immediately 
formed  the  troops  in  rear  of  the  battery,  and  fronting  the  village, 
when  I  observed  General  Brock  with  his  troops  formed,  consisting 
of  four  companies  of  the  49th  regiment,  and  a  few  militia,  marching 
for  our  left  flank.  I  immediately  detached  a  party  of  one  hundred 
and  fifty  men,  to  take  possession  of  the  heights  above  Queen  stown 
battery,  and  to  hold  General  lirock  in  check  ;  but  in  consequence 
of  his  superior  force  they  retreated.  I  sent  a  reinforcement  ; 
notwithstanding  which,  the  enemy  drove  us  to  the  edge  of  the 
bank  :  when,  with  the  greatest  exertions,  we  brought  the  troops  to 
a  stand,  and  ordered  the  oflicers  to  bring  their  men  to  a  charge  as 
soon  as  the  ammunition  was  expended,  which  was  executed  with 
some  confusion,  and  in  a  few  moments  the  enemy  retreated.  We 
pursued  them  to  the  edge  of  the  heights,  when  Colonel  M'Donell 
had  his  horse  shot  from  under  him,  and  himself  was  mortally 
wounded.  In  the  interim.  General  Brock,  in  attempting  to  rally 
his  forces,  was  killed,  when  the  enemy  dispersed  in  every  direction. 
As  soon  as  it  was  practicable,  I  frtrmed  the  troops  in  a  line  on  the 
heights  fronting  the  village,  and  immediately  detached  flanking 
parties,  which  consisted  of  Captain  Machesney,  of  the  6th  regiment. 
Lieutenant  Smith  and  Ensign  Grosvenor,  with  a  small  detachment 
of  riflemen,  who  had  that  moment  arrived  ;  at  the  same  time,  I 
oi'dered  Lieutenant  Ganesvoort  and  Lieutenant  Randolph,  with  a 
detacliment  of  artillery,  to  drill  out  an  eighteen  pounder  which  had 
been  previously  spiked,  and  if  possible  to  bring  it  to  bear  upon  the 
village.  The  wounded  and  prisoners  I  ordered  to  be  collected,  and 
sent  to  the  guard-house.  About  this  time,  which  was  about  three 
or  four  o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  Lieut. -Colonel  Christie  arrived, 
and  took  the  command.  He  ordered  me  across  the  river  to  get 
my  wounds  dressed.  I  remained  a  short  time.  Our  flanking 
parties  had  been  driven  in  by  the  Indians  ;  but  General  Wadsworth 
and  other  oflicers  arriving,  we  had  a  short  skirmish  with  them,  and 
they  retreated,  and  I  crossed  the  river. 

"  The  officers  engaged  in  storming  the  battery,  were  Captains 
Wool  and  Ogilvie ;  Lieutenants  Kearney,  Hugouin,  Carr,  and 
Simmons,  of  the  43d  regiment  ;  Lieutenants  Ganesvoort  and 
Randolph,  of  the  light  artillery,  and  Major  Lush,  of  the  militia. 

"  I  recommend  to  your  particular  notice  Lieutenants  Randolph, 
Carr,  and  Kearney,  for  their  brave  conduct  exhibited  during  the 
whole  of  the  action.     I  have  the  honour  to  be,"  &c. 





Note.— Captain  Wool,  in  stating  that  he  was  opposed  lo  lour  conipanirs 
of  tlie  49th,  only  douhled  the  number  of  companies  ;  but  tliis  exaggeration 
is  a  trifle  compared  with  the  following  gross  and  hudihrasfie  mis-statements, 
relative  to  the  battle  of  Qiieenston  in  "  Ramsay's  History  of  the  United 
States,"  viz:  —  "The  4!)th  British  regiment,  signalized  in  Egypt  under 
Colonel,  since  Lieut. -General,  Brock,  and  usually  e;illed  the  "  Egy])tiau 
Invincibles,"  was  among  the  prominent  corps,  and  was  led  by  its  favorite 
commander.  In  the  second  engagement,  this  regiment  of  British  regulars, 
six  huiulred  strong,  encountered  a  body  of  three  Inmdred  and  twenty 
American  regulars,  supjjorted  by  a  few  militia  an{l  volunteers,  the  whole 
under  Colonel  Chrystie.  They  mutually  resorted  to  the  bayonet,  and  after 
a  bloody  conflict,  the  famous  invincibles  yielded  to  the  superior  energy  of 
tlieir  antagonists,  although  the  latter  were  so  far  inferior  in  numbers. 
They  were  rallied  by  Lieut.-General  Brock,  who  was  killed  in  conducting 
them  a  second  time  to  the  charge.  The  American  prisoners  were  kindly 
treated  by  this  brave  regiment,  who,  after  the  battle  was  over,  acknowledged 
they  had  never  opjjosed  more  gallant  adversaries."— The  4!)th,  not  having 
been  with  the  British  army  in  Egypt,  could  not  be  called  the  "  Egyptian 
Invincibles,"  and  instead  of  this  regiment,  six  hundred  strong,  being  led 
by  Major  (not  Lieutenant)  General  Brock,  only  the  flank  companies  were 
present,  with  a  small  body  of  militia,  together  about  three  hundred  men. 
In  fact,  the  head  quarters  of  the  49th  were  at  Kingston,  one  hundred  and 
eighty  miles  distant,  with,  we  believe,  the  whole  of  the  battalion  companies  ; 
and  therefore,  the  assertion  that  the  "famous  invincibles"  yielded  to  far 
inferior  numbers,  is  something  worse  than  ridiculous.  Such,  however,  is 
the  correctness  of  this  American  historian  on  the  subject,  and  with  such 
materials  is  history  too  often  compiled. — Ed. 


No.  4. 

Extract  from  Jefferson  s  Correspondence. — Monticello,  Oct.  1,  1812. 
"  I  fear  that  Hull's  surrender  has  been  more  than  the  mere  loss 
of  a  year  to  us.  Beside^  bringing  on  us  the  whole  mass  of  savage 
nations,  whom  fear,  and  not  affection,  had  kept  in  quiet,  there  is 
danger,  that  in  giving  time  to  an  enemy  who  can  send  reinforce- 
ments of  regulars  faster  than  we  can  raise  them,  ihey  may  strengthen 
Canada  and  Halifax  beyond  the  assailmcnt  of  our  lax  and  divided 
powers.  Perhaps,  however,  the  patriotic  efforts  from  Kentucky 
and  Ohio,  by  recalling  the  British  force  to  its  upper  posts,  may  yet 
give  time  to  Dearborn  to  strike  a  blow  below.  Effectual  possession 
of  the  river  from  Montreal  to  the  Chaudiere,  which  is  practicable, 
would  give  us  the  upper  country  at  our  leisure,  and  close  for  ever 
the  scenes  of  the  tomahawk  and  scalping  knife." 



:  f 

No.  1. 
Postscript  of  the  'Courier.' — London,  July  25,  1826. 

"The  following  extract  of  a  letter  was  this  morning  received  at 
Lloyd's.  It  is  dated  Malta,  June  26,  and  gives  an  account  of  a 
serious  affray  between  his  Majesty's  frigate  Sybille  and  some  Greek 
pirates  in  the  Mediterranean,  attended  with  a  considerable  loss  of 
life  on  both  sides.  These  daring  outrages  must  at  once  be  put  an 
end  to,  and  the  perpetrators  of  them  signally  punished.  If  the 
Greek  government  have  the  power  to  restrain  them,  it  is  at  once 
their  interest  and  their  duty  to  do  so  ;  but,  :  t  all  events,  our  own 
government  will  take  prompt  and  decisive  measures  for  protecting 
the  British  flag,  as  well  as  British  lives  and  property. 

" '  The  Sybille  frigate  arrived  here  on  Saturday,  after  having  had 
a  serious  affair  with  two  Greek  pirates  off  Candia,  the  crews  of 
which  got  on  shore  and  attacked  the  Sybille's  boats  with  such  im- 
petuosity, that  twelve  officers  and  men  were  killed,  and  twenty-nine 
wounded  ;  of  the  latter  an  officer,  Lieutenant  Tupper,  and  three 
men  have  died  since  their  arrival  here.  The  first  lieutenant, 
Gordon,  had  three  balls  lodged  in  him,  and  a  midshipman,  Mr. 
Edmonstone,  had  his  chin  shot  away;  another  midshipman,  and, 
I  believe,  the  assistant-surgeon,  were  killed  in  the  engagement. 

" '  The  pirate  vessels  were  destroyed,  and  a  great  number  of  the 
pirates  killed. 

" '  The  piracies  in  the  Levant  have  become  most  alarming,  for 
the  Greeks  attack  all  vessels,  and  frequently  maltreat  the  crews.'  " 

if.  ' 

No.  2. 

Extract  from  the  Postscript  of  the  Guernsey  '  Star.'— July  31,  1826. 

"  The  sympathy  that  the  Greek  cause  has  excited  in  England  is 
spreading  rapidly  in  France,  but  in  reality  one  half  the  Greeks  are 
not  worth  saving :  the  robberies  and  murders  they  have  lately 
committed  will  prove  this  assertion.  But  what  will  the  brave 
Miaulis  feel  when  he  sees  that  some  of  his  desperate  countrymen 



have  destroyed  a  Tapper,  a  name  to  which  he  is  so  much  indebted  ? 
There  is  little  doubt  but  that  the  Greeks  are  harassed  and  driven  to 
desperation,  but  they  ought  to  respect  every  thing  that  is  English." 

No.  3. 
Extract  from  "  IVhychcottc  of  St.  John's." — 2  vols.,  London,  1834. 

After  some  favorable  notices  of  the  late  Captain  Honorable  Sir 
Robert  Spencer,  then  commanding  the  Naiad  frigate,  on  the  Medi- 
terranean station,  the  author  proceeds  : — 

"  Though  it  is  rather  difficult,  in  a  time  of  such  complete  inacti- 
vity, actually  to  '  distinguish  one's  self,'  yet  it  is  somewhat  singular, 
that  more  marked  and  decisive  characters  should  not  display  them- 
selves on  the  arena  of  a  large  station  such  as  the  Mediterranean. 
On  looking  back  to  those  most  prominent  at  this  period,  there 
were  few  who  stood  forth  in  any  particular  position  which  pointed 
them  out  from  the  general  run  of  their  profession.  Sir  Samuel, 
then  Captain,  Pechell,  of  the  Sybil,  was  among  the  few, — nay,  he 
was  almost  the  sole  exception.  He  was  on  intimate  terms  with 
Sir  Robert  Spencer,  whose  character  his  somewhat  resembled. 
Like  Sir  Robert,  he  had  his  caprices  and  prejudices  ;  and,  like  St. 
Vincent,  he  could  shew  the  wrong  side  of  his  tongue  occasionally ; 
but  he  was  noted  for  being  a  smart  officer,  and  having  his  crew 
under  admirable  discipline.  Add  to  this,  the  gunnery  of  the  Naiad 
and  of  the  Sybil  were  among  the  boasts  of  the  station. 

"  Sir  Samuel  had  some  fantastic  notions  about  the  aristocracy  of 
naval  officers,  but  this  did  not  prevent  him  froni  f;iN^ing  a  severe 

lesson  to  a  certain  Captain ,  son  rf  Sir  T.  B ,  hen  serving 

on  board  his  ship  as  a  junior  lieutenant,  wlio  had  I^e.  ji  ^.'romoted 
while  a  beardless  boy,  over  the  heads  of  many  old  iiud  experienced 
officers,  through  the  overwhelming  interest  o "  his  indeta^igable 
parent.  As  the  story  then  ran,  it  appeared  i-u;  (nis  youth  was  an 
ignorant  of  his  profession  and  as  unequal  to  his  du*;y  as  any  young 
gentleman  'promoted  through  friendship'  could  possibly  desire. 
Sir  Samuel,  justly  indignant,  refused  to  allow  the  lieutenant  to  take 
charge  of  the  w'atch,  which  it  was  h.'s  proper  office  to  keep,  and 
promoted  to  the  trust  the  mate  of  the  lower  deck,  a  passer',  mid- 
shipman ;  while  the  lieutenant  received  orders  to  carry  into  exef'u- 
tion  a  subordinate  task.      Nor  was  this  all.     Strange  to  say,  Mr. 

was  compelled  to  sign  a  written  bulletin,  declaring  hinscif, 

by  his  own  admission,  to  be  utterly  incapable  of  performing  the 






'    1  : 

1  ' 

■  *    j 

.''  .!' 



This  was  rigorous  it  must  be  acknowledged. 

duties  of  a  lieutenant. 
JFas  it  not  also  just  ? 

"  Sir  Samuel,  like  his  brother  captain,  Sir  Robert,  chiefly  exercised 
his  industry  in  reaping  the  scanty  laurels  of  his  profession  among 
the  pirates  of  the  Archipelago.  Of  several  rencontres,  one  in  the 
island  of  Candia  became  noted.  It  was  a  brave  action,  but  unfor- 
tunate in  its  issue.  Some  pirates  having  taken  refuge  in  one  of  the 
bays  of  the  island,  and  established  themselves  in  a  secure  position 
on  the  shore.  Sir  Samuel  sent  in  his  boats  manned  and  armed  to 
the  attack.  The  Greek  pilot,  who  belonged  to  the  Sybil,  declined 
accompanying  the  party,  aware  of  the  desperate  character  of  the 
defendants,  and  the  inaccessible  nature  of  their  position.  He  very 
sagaciously  observed,  that  '  he  had  nothing  whatever  to  do  with  the 
fighting  of  the  ship  ;  and  that  if  he  fell, — for  few  would  escape, — 
government  would  never  trouble  themselves  about  securing  from 
starvation  his  wife  and  family.' 

"  The  boats  started  under  the  command  of  Lieutenant  Tupper.* 
On  their  approaching  within  shot  of  the  Greeks,  who  were  hidden 
by  the  rocks,  the  murderous  aim  of  Candian  rifles  made  itself  appa- 
rent. Four  shots  had  not  been  fired  by  their  determined  antagonists 
before  the  lieutenant  and  coxswain  were  for  ever  dismissed  from 
mortal  struggle,  and  five  others  severely  wounded. 

"Enraged  to  absolute  fury  by  their  loss,  the  men  cheered,  pulled 
in  with  redoubled  quickness,  and  landed.  A  fatal  aifray  took  place. 
It  ended  m  their  being  obliged  to  retreat,  leaving  a  prisoner  in  the 
hands  of  the  pirates.  Not  one  escaped  uninjured ;  and  tne  ablest 
man  among  them  had  to  row  off  to  the  frigate,  by  shifting  his  oar 
from  one  side  to  the  other,  and  stooping  down  at  intervals,  to 
escape  the  shot  fired  at  him  by  the  ruffians  on  shore. 

"  Their  prisoner  the  pirates  threatened  with  instant  immolation 
before  the  eyes  of  his  shipmates,  unless  certa'n  conditions  of  non- 
molestation  were  conceded  by  Sir  Samuel.  The  latter  rightly 
estimated  the  life  of  his  marine  far  higher  than  the  gratification  of 
any  petty  feelings  of  vengeance,  and  sending  on  shore  a  flag  of 
truce,  recovered  his  man. 

"  Such,  as  nearly  as  I  can  recollect  at  this  distance  of  time,  were 
the  heads  of  an  affair  which  then  excited  no  slight  feeling  on  the 
station.  The  Sybil's  time  hpving  expired,  she  was  soon  afterwards 
ordered  home,  inspected  at  Spithead,  and  great  praise  awarded  to 
Sir  Samuel  Pechell  for  the  high  state  of  excellence  to  which  he  had 

*  Incorrect— Lieutenant  Gordon  commanded  the  boats. —  Ed. 



raised   the   science  of  gunnery  on   board  his   Irigafo." — Second 
Edition,  Vol  I.,  pp.  2:3/  to  242. 

No.  4. 
Extract  relative  to  the  late  Captain  Edzoard  Gordon. 

"  The  Highflyer  tender  unexpectedly  returned  to  us,*  having 
fallen  in  with  a  heavy  American  privateer.  A  severe  action  hatl 
ensued,  in  which  her  brave  commander.  Lieutenant  Lewis,  was 
killed.  Mr.  CJordon,  midshipman,  (the  same  who  so  distinguished 
himself  up  the  Archipelago  in  the  boats  of  the  Sybille,  and  who 
commanded  the  z\corn,  sloop  of  war,  when  she  foundered  on  the 
coast  of  America,)  gallantly  continued  the  contest  till  the  enemy 
hauled  off  j  but  the  Highflyer  was  so  cut  up  in  her  rigging  that 
Mr.  Gordon  was  unable  to  follow  her.  She  had  only  one  long  gun 
a- midships,  and  her  crew  were  greatly  exposed  from  having  no 
bulwark,  while  their  heavy  antagonist  was  sheltered  by  one.  The 
conduct  of  Mr.  Gordon,  who  was  then  quite  a  lad,  was  highly 
commended  by  the  rear  admiral,  and,  as  an  earnest  of  his  opinion, 
young  Gordon  was  permitted  to  keep  the  command  of  the  vessel, 
and  dispatched  to  fulfil  the  orders  of  his  late  commander,  after 
removing  all  the  wounded  on  board  the  Marlborough,  and  filling 
up  the  vacancies  in  his  own  ship's  company. 

"  It  appears  »he  vessel  that  engaged  the  Highflyer  was  the 
American  privateer  '  Roger  Quarles,  of  fourteen  guns,  and  full  of 
men.'  (Vide  Niles'  Register,  Vol.  IV.,  p.  228.)  The  American 
account  states  the  action  to  have  lasted  from  nine  o'clock  till  eleven 
p.  m.  As  the  Americans  are  not  in  the  liable  c^f  exaggerating  their 
own  force,  this  circumstance  throws  additional  credit  upon  the 
gallant  coihluct  of  the  late  Captain  Edward  ('ordon,  and  must  be 
read  by  his  friends  with  melancholy  satisfaction." — Recollections  of 
a  Naval  Life,  by  Captain  James  Scott,  R.  N. — Vol.  III.,  p.  11". 

No.  5. 

From  a  Portsmouth  N:ivspaper,  December  31,  182.5. — See  p.  42. 

"  This  morning  sailed  the  Aurora  for  Hydra,  having  on  board 
forty  of  the  crew  of  the  Greek  brig  of  war,  Cimoni,  lately  wrecked 
on  the  isle  of  Alderney,  from  whence  they  were  taken  to  Guernsey, 
where  they  received   the  greatest  kindness  and  attention  from  the 

*  The  Chesapeake  station  under  the   command   of  Hear  Admiral  Sit 
GcorRC  Cockbuin. — Ed. 




'  V 








r  ;-;i 


!    I)'  I 



lieutenant-g(n  ernor.  Sir  John  Colborne,  and  the  inhabitants,  who, 
in  addition  to  having  provided  them  with  food,  clothing,  and  lodging 
whilst  on  the  island,  raised  for  them  a  most  liberal  subscription, 
and  gave  five  pounds  to  each  of  the  crew  on  their  leaving  Guernsey. 
We  are  requested  to  state,  that  for  the  kindness  they  have  received 
from  the  governor  and  inhabitants  of  Guernsey,  they  feel  the  deepest 
gratitude,  and  beg  to  return  their  most  grateful  thanks.  It  is 
perhaps  impossible  to  express  the  high  sense  they  entertain  of  the 
kindness  they  experienced  better  than  in  their  own  words,  which 
were  :  '  The  people  of  Guernsey  behaved  to  us  like  angels,  not 
like  meu.'  " 

No.  6. 

Transcript  of  a  Letter  from  George  B.  Hamilton,  Esq.,  to  the  Editor, 
partly  relating  to  Lieutenant  E.  JV.  Tapper,  and  luted  Admiralty, 
June  7,  1825. 

"  Lord  Melville  has  directed  me  to  acknowledge  the  rtceipL  of 
-'■rowr  letter  of  the  26ih  March  last,  with  its  inolosure,  and  to  return 
you  his  lordship's  thanks  for  the  observations  you  have  thought 
j.  voper  to  make  j  but  the  subject  to  ivhich  you  refer  has  lately  been 
under  the  consideration  of  the  Board  of  Admiralty. 

"  With  regard  to  your  brother's  claims  to  promotion.  Lord 
Melville  has  lirected  me  to  state  that  he  is  perfectly  aware  of  them, 
and  took  an  opportunity,  not  long  since,  of  recommending  him  to 
the  commander  in  chief  in.  the  Mediterranean,  and  I  have  no  doubt 
but  his  advancement  will  be  the  result  of  such  recommendation 
at  no  very  distant  period." 


No.  1. 

[Translated  from  the  Spanish.— See  page  50.] 
"Dr.  Francisco  Altes,  yice- Secretary  of  the  most  excellent  Constitutional 
Ayuntamiento  of  this  city  of  Barcelona,  capital  of  the  province 
of  Catalonia. 

"  T  certify  that  in  the  dreadful  conflagration  which,  on  the  13th 
instant  so  unfortunately  broke  out  in  the  house  of  Dr.  Juan  I'lanas, 
in  the  street  of  Regoniir,  at  the  comer  of  that  of  Lignas,  among 
all  the  worthy  citizens,  who  with  the  greatest  intrepidity  impeded 
its  progress,  the  young  Englishman,  Don  Guillermo  Tapper,  out- 
shone in  valour  and  heroism, — several  times  exposing  his  life  to 
suffocate  the  flames,  which  would  certainly  have  burnt  down  the 
whole  barrier.  And  in  order  that  the  gratitude  of  the  most  excellent 
Ayuntamiento  may  be  manifested  in  the  most  authentic  manner 
for  his  resolute  and  beneficent  courage,  knowing  how  to  appreciate 
so  sublime  an  effort  in  favour  of  humanity,  the  present  certificate  is 
drawn  out  by  order  of  their  excellencies. 

"  Signed  by  my  hand,  and  authorised  with  the 
common  seal  of  my  office. 

"  Francisco  Altes,  Vice- Secretary. 
"J?n  Barcelona,  February  17,  1821." 

No.  2. 

Extracts  from   Lieutenant    Bower's   Naval  Adventures.  —  2   vols., 

London,  1833. 

''Chiloe,  from  its  geographical  position,  good  harbours,  and 
numerous  resources,  in  the  hands  of  an  enlightened  and  enterprising 
people,  might  soon  becon.e  the  key  to  the  eastern  part  of  the  South 

"  San  Carlos,  the  principal  port,  situated  at  the  north-west  extre- 
mity of  the  island,  in  latitude  41°  45'  south,  is  of  easy  entrance  in 
tolerably  clear  weather,  and  is  a  good  harbour  at  all  seasons,  there 
being  several  anchoring  grounds.     Well  defended  by  art  not  less 





y   • 

hi  \ 


ii ' 

I  'r^^j ' 

than  nature,  it  is  a  place  of  great  strength,  capable  of  resisting  any 

ordinary  means  of  attack 'J'he  town  of  Castro  lies  on  the 

east  side,  between  which  and  the  main  are  scattered  an  archipelago 
of  smaller  islands,  about  eighty  in  number,  all  inhabited,  and  the 
greater  part  even  more  susceptible  of  a  ready  cultivation  than  their 
principal,  Chiloe,  which  is  nearly  one  uniform  dense  forest  of 
immense  trees.  The  export  trade  consists  of  hams,  lard,  and 
timber Hogs  are  numerous Fish  is  good  and  abun- 
dant. Of  shell  fish,  more  especially,  there  is  a  surprising  variety, 
on  which,  with  potatoes,  and  the  bucha,  or  rock  weed,  the  indigent 

classes  subsist The  north  winds  blow  long  and  heavily  during 

the  winter  season,  and  rain,  often  in  torrents,  prevails  more  or  less 
the  greater  part  of  the  year 

"  The  population  of  San  Carlos  and  Castro,  including  the  garri- 
son of  the  former,  is  computed  at  about  eleven  thousand ;  the  total 
of  all  the  islands  a  hundred  thousand.*  The  inhabitants,  principally 
Creoles,  descended  from  Spaniards  and  natives,  with  some  few  of 
the  aborigines,  are  a  strong,  active,  and  well  formed  race. 

"The  Chilotes  are  brave,  and  make  better  soldiers  than  others 
along  the  coa^^.  When  1  last  visited  the  island,  in  1 828,  they 
mustered  fourttc    *'  )usand  able  bodied  men,*  enrolled  by  Quinta- 

nilla  as  militia In  the  time  of  the  royalists,  a  large  garrison 

was  kept  up,  which  was  regularly  paid  from  the  royal  treasury  at 

"  Conception,  or  Penco,  for  the  goodness  of  its  port,  (Talca- 
huano,)  the  salubrity  of  its  climate,  and  the  fertility  of  the  neigh- 
bouring district,  is  superior  to  every  other  part  of  Chile,  and,  in  my 

opinion,  much  to  be  preferred   as  the  site  of  its  capital 

Conception  is  rapidly  increasing  in  trade  and  importance,  promising, 
ere  long,  to  become  one  of  the  most  flourishing  sea  port  towns  in 
South  America Plenty  of  good  coal  is  found  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood, as  well  as  materials  for  brick  and  lime.  The  anchorage 
of  this  magnificent  bay,  extending  from  one  extreme  to  the  other  a 
distance  of  five  miles,  and  sheltered  by  the  fine  island  of  Quiri- 
quina,  is  excellent ;  the  shores  abound  with  shell  fish,  and  the 
muscles  in  particular,  large  and  fat,  are  held  in  much  estimation. 

"  Between  Conception  and  Valparaiso  is  the  river  and  port  of 
Maule,  the  ingress  and  egress  to  which  are  rendered  difficult  by  a 
bar  formed  of  the  drifting  sand,  that  often  shifts  the  course  of  the 
channel,  which  however  is  always  sufficiently  deep  for  vessels  of 

*  Tliese  numbers  arc  evidently  ovei-ratccl.— En. 




three  hundred  tons Tlie  river  is  navigable  for  small  vessels 

and  barges,  through  a  fertile  and  well  inhabited  country,  where 
every  article  of  produce  is  cheaper  than  at  Conception  or  Valparaiso, 
as  far  as  the  city  of  Talca." 

(See  page  .0;i.) 

Lord  Cochrane,  after  the  capture  of  Valdivia,  attacked  Chiloc  in 
1820,  but  was  repulsed  with  some  loss.  Major  (now  the  celebrated 
General)  Miller  was  severely  wounded  at  Chiloe,  and  in  his  me- 
moirs speaks  highly  of  the  courage  and  devotion  of  the  C^hile 
soldiers,  who  exposed  their  lives  to  bring  him  off,  when  his  \vounds 
rendered  him  incapable  of  retreating. 

By  a  census  of  1827,  the  population  of  the  archipelago  of  Chiloe 
was  ascertained  to  be  forty-three  thousand  two  hundred  and  ninety 
souls.  Public  instruction  was  gaining  ground,  and  four  thousand 
four  hundred  and  eighty-nine  children  then  attended  the  schools. 
Captain  Tupper  wrote  in  1824,  that  Quintanilla  had  done  much 
towards  the  advancement  of  these  islands,  that  they  were  covered 
with  sheep,  and  were  in  a  high  state  of  cultivation.  He  added, 
that  potatoes  grew  almost  spontaneously,  and  that  the  country  was 
beautiful,  much  like  England. — Eu. 

No.  3. 
Extract  from  " Kotzebues  Voyage  round  the  World.'' 

At  anchor  off  Talcahuana,  January,  1824. — Speaking  of  the 
president.  General  Freire,  at  that  time  in  Conception,  and  about  to 
proceed  with  three  thousand  men  against  Chiloe,  the  captain 
observes  : — 

"  Freire,  who  had  already  distinguished  himself  as  a  general,  is 
a  stately  looking  man,  at  that  time  about  forty-five  years  of  age, 
and  of  a  very  agreeable  exterior ;  he  was  born  at  Talcahuana,  of 
very  poor  parents,  and,  without  enjoying  any  particular  advantage 
of  education,  he  raised  himself,  by  his  own  merit  alone,  to  the  high 
rank  he  occupies. 

"  The  little  town  (Talcahuana)  was  soon  filled  with  warlike 
tumult.  A  grenadier  regiment  from  Conception  marched  in  with 
drums  beating,  and  a  very  good  band  playing.  The  uniform  was 
in  the  French  fashion,  clean  and  substantial ;  the  muskets  were  in 
the  best  order." 


1 1 




;  ■  ti 



No.  4. 
[Sun  Trunslation,  page  01.] 

"  Los  (jc/ps  y  Officinlcs  del  Batullon  Pudeto,  cl  sus  C.ompatriotas, 

"  El  Biitallon  Pudeto  siempre  fiel  a  sus  juramentos,  protesta 
sostener  la  Constitucion.  Conciudadanos,  confiad  ei.  este  honor 
que  jamas  fue  tachado.  Enemigos  del  orden,  temblad  :  ya  cono- 
ceis  t\  Pudeto. 

"  S.  E.  (1  Capitan  General  Freire  nos  Ueva  a  la  victoria,  Su 
nombre  electriza  el  cora/on  de  los  valientes,  y  garanti/a  el  empleo 
de  la  fuerza  ante  el  pacifico  ciudadano. 

"  Quedarti  cscarmentado  para  siempre  el  infame  Prieto,  ese  militar 
sin  honor,  que  burlando  en  repetidas  ocasiones  los  mas  sagrados 
compromisos,  aspira  al  despotismo  por  los  medios  mas  inicuos. 

<'  Valparaiso,  Encro  27  de  1830," 

No.  5. 

Cancharayada  and  Lircai. — See  page  ^7. 

General  Miller,  in  his  memoirs,  after  stating  that  the  Spanish 
general,  Osorio,  advanced  from  Talcahuana  towards  Santiago,  with 
about  six  thousand  effective  men,  and  that  to  meet  him  General 
San  Martin  formed  a  junc  ion  with  the  Director  O'lliggins  and 
Colonel  Las  Heras,  at  San  Fernando,  the  united  patriot  forces 
amounting  tvj  seven  thousand  infantry,  fifteen  hundred  cavalry, 
thirty-three  field  pieces,  and  two  howitzers ;   thus  continues  : — 

"  Ignorant  of  the  numbers  and  movements  of  his  opponents, 
the  royalist  general  crossed  the  river  Maule,  and  was  proceeding 
on  to  Santiago,  when,  on  the  18th  of  March,  (1818,)  the  van  guard 
of  each  army  came  in  contact  at  Quechereguas.  In  the  affair  which 
took  place,  the  royalist  advance  was  worsted,  Osorio  having 
ascertained  the  superiority  of  the  patriots,  countermarched  with 
evident  precipitation.  General  San  Martin  obliqued  to  his  own 
left,  for  the  purpose  of  interposing  between  the  royalists  and  the 
ford  of  the  Maule.  The  two  armies  crossed  the  river  Lircay  at 
the  same  time,  at  the  distance  of  four  miles  from  each  other,  on 
the  morning  of  the  19th,  and  continued  to  march  in  almost  parallel 
but  gradually  approximating  columns  over  five  leagues  of  open 
country.  The  patriots  advanced  in  the  finest  ore'  r,  and  with  the 
utmost  regularity.  The  Spaniards  quickened  their  march  in  some 
slight  confusion,  and  were  the  first  to  reach  the  town  of  Talca,  in 

) ' 





■ite  honor 

ya  cono- 

»ria.      Su 
el  empleo 

se  militar 


I  Spanish 

ago,  with 

i  General 

gins  and 

3t  forces 


s  : — 



an  guard 

lir  which 


led  with 

his  own 

and  the 

ircay  at 

ther,  on 

:  parallel 

of  open 

vith  the 

in  some 

"alca,  in 

front  of  which  they  took  up  a  position  an  hour  before  sunset, 
amongst  enclosed  fields.  The  patriot  coluuins  approached,  and, 
whilst  they  drew  up  in  line  on  the  plain  of  Cancharayada,  some 
sharp  skirmishing  took  place.  A  regiment  of  Chileno  cavalry 
charged,  but,  having  committed  the  error  of  getting  into  a  gallop  at 
too  great  a  distance  from  the  enemy,  formed  behind  a  ravine  which 
had  not  been  perceived,  it  was  repulsed,  but  retired  in  good  order, 
under  cover  of  the  Chileno  artillery,  which  was  commanded  by 
Lieut. -C(»lonel  lU'nco,  and  particularly  well  served.  (Jn  this  occa- 
sion, Lieutenant  CJerard,  a  brave  young  Scotchman,  who  had  distin- 
guished himself  the  day  before  at  Quechereguas,  was  killed.  He 
formerly  belonged  to  the  British  rifle  corps. 

"  General  San  jNIartin  purposed  to  attack  on  the  morning  of  the 
20th.  The  situation  of  the  royal  army  had  b(  e  extremely  criti- 
cal. The  able  manner  in  which  General  San  dn  manceuvred  on 
the  preceding  day,  gave  the  royalists  little  room  to  hope  for  success 
in  risking  a  battle  ;  whilst  to  retire  to  the  difficvdt  ford  of  the  Maulc, 
still  five  leagues  off,  in  the  presence  of  a  superior  enemy,  threatened 
to  expose  their  army  to  destruction." — Vol.  L,  page  173. 

General  Miller  next  proceeds  to  relate  the  surprise  of  the  patriots, 
during  the  night,  by  a  Spanish  column,  which  completely  dispersed 

No.  6. 

Brief  Extracts  relative  to  the  late  Colonel  Tapper. 

"Fev/  situations  can  be  more  distressing  than  those  of  foreign 
officers,  who,  having  entered  the  service  of  the  new  republics,  in 
order  to  combat  the  foreign  enemy,  have  in  the  end  found  them- 
selves involved  in  the  domestic  cUsputes  of  their  adopted  country, 
and  at  times  either  from  principle,  old  attachments,  or  other  strong 
causes,  have  been  in  a  manner  obliged  to  take  active  service  with 
one  or  other  of  the  parties. 

"These  observations  have  been  elicited  from  us  on  reading  a 
letter  from  Chile,  which,  although  dated  in  December  last,  throws 
some  light  upon  the  situation  in  which  the  late  Colonel  Tuppcr  was 
placed ;  an  officer  who,  in  the  war  for  the  independence  of  Chile, 
was  one  of  its  most  distinguished  heroes,  and  had  gathered  '  golden 
opinions  from  all  sorts  of  people,'  and  yet  he  fell  a  victim  to  civil 
dissensions." — British  Packet,  Buenos  ^i/rto,  July  17,  1830. 

A  letter  from  Valparaiso,  of  the  20th  April,  says :    "  In  a  battle 
near  the  Maule,  on  the  17th  of  this  month,  efght  hundred  men  fell. 






If  liM  m 

L25  i  1.4 











(716)  872-4503 




^^^^  -^^    '^"^ 




I        t 


.1  '! 




Freirc  is  defeated,  and  three  foreign  ollicers,  among  whom  is  un- 
happily Tupper,  were  killed."' — Enylish  Chronicle,  August  24,  1S.'}0. 

Conclusion  of  a  letter,  dated  Santiago,  May  11,  relative  to  the 
affairs  of  Chile  :  "  Freire  with  seventeen  hundred,  and  Prieto  with 
two  thousand  two  hundred  men,  met  again  at  Cancharayada,  when 
the  former  was  beaten  ;  sixteen  officers  and  six  hundred  rank  and 
file  were  killed.  Amongst  them  were  Tupper,  Captain  liell,  of  the 
navy,  and,  it  is  believed,  Ilondisoni.  Freire  and  Viel  escaped  with 
three  hundred  cavalry,  and  have  made  their  way  past  Santiago, 
towards  Coquimbo.  Troops  have  been  sent  against  them.  Prieto 
remains  at  Talca.  We  do  not  know  what  has  occurred  at  Con- 

"Tupper  was  an  extraordinary  fine  young  man  of  twenty-five. 
His  death  is  sincerely  lamented  by  all  parties." — Times,  London, 
September  3,  1830. 

No.  7. 

Extracts  from  a  weekly  publication  printed  at  Paris,  entitled  "  Lc 
Semeur,  Journal  religieux,  politique,  philosophiipte  et  litteraire," 
dated  April  4,   1832. — Article,    "  Souvenir  d'un  sdjour  au  Chili." 

"J'^tais  fort  curieux  de  voir  I'interieur  d'un  convent,  et,  grace 
^  I'obligeance  du  general  Pinto,  vice-prdsident  de  la  republique  et 
chef  du  gouvernement,  j'obtins  la  permission  d'en  visiter  un.  Je 
m'y  rendis  avec  le  lieutenant-colonel  Tupper,  aide-de-camp  du 
vice-president.  Ma  visite  aux  religieuses  capucines  m'offrit  un 
intdrOt  tout  particulier.  Leur  ordre  est  I'un  des  plus  severes  ;  leur 
nourriture  est  grossiere,  et  leur  lit  no  se  compose  que  de  trois 
planches  qui,  apr6s  leur  mort,  leur  servent  de  cercueil.  On  nous 
fit  entrer  dans  une  salle  qui,  pour  tout  ameublement,  n'avait  que 
trois  ou  quatre  chaises,  placdes  contre  la  muraille.  On  nous  pria 
de  nous  asseoir,  et,  au  bout  de  dix  minutes,  les  ntmnes  entr^rent. 
EUes  etaient  au  nombre  de  vingt  a  trente.  Elles  s'agenouillerent 
en  face  de  nous,  sans  Oter  leurs  voiles,  et  se  mirent  presque  aussitot 
K  parlerdu  monde  avec  le  colonel  Tupper,  qui  se  trouvait  connattre 
les  families  de  plusieurs  d'entre  elles.  Elles  paraissaient  tr^s- 
curieuses  d'apprendre  des  nouvelles  de  Santiago.  L'administration 
du  convent  leur  est  confide,  et  se  divise  en  plusieurs  departemens. 
Les  unes  s'occupent  de  la  cuisine,  u  autres  du  jardin,  d'autres  encore 
de  Tentretien  de  la  maison.  Elles  nous  assurerent  toutes  qu'elles 
etaient  parfaitement  heureuses  et  qu'elles  ne  desiraient  pas  changer 
de  sort.     Le  colonel  Tupper  leur  dit  qu'un  decret  recent  du  congr^s 



mm  IS  un- 
?  24,  KS,*}0, 

^ive  to  the 
Vieto  witli 
'^ada,  when 
I  rank  and 
Jell,  of  the 
caped  with 
Ti.  Prieto 
id  at  Con- 

s,  London, 

'it led  "  Lc 
au  Chili." 

,  et,  grace 

ublique  et 

2r  un.     Je 

-camp   du 

n'offrit  nn 

ires ;   leur 

3  de  trois 

On  nous 

avail  que 

nous  pria 



le  aussitot 


ient  tr^s- 



res  encore 

:s  qu'elles 

s  changer 

u  congr^s 

ilt'tendait  <lc  ramener  de  force  dans  les  couvens  les  rcligieuses  qui 
auraient  profite  de  la  permissi(m  den  sortir ;  il  leur  apprit  aussi 
qu'au  Perou  plusieurs  communautes  avaient  etaient  forct'es  de 
quitter  Icurs  monasteres 

"J'ai  deja  exprime  mon  opinion  sur  I'importance  qu'il  y  aurait 
a  donner  aux  jeunes  (^hiliens  une  education  liberale,  et  k  les  niettre 
a  meme  de  recueillir  des  idees  supcrieures  a  celles  qu'ils  peuvent 
puiser  dans  leur  patrie.  Les  Chiliens  sont  jaloux  des  etrangers  qui 
prennent  du  service  chez  eux,  et  il  est  assez  naturel  qu'ils  le  snient, 
quoiqu'on  ne  puisse  nier  qu'ils  aient  de  grandes  obligations  li  plu- 
sieurs de  ceux  qui  ont  fait  du  Chili  leur  patrie  adoptive.  Depuis 
mon  rctour  en  Europe,  un  de  ces  hommcs,  digne  d'une  haute 
estime,  a  cesse  de  vivre.  Je  veux  parler  du  colonel  Tupper,  qui  a 
ete  fait  prisonnier  a  la  tete  de  son  regiment,  et  qui,  apres  avoir  etc 
tenu,  pendant  une  heure,  dans  I'incertitude  sur  son  sort,  fut  cruelle- 
ment  mis  a  mort  par  les  ennemis.  Le  Colonel  Tupper  etait  un  homme 
tl'unc  grande  bravoure  et  d'un  esprit  eclaire  j  sc's  formes  ^'taient 
athletiques,  et  I'expression  de  sa  physionomie  pieine  de  franchise. 
II  se  serait  distingue  partout  ou  il  aurait  6i6  employ^,  et  dans  quel- 
que  situation  qu'il  eut  6t6  place.  N'est-il  pas  deplorable  que  de  tels 
hommes  en  soient  reduits  h.  se  consacrer  t\  une  cause  etrang^re  ? 

"  J'esp^re  que  le  temps  n'est  pas  eloigne  oii  Ton  saura  appr^icier 
au  Chili  le  patriotisme  et  I'energie,  dont  le  colonel  Tupper  a  donni? 
I'exemple.  D'autres  hommes  eminens,  tels  que  le  gdneral  Hena- 
vente  et  don  Pedro  Palarzuchos  ont  fait  preuve  aussi  d'un  caracti;re 
desinteresse  et  g^nereux ;  mais  ils  ont  besoin  d'etre  soutenus  par 
I'opinion  publique,  et  cette  opinion  elle-meme  ne  pent  se  former 
que  si  de  solides  principes  religieux  et  politiques  jettent  de  profondes 
racines  dans  le  caractere  national,  et  si  la  tolerance  laisse  un  libre 
acces  h  la  Parole  de  Dieu." 

No.  8. 

Extract  from  a  Pamphlet,  published  at  Lima,  in  1831,  by  General 
Freirc,  in  exposition  of  his  conduct  during  the  civil  war  in  Chile, 

"  No  entra  en  mi  plan  justificar  los  movimientos  estratejicos  que 
precedieron  i\  la  batalla  de  Lircay.  La  desproporcion  entre  las 
fuerzas  belijerantes  era  monstruosa.  De  nada  Servian  con  esta 
immensa  desventaja,  ni  las  maniobras  de  la  tkctica,  ni  los  prodijios 

del  valor.     Los  liberales  fueron  derrotados i^jalh  pudiera 

echar  un  velo,  no  sobre  la  historia  de  un  vencimiento,  (jue  ni 

!  5 

,  I 








i  n 


i'    •! 





suponiii  valor,  ni  talcnto  en  cl  vencedor,  sino  sobre  las  horrorosas 
crueldadfs  que  siguicron  {\  la  batalla  !  Los  salvajcs  mas  feroces, 
los  saltcadores  mas  desalmados  se  avergon/arian  de  ejccutar  las 
ordcnes  que  el  cjercito  faccioso  rccibio  del  jeneral  Pricto,  y 
que  supo  dcsempenar  con  funcsta  c\actitud.  Tupper. . . .  sombra 
ilustre  del  mas  valiente  dc  los  militares,  del  mas  apreciable  de  los 
hombres  :  sombra  de  un  heroe  t\  quien  hubieran  al/ado  estatuas 
Grecia  y  Roma  :  tu  asesinato  espantoso  sera  vengado.  Si  no  hay 
castigo  visible  para  tu  verdugo,  la  justicia  divina  lo  tomark  H  su 
cargo.  Ella  pedira  cuenta  de  esa  infame  sentencia  pronunciada 
contra  todo  estranjero,  por  un  hombre  que  k  la  sazon  erael  juguete 
y  el  pupilo  de  un  estranjero  vagabundo,  que  habia  debido  su  eleva- 
cion  y  el  pan  que  comia,  a  la  jenerosidad  de  Chile." 


"It  does  not  enter  into  my  plan  to  justify  the  movements  which 
preceded  the  battle  of  Lircay.  The  disproportion  between  the 
contending  forces  was  excessive.  Neither  tactics  nor  prodigies  of 
valour  could  avail  against  this  immense  disadvantage.  The  liberals 
were  routed.  Would  that  I  could  throw  a  veil  not  only  over  a 
conquest,  which  proves  neither  courage  nor  talent  in  the  conqueror, 
but  also  over  the  horrid  cruelties  which  succeeded  the  battle.  The 
most  furious  savages,  the  most  unprincipled  bandits  would  have 
been  ashamed  to  execute  the  orders  which  the  rebel  army  received 
from  General  Prieto,  and  yet  which  were  executed  with  mournful 
fidelity.  Tupper — illustrious  shade  of  the  bravest  of  soldiers,  of 
the  most  estimable  of  men  ;  shade  of  a  hero  to  whom  Greece  and 
Rome  would  have  erected  statues — your  dreadful  assassination  will 
be  avenged.  If  there  be  no  visible  punishment  for  your  murderer. 
Divine  vengeance  will  overtake  him.  It  will  demand  an  account 
of  that  infamous  sentence  pronounced  against  all  strangers  by  a 
man*  who  at  the  time  was  the  pupil  and  the  tool  of  a  vagabond 
stranger,!  indebted  for  his  elevation  and  his  bread  to  the  generosity 
of  Chile." 

No.  9. 

Extract  of  a  Letter  to  the  Editor  relative  to  Colonel  Tupper  s  attack 
on  the  brig  of  tvar  Achilles,  off  Talcahuano,  dated  Conception, 
28th  May,  1832. 
"  All  at  this  moment  was  confusion,  and  your  brother's  efforts  to 

restore  the  attack  unavailing.     After  knocking  down  in  the  boat 

*  General  Pricto.  t  Garrido,  a  Spanish  deserter. 

.\l»l'ENL)IX    C. 


as  feroces, 
ccutar  las 
Prieto,  y 
. .  sombra 
ble  (le  los 
0  estatuas 
Si  no  hay 
mark  k  su 
el  juguete 
su  eleva- 

nts  whicli 
ween  the 
odigies  of 
le  liberals 
ly  over  n 
tie.  The 
)uld  have 
Idiers,  of 
reece  and 
ation  will 
I  account 
jers  by  a 

••'s  attack 

efforts  to 
the  boat 

one  of  his  volunteers,  who  refused  to  assist  in  returning  to  tin' 
vessel,  he  was  comi)ellcd  to  proceed  to  the  nearest  shore, — tla- 
island  of  Quiri(iuina.  Here  part  of  his  companions  took  refuge  in 
the  underwood  ;  your  brother  remained  with  the  wounded  and 
dying  saihir  in  the  l)ottom  of  the  l)oat,  with  a  military  ollicer, 
Captain  La  Rosa,  (of  whom,  I  believe,  mention  is  made  in(ieneral 
Miller's  memoirs,)  and  two  of  his  own  soldiers.  His  first  tlioughl 
was  now  to  retire  to  the  other  side  of  the  island,  opposit;:  to  the 
part  of  the  main  land  of  the  promontory  of  Talcahuai.o,  marked 
in  the  charts  i'lata  Creek,  and,  if  closely  pursued  in  the  nnirniiiif, 
to  swim  across.  Jiut  (Japtain  La  llosa  (formerly  accustonu'd  tn 
the  sea)  volunteering  to  take  an  oar,  your  brother,  notwithstaiuling 
his  wounded  hand,  at  once  sei/ed  the  other ;  and  the  two,  during 
the  niglit,  pulled  across  with  the  v.'ounded  man  and  two  soldiers 
from  Niuuly  I'oint  of  tlie  island  to  tlie  opposite  iliorc,  near  a  point 
called  I'oint  Lirque/,  a  distance  of  more  than  a  league.  Here  tliey 
buried  the  wounded  man,  who  had  died  on  the  passage,  in  the 
sand  ;  and  with  a  doubloon,  which  your  brother  fortunately  had  in 
his  pocket,  they  procured  horses,  and  rode  round  the  bay  to  Talca- 
huano.  The  people,  who  returned  in  the  boats  to  Talcahuano,  all 
declared  that  Colonel  Tupper  had  been  killed  ;  that  he  had  been 
seen  to  sxscend  and  to  fall  into  the  water,  and  had  not  been  heard 
of  since.  You  should  have  been  in  this  city  to  have  witnessed  the 
regret  of  his  party  for  his  supposed  death  :  numbers  proceeded  to 
the  port  to  make  further  inquiries.  \Vhen  your  brother  appeared 
t)n  horseback  in  the  square  of  Talcahuano,  his  olhcers  and  soldiers 
ran  to  embrace  him  like  one  risen  from  the  dead  ;  the  soldiers  shed 
tears,  and  called  him  by  the  name  of  father,  which  they  were  in 
the  habit  of  giving  him. 

"  Some  days  afterwards  he  came  to  the  city,  and  a  French  sur- 
geon uniting  his  entreaties  with  mine,  we  prevailed  upon  him  to 
suffer  leeches  to  be  applied  to  his  breast,  which  had  a  large  circle 
of  coagulated  blood  blackening  it  from  the  severe  blow,  causing 
him  much  dithculty  to  breathe.  He  stretched  himself  for  this  pur- 
pose on  my  bed,  a  small  camp  bedstead,  and  even  to  this  hour  I 
cannot  drive  away  the  recollection  of  his  gigantic,  well  proportioned 
figure,  occupying  and  supported,  as  if  in  appearance,  only  by  the 
little,  frail  bedstead.  Tlie  leeches  were  of  good  service,  and  his 
left  hand,  though  carrying  it  of  necessity  in  a  sling,  healed  fast. 
His  stay  here  was  short." 



i  ^ 







h : 



I*:  I 


In  addition  to  tlie  few  mentioned  in  the  text,  (see  pp.  14,  .31,  11, 
and  101,)  the  following  have  been  seleeted  for  insertion  in  this 
appendix.  The  subject  may  seem  strange,  but  it  is  surely  one  which 
alfords  room  for  innocent  speculation  on  the  attributes  of  that 
Almighty  Being,  "  who  can  make  alive  and  who  can  kill."  By 
many  these  coincidences  will  be  ascribed  to  accident ;  others  may 
view  them  as  something  more  than  special ;  while  all  must  admit 
that  so  many  links  in  the  chain,  if  the  effect  of  chance,  do  appear 
to  be  singularly  casual. 

Oh  Providence !  how  hidden  arc  thy  ways, — 
Who  shall  presume  to  fathom  thy  decrees .' 
To  thee  let  iiiun  his  suppliant  prayers  raise, 
As  tl:y  dread  mysteries  he  daily  sees. 

Sir  Isaac  lirock  was  born  on  the  fith  October ;  made  lieutenant- 
colonel  2,-'»th  October,  1797  ;  commanded  his  regiment  at  the  battle 
of  Egmont  op  Zee  on  the  tith  October,  179!)  (his  birth-day); 
colonel  30th  October,  1 80.5  ;  assumed  the  office  of  president  of 
Upper  Canada  9th  October,  1811;  and  killed  13th  October,  1812. 

War  was  declared  by  the  United  States  on  the  18th  .Tune,  1812, 
not  without  a  strong  opposition  in  the  house  of  representatives, 
the  division  being  seventy-nine  to  forty-nine  votes.  Thus  this 
day,  which  became  three  years  subsequently  so  memorable  in  the 
.annals  of  Great  Britain,  was  equally  fatal  to  uncle  and  nephew, 
Major-Gcneral  Brock  and  Lieutenant  Tupper,  and  the  forty-nine 
dissentients  to  the  war  tally  with  the  former's  favorite  regiment. 
Moreover,  the  counter  declaration  of  war,  with  the  granting  of 
letters  of  marque  and  reprisals,  was  not  issued  by  Great  Britain  till 
the  13th  of  October,  the  day  on  which  Sir  Isaac  Brock  was  slain. 

Extract  of  a  letter  from  Fordsgrove,  near  London,  dated  27th 
.Tune,  I80G. — "  Isaac  left  town  last  evening  in  the  mail  for  Milford 

Haven Dear  fellow  !  Heaven  knows  when  we  shall  see  him 

again." — Thus  Colonel  Brock  left  London  for  the  last  time  to 
embark  for  Canada  on  the  26th  June,  and  his  nephew^  Lieutenant 




4,  31,  .11, 
•n  in  this 
[)nc  which 
s  of  that 
ill."  By 
hers  may 
ust  admit 
lo  appear 

he  battle 
^h-day)  ; 
ident  of 

e,  1812, 
lius  this 
e  in  the 
iting  of 
tain  till 
s  slain. 
;d  27th 
see  him 
ime  to 

E.  W.  Tupper,  died  at  jNIalta  of  his  wounds  on  the  2<)th  .lune, 
1826,  exactly  twenty  years  after. 

The  only  two  British  general  officers  hitherto  killed  in  actitm  in 
Canada,  derived  their  names  from  two  animals  formerly  very  com- 
mon in  JJritain,  the  wolf  and  the  brock,  (the  latter  being  the  Saxon 
name  for  badger,  and  still  retained  in  the  English  language,)  and 
both  their  christian  and  surnames  consisted  of  the  same  number  of 
letters,  .Tames  Wolfe  and  Isaac  Brock.  Both  generals  fell  on  the 
same  day  of  the  month,  the  13th  of  September,  1 /;")!),  and  the  1 3th 
of  October,  1812,  and  in  places  whose  three  first  letters  were  the 
same,  Quebec  and  Queenstown. 

Since  the  last  coincidence  was  written,  we  accidentally  observed 
in  the  Navy  List  for  July,  183 1,  the  following  extract :  — 
"Mastiff,  (1,  Siirvfyinuj  Vessel  —  Medilerraneiin. 

Licuf.   ('ouiinandiiig Jmnes  Wolfe  .  .  Nov.  2'i,  1830. 

Super.  Lieut,  and  Assist.  Surveyor  .  .  T.  S.  Brock.  .  .  .  Nov.  '22,  1830." 
T.  Saumarez  lirock,  great  nephew  of  Lord  De  Saumarez,  and  a 
near  relative  of  Sir  Isaac  Brock. 

As  C  aptain  Isaac  Hull  captured  the  Guerriere,  so  Major-General 
Isaac  Brock  captured  Brigadier-CJeneral  Hull,  being  the  two  first 
captures  of  any  consequence  made  by  sea  and  land  in  the  late  war. 

Extract  of  a  letter  from  J.  Savery  Brock,  Esq.,  dated  York,  Upper 
Canada,  August  20,  1817. — "I  should  also  mention  that  last  Satur- 
day I  dined  at  Fort  George,  (Niagara,)  by  the  invitation  of  the 
gentlemen  there  and  its  environs  :  we  were  forty-nine  in  number, 
and  it  was  the  anniversary  of  the  capture  of  Detroit.  I  was  invited 
without  their  remembering  the  day  of  the  month  :  it  was  a  curious 

As  two  of  Lieutenant  E.  W.  Tupper  s  brothers  were  drowned,  so 
were  two  of  his  brother  lieutenants  of  the  Sybille. 

The  vacancy,  to  which  Lieutenant  Tupper  was  promoted,  was 
occasioned  by  Lieutenant  (now  Captain  Sir  Thomas,  Bart.)  Thomp- 
son going  home  from  Marseilles  in  June,  182o.  The  name  of  the 
officer,  who  killed  his  uncle  William  and  godfather  in  a  duel,  was 
also  Thompson. 

Several  coincidences  relative  to  General  Wolfe  and  Sir  Isaac 
Brock,  and  the  latter  and  Lieutenant  Tupper,  of  the  Sybille,  have 
already  been  mentioned.  In  Westminster  Abbey  there  is  a  beau- 
tiful monument  to  the  memory  of  General  Wolfe,  placed  on  a  cross 
wall  erected  to  receive  it.     On  the  other  side  of  this  wall  is  another 

'  I 


hirgc  and  handsome  monument  to  the  memory  of  (Captain  Edward 
C'ooke,  of  H.  ]M.  S.  Sybillc,  wlio  was  mortally  wounded  at  the 
capture  of  the  French  frigate,  La  Forte,  in  the  East  Indies,  on  the 
2!Slh  February,  17U9,  and  died  at  Calcutta,  ('a]>tain  C'o(»ke  vnd 
Lieutenant  Tupper  being  the  only  Jiritish  oflleers  of  cither  rank 
mortally  wounded  on  board  the  Sybille.  Ciiptain  Cooke  was  a 
lieutenant  in  the  Victory,  at  Toulon,  with  Lieutenant  Carre  Tupper, 
and  also  distinguished  himself  there, 

(!aptain  and  Lieutenants  on  board  the  Sybille  frigate,  June  IH, 
IS'JtJ,  with  the  date  of  their  commissions  : 

CaptJiin  Sir  Saiiuicl  S.  PclIu-II,  IJarl.,  C.  li.  .  .  .luiu'  Ki,  IKOM. 
Liculcnanls  IMward  (lordon Jiiik!  iV),  1H1;J. 

„  J.  O.  niiss Juiu'  17,  lH->u. 

„  E.  W.  Tui.pcr April  14,  IH-Jd. 

„  II.  A.  (iriftilii liiMc    .'),  IH-JC. 

All  dated  in  June,  excepting  that  of  Lieutenant  Tiipper,  and  the 
Sybille  was  captured  in  the  CJreek  Archipelago  17th  June,  1791. 
Lieutenant  Tupper's  connnission  was  dated  in  Ajirll,  and  he  lost 
his  life  in  June ;  the  commissions  of  Lieutenants  (jordon  and  Bliss 
were  dated  in  June,  and  they  perished  in  April.  Lieutenant  Tupper 
succeeded  to  a  vacancy  which  occurred  in  June,  1820.  Lieutenant 
Gordon  was  made  a  commander  3d  June,  182(i,  and  appointed  to 
command  the  Acorn  25th  Jtine,  1827.  He  perished  about  the  17th 
April,  1828,  and  Colonel  Tupper  was  killed  in  Chile  1 7th  April,  1830. 




in  Edward 
led  at  the 
ies,  on  tlic 
-oftkc  rnd 
iflier  rank 
)ke  was  a 
X'  'I'upper, 

June  IH, 


,  and  tlie 
ne,  171)1. 
id  he  lost 
and  Hliss 
It  I'upper 
ointed  to 
the  ITth 
ril,  1830. 


Extract  from  an  Account  of  the  Public  Dinner  given  in  Gucniftci/, 
on  Tuesday,  Auyuxt  '1\),  182(5,  in  honour  of  Sir  John  Doylv,  Hart., 
G.C.Ji.  and  K.  ('.,  forrnvrly  Lieutcnunt-dovcrnor  of  the  island. 

The  health  of  Sir  John  Doyle  havint;  been  drunk,  he  rose,  and, 
after  some  preliminary  observations,  spoke  as  follows  : — 

"  Is  there  a  profession  in  which  you  do  not  see  native  talent  and 
spirit  arrive  at  eminence  ?  In  the  commercial  line  I  have  myself 
witnessed,  from  this  small  island,  two  Lords  Mayors  of  London.* 
In  the  arts  and  sciences,  you  can  boast  u  Doctor  .lohn  MaccuUoch, 
celebrated  throughout  Europe  for  his  unrivalled  scientific  know- 
ledge ;  a  Jeremie,  who  carries  ofl*  the  prizes  even  for  English 
composition,  in  the  University  of  Cambridge  ;  a  Dobree,  who 
obtained  a  Professor's  chair,  and  succeeded  the  great  I'orsctn.  In 
acts  of  individual  bravery,  none  can  excel  the  youth  of  the  island. 
It  is  but  a  few  years  ago  that  a  fine  young  num.  Captain  Dobree,. 
of  the  royal  navy,  with  other  brave  natives,  in  trying  to  save  a 
shipwrecked  crew,  sacrificed  his  valuable  life.  More  fortunate  was 
the  generous  intrepidity  of  Messrs.  Lefei)vre  and  Thomas  Dobree,  | 
of  the  same  service,  both  of  whom,  at  different  times,  jumped 
overboard,  and  each  rescued  two  British  seamen  frcm  a  watery 
grave.  In  the  navy  and  ''v'  army,  the  smallness  of  the  islaiul 
prevents  your  contributing  so  1  rgely  as  the  more  extended  portion 
of  the  empire  ;  but  what  you  la('k  in  quantity,  you  have  ampl)' 
made  up  in  quality.  Look  to  the  annals  of  war  :  there  you  will 
see  recorded  the  brilliant  achievements  of  your  gallant  coiuitrymen  : 
the  public  gazettes  will  show  you  the  names  of  Saumarez,  lirock, 
Le  Marchant  and  Smith,  with  other  distinguished  characters  in  the 
higher  ranks  of  both  services,  that  do  not  at  this  moment  occur 
to  me  ;  for  there  is  scarcely  a  family  in  the  island  that  has  not 
given  its  share  to  the  general  stock  of  native  reputation  and  renown. 
— When  I  mention  Sir  Isaac  Brock,  General  Le  Marchant,  Sir 

*  The  late  Pctor  Pcrcliard  and  Paul  Le  IMesurier,  Estjuircs,— the  latter 
was  also  Meiiii)i'r  of  I'aiTiaiiicnt  for  Southwark. 

t  iN'ow  Lieutenants  of  the  Royal  Navy. 



i  > 




'  V 




(icorge  Smith,  in  the  higher,  and  (-'aptain  M'('rea,*  Lieutenants 
La  Serre*  and  'J'ujjpcr  in  the  junior  ranks,  I  do  from  my  lieart 
deplore,  that  I  must  speak  of  those  illustrious  meri,  and  brave 
youths,  in  the  tense  that  is  past,  Jis,  nobly  prodigal  of  their  blood 
in  the  service  of  their  king  and  country,  they  have  closed  a  life  of 
glory  on  the  bed  of  honor. t  Their  memories  will  long  be  cherished 
by  a  grateful  country,  and  will  live  in  the  recollection  of  its  ene- 
mies.— Our  Saumarez,  we  still  happily  possess,  not  only  to  adorn 
and  do  honor  to  his  native  land,  but  to  uphold  the  destinies  of  the 
empire,  should  they  be  endangered.  I  lis  fame  will  be  found 
recorde<l  in  every  portion  of  the  globe  where  the  British  flag  has 
been  known  to  fly.  y\nd  well  may  our  brave  islander  exclaim, 
with  the  Roman,  '  Quw  Itcgio  in  Terr  is,  Nostri  non  plena  Laboris.' 

"The  chairman  gave — 'Colonel  Evans  and  the  garrison.' 
"  Colonel  Evans,  after  having  returned  thanks  for  the  garrison 
and  himself  in  appropriate  ternis,  said,  that  lately  arrived  in  this 
island,  and  finding  himself  surrounded  by  the  friends  and  relatives 
of  a  great  man,  the  loss  of  whom  no  one  could  lament  more  than 
he  did,  he  would  beg  leave  to  propose  a  solemn  toast  to  the  memory 
of  that  heroic  officer,  who  he  scarcely  need  say,  was  JSir  Isaac 
Brock.  Attached  to  his  person  by  official  situation,  as  well  as  by 
friendship  at  the  time  of  his  death,  he  could  appreciate  his  merits, 
and  truly  say  that  he  possessed  every  quality  that  constituted  a 
great  man  and  a  good  soldier — brave  and  humane  in  the  highest 
degree,  he  raised  his  fame  in  a  distant  country,  and  saved  a  large 
and  valuable  province  belonging  to  Great  Britain,  by  the  resources 
which  his  own  mind  and  energy  could  alone  have  drawn  out  and 
used,  successfully  to  repel  an  invasion  against  numbers  so  superior, 
that  resistance  was  generally  deemed  hopeless.  He  had  to  defend 
a  frontier  of  many  hundred  miles  with  a  trifling  force,  which  he 
augmented  by  the  influence  of  his  popularity,  and  inspired  by  his 
example.  He  not  only  defended  Upper  Canada,  but  actually  cap- 
tured a  whole  army,  and  a  strong  fortress  ;  his  name  will  live  in 
that  country,  and  in  history  for  ever  ;  and  his  death  was  lamented 
even  by  his  enemies,  or  rather  by  the  enemies  of  his  country,  for 

*  These  two  officers,  both  of  the  87th  reghnent,  were  killed  at  Talavera,  in 
1809.    Captain  Kawdon  IM'Crca  was  only  twenty  years  of  age. 

t  Colonel  Le  Mcsurier  in  the  higher,  and  Captain  Lc  IMarHiant  an.! 
Lieutenant  Le  Mesurier  in  the  junior  ranks  were  omitted,— they  all  fel^ 
in  the  late  Peninsular  war.-  Captain  Carey  Le  ^Lirehant  wasaid-dc-canip  to 
his  father,  when  the  latter  was  slain  at  Salamanca,  in  1812,  and  $ul)se(|uently 
to  Licut.-Gcneral  Hon.  Sir  Walter  Stewart. 





my  heart 

find  brave 

heir  blood 

d  a  life  of 


jf  its  ene- 

f  to  ndorn 

lies  of  the 

be  found 

It  flag  has 

•  exclaim, 



;  garrison 
ed  in  this 
I  relatives 
nore  than 
e  memory 
Sir  Isaac 
veil  as  by 
is  merits, 
tituted  a 
e  highest 
d  a  large 

I  out  and 
o  defend 
vhich  he 
(1  by  his 
ally  cap- 

II  live  in 
ntry,  for 

lavera,  in 

lant  an J 
y  all  fen 
'-camp  to 

he  had,  or  could  have,  no  enemies  ;  and  those  oppos-."!  to  iiini,  on 
learning  his  death,  begged  to  join  in  the  solemn  ceremonies  which 
ensued.  No  man  was  ever  more,  or  n>ore  justly  and  universally 
regretted. — 'To  the  immortal  menu)ry  of  the  late  Sir  Isaac  Mrock.' 

"  This  toast  was  drunk  in  solemn  silence. 

"  Sir  John  Doyle  then  rose  and  spoke  as  follows  :  — 

*' (ientlenien, —  Having  received  permission  from  the  chair,  I  rise 
to  propose  a  toast  which  wotdd  be  well  received  in  any  society 
where  the  enlightened  individiud  is  known.  Hut  here  1  anticipate 
it  will  be  met  by  acclamation  and  enthusiasm.  I  do  not  propose 
his  health,  merely  because  he  is  my  friend,  although  I  feel  truly 
honored  by  his  friendship  ;  and  the  more  so,  as  1  know  that  it 
originated  and  was  cemented  by  his  conviction  of  my  honest  zeal 
for  the  public  good,  and  the  deep  interest  1  took  in  the  welfare  of 
his  native  land.  Hut  I  give  him  as  a  public  man,  who,  to  a  sound, 
vigorous,  and  cultivated  understanding,  joins  a  liberal  and  enlight- 
ened mind, — an  innate  love  of  justice,  and  hatred  of  oppressiim, — 
an  inflexible  adherence  to  that  which  appears  to  him  to  be  right, — 
a  man  too  wise  to  be  cunning.  Armed  with  the  '  menu  conscia  recti,' 
he  marches  straight  forward  to  his  object,  nor  turns  into  the  devious 
path  of  crooked  policy,  and  left-handed  wisdom. 

"  To  these  qualities  are  added  indefatigable  industry,  and  a  pa- 
tience not  to  be  exhausted.  This  is  the  man,  who,  as  a  public 
magistrate  in  high  station,  I  offer  for  yt)ur  acceptance.  Of  his 
private  worth,  I  dare  not  say  all  that  I  feel.  lie  is  present.  Vou 
know  hitn  and  can  duly  appreciate  his  value.  Vou  will  have  anti- 
cipated that  I  mean  the  Hailiff  of  (iuernsey* I  now  propose 

to  you  '  The  health  of  the  IJailiff,  and  unalloyed  happiness  to  the 
island  of  (iuernsey.' 

*'  In  rising  to  return  thanks,  the  chairman  observed,  that  it 
would  be  extraordinary  indeed  if  his  feelings  were  not  overpowered, 
after  the  kind  and  flattering  manner  in  which  Colonel  Evans,  on  his 
left,  had  treated  the  memory  of  a  brother  so  dear  to  him,  and  after 
the  praise  bestowed  upon  himself,  by  the  distinguished  guest  on  his 
right.  If  he  were  deserving  any  part  of  that  praise,  he  was  more 
than  rewarded  by  the  manner  in  which  his  health  had  been  proposed 
and  received, — if  he  had  discharged  his  duty,  he  could  appeal  to 
Sir  John,  who  must  so  often  have  experienced  it,  whether  there 
could  be  a  pleasure,  an  inward  satisfaction,  equal  to  that  which  was 
produced  by  the  consciousness  of  having  performed  a  good  action." 

*  DunicI  Dc  Lisle  Brock,  E:i(|. 

I  s 


I  ll 








Tins  celebrated  aboriginal  warrior,  whose  name  occurs  in  the 
|)revious  i)ages,  was  so  conspicuous  in  the  aniuils  of  the  late  Ame- 
rican war,  for  his  fidelity  and  devotion  to  the  British  cause  and  for 
his  attachment  to  Major-(ieneral  lirock,  that  we  feel  it  to  be  a 
pleasing  act  of  justice  to  his  memory,  the  more  particularly  as  his 
talents  and  labours  are  so  little  known  and  appreciated  on  this  side 
the  Atlantic,  not  to  conclude  this  volume  without  appending  a 
brief  sketch  of  his  life,  and  subjoining  every  particular  we  have 
been  able  to  collect  descriptive  of  his  conduct  and  character. 

Te-cum-sch,  a  Shawanee,  was  born  in  I7(if'  or  1770,  about  the 
same  year  as  his  "  brave  brother  warrior,"  Sir  Isaac  lirock.  lie 
may  be  said  to  have  been  inured  to  war  from  his  childhood,  as  the 
Indians,  with  few  exceptions,  took  part  with  (ireat  Britain  against 
the  Americans  in  their  contest  for  independence.  When  that  in- 
dependence was  achieved,  the  Indian  nations  continued  in  hostility, 
alleging  that  the  United  States  had  infringed  on  their  territories  ; 
and,  in  consequence,  the  settlers  on  the  western  frontier  were  for 
several  years  sadly  harassed  by  their  predatory  incursions.  These 
were  the  more  terrible  because  the  Indians  seldom  extended  quar- 
ter to  the  men,  scalping  them  without  distinction,  and  spared  the 
women  and  children  only  for  captivity.  Abhorrent  as  this  cruel 
mode  of  warfare  may  appear,  and  different  as  it  is  to  the  more 
honor nble  slaughter  of  civilized  enemies,  we  should  not  condemn  it 
without  remembering  the  many  injuries  the  Indians  had  received. 
They  knew  from  sad  experience  that  they  could  place  no  faith  in 
the  whites,  who  had  long  considered  them  as  legal  prey,  and  too 
often  treated  them  as  the  brute  animals  of  the  forest.  Expelled 
from  the  coasts,  and  dispossessed  of  their  hunting  grounds,  they 
had  been  gradually  driven  westward  until  they  had  too  much  cause 
to  apprehend  that  the  cupidity  of  their  oppressors  would  be  satisfied 
only  with  their  utter  extermination.  "  The  red  men  are  melting," 
to  borrow  the  expressive  metaphor  of  a  celebrated  INIiami  chief  of 
that  day,  "like  snow  before  the  sun."     Indeed  it  is  melancholy  to 



iirs  in  the 
late  Anie- 
ISC  and  for 
it  to  bi'  a 
larly  as  liis 
III  this  side 
pendirii^  a 
r  we  have 

about  the 
'ock.  Me 
yd,  as  the 
tin  against 
.'n  that  in- 

1  liostility, 
jrritories  ; 
r  were  for 
s.  These 
ded  qtiar- 
ipared  the 
this  cruel 
the  more 
)ndemn  it 

o  faith  in 
,  and  too 

ids,  they 
ich  cause 

2  satisfied 
i  chief  of 
icholy  to 

reflect  that  the  aborigines  of  l)oth  continents  of  Anu'rica  h.iv;<,  from 
tlieir  first  intercourse  with  Europeans,  f)r  their  descendants,  e\[)e- 
rienced  nothing  l)ut  fraud,  spoliation,  cruelty,  and  ingratitude. 

lint,  to  return  from  this  digression.  In  I  "!>(),  about  which  period 
'rc-cum-seh  first  gave  proofs  of  that  talent  and  daring  which  so 
distinguished  his  after-life,  (K-neral  Ilarnier  was  dispatched  with  a 
competent  force  to  punish  these  incursions  ;  but  lie  was  glad  to 
return,  with  the  hiss  of  many  of  his  men.  In  the  following  year, 
(ieneral  St.  (lair  proceeded  with  another  army  to  ravage  the  Miami 
and  Shawanee  settlements,  and  was  even  more  unfortunate  than  his 
predecessor,  as  the  Indians  boldly  advanced  to  meet  him  on  the 
way,  attacked  his  encampment,  and  put  his  troops  to  a  total  rout, 
in  which  the  greater  part  were  cut  off  and  destroyed.  In  17!' I, 
however,  a  much  more  formidable  expedition,  under  (Jeneral  Wayne, 
entered  the  Indian  territory  ;  the  warriors  gradually  retired  as  the 
Americans  advanced,  but  at  length  imprudently  determinerl  on 
making  a  stand.  In  the  iiattle  which  ensued  the  Indians  were  so 
completely  discomfited,  that,  the  following  year,  they  agreed  to  the 
treaty  of  (ireenvillc,  by  which  they  were  compelled  to  cede  a  large 
tract  of  country  as  an  indemnity  for  past  injuries.  As  Te-cum-seh 
had  then  scarcely  completed  his  twenty-fifth  year,  and  as  the  In- 
dians pay  great  deference  to  age,  it  is  not  probable  that  he  had 
any  hand  in  this  treaty,  the  more  especially  as,  from  that  period  to 
1812,  he  laboured  incessantly  to  unite  the  numerous  aboriginal 
tribes  of  the  North  American  continent  in  one  grand  confederacy, 
for  the  threefold  purpose  of  endeavouring  to  regain  their  former 
possessions  as  far  as  the  Ohio,  of  resisting  the  further  encroach- 
ments of  the  whites,  and  of  preventing  the  future  cession  of  land 
by  any  one  tribe,  without  the  sanction  of  all,  obtained  in  a  general 
council.  ^^'ith  this  object  he  visited  the  different  nations,  and 
having  assembled  the  elders,  he  enforced  his  disinterested  views  in 
strains  of  such  impassioned  and  persuasive  eloquence  that  the 
greater  part  promised  him  their  co-operation  and  assistance.  But 
to  form  a  general  alliance  of  so  many  and  such  various  tribes 
required  a  higher  degree  of  patriotism  and  civilization  than  the 
Indians  had  attained.  From  the  numbers,  however,  who  ranged 
themselves  with  Te-cum-seh  under  the  British  standard,  on  the 
breaking  out  of  the  war  in  1812,  it  is  evident  that  he  had  acquired 
no  little  iiiriuence  over  them,  and  that  his  almost  incredible  exer- 
tions, both  of  mind  and  body,  had  not  been  altogether  thrown 


I  i 




1  > 







In  elucidation  of  the  subsequent  narrative  it  is  necessary,  ere  wc 
proceed  further,  to  relate  that,  about  the  year  1804,  the  brother  of 
Te-cum-seh  proclaimed  himself  a  prophet  who  had  been  comman- 
ded by  the  Great  Spirit,  the  Creator  of  the  red,  but  not  of  the 
white,  people,  to  announce  to  his  children,  that  the  misfortunes  by 
which  they  had  been  assailed  arose  from  their  having  abandoned 
the  morle  of  life  which  he  had  prescribed  to  them.  He  declared 
that  thi^y  must  return  to  their  primitive  habits, — relinquish  the  use 
of  ardent  spirits, — and  clothe  themselves  in  skins,  and  not  in  wool- 
lens. His  fame  soon  spread  among  the  surrounding  nations,  and 
his  power  to  perform  miracles  was  generally  believed.  He  was 
joined  by  many,  and  not  a  few  came  from  a  great  distance,  and 
cheerfully  submitted  to  much  hardship  and  fatigue,  that  they  might 
behold  the  prophet,  and  then  return.  He  first  established  himself 
at  Greenville,  within  the  boundary  of  the  United  States,  but  the 
inhabitants  of  Ohio  becoming  alarmed  at  the  immense  assemblage 
of  Indians  on  their  frontier,  the  American  authorities  insisted  on 
his  removal.  Accordingly  he  proceeded,  in  1808,  to  the  Wabash, 
and  fixed  his  residence  on  the  northern  bank  of  that  river,  near  the 
mouth  of  the  Tippecanoe.  Here  his  popularity  declined,  but 
through  the  influence  of  Te-cura-seh,  he  was  again  joined  by  many 
among  the  neighbouring  tribes.  The  prophet's  temporal  concerns 
were  conducted  by  Te-cum-seh,  who  adroitly  availed  himself  of  his 
brother's  spiritual  power  to  promote  his  favorite  scheme  of  a  general 

In  1811,  Te-cum-seh,  accompanied  by  several  hundred  warriors, 
encamped  near  \'incennes,  the  capital  of  Indiana,  and  demanded 
an  interview  with  the  governor  of  the  state,  Major-General  Harrison, 
the  same  officer  who,  in  1813,  commanded  the  victorious  troops  at 
the  battle  of  the  Thames,  in  which  Te-cum-seh  lost  his  life.  The 
interview  was  agreed  to,  and  the  governor  enquired  whether  the 
Indians  intended  to  come  armed  to  the  council.  Te-cum-seh  replied 
that  he  would  be  governed  by  the  conduct  of  the  white  people ;  if 
they  came  armed,  his  warriors  would  be  armed  also  j  if  not,  his 
followers  would  come  unarmed.  The  governor  informed  him  that 
he  would  be  attended  by  a  troop  of  dragoons,  dismounted,  with  their 
side  arms  only,  and  that  the  Indians  might  bring  their  war  clubs 
and  tomahawks.  The  meeting  took  place  in  a  large  arbour,  on 
one  side  of  which  were  the  dragoons,  eighty  in  number,  seated  in 
rows  ;  on  the  other  the  Indians.  liut  besides  their  sabres,  the 
dragoons  were  armed  with  pistols.     The  following  incident  is  said 




ssary,  ere  wc 
he  brother  of 
!en  comman- 
t  not  of  the 
sfortunes  by 
I  abandoned 
He  declared 
[uish  the  use 
not  in  wool- 
lations,  and 
J.     He  was 
islance,  and 
they  might 
ihed  himself 
tes,  but  the 
insisted  on 
le  Wabash, 
er,  near  the 
:;lined,   but 
■d  by  many 
il  concerns 
nself  of  his 
»f  a  general 

I  warriors, 

I  troops  at 
life.  The 
lether  the 
ieh  replied 
eoplej  if 
f  not,  his 

him  that 
with  their 
war  clubs 
rbour,  on 
seated  in 
bres,  the 
nt  is  said 

to  have  occurred  at  this  interview.  Te-cum-seh  looked  round  for 
a  seat,  but  not  finding  one  provided  for  him,  he  betrayed  his  sur- 
prise, and  his  eyes  flashed  fire.  The  governor,  perceiving  the  cause, 
instantly  ordered  a  chair.  One  of  the  council  offered  the  warrior 
his  chair,  and,  bowing  respectfully,  said  to  him  :  "  Warrior,  your 
father,  General  Harrison,  offers  you  a  seat."  "  My  father  !  "  ex- 
claimed Te-cum-seh,  extending  his  hand  towards  the  Heavens, 
"  the  sun  Is  my  father,  and  the  earth  is  my  mother  ;  she  gives  me 
nourishment,  and  I  will  repose  on  her  hosom."  He  then  threw 
himself  on  the  ground.  When  the  governor,  who  was  seated  in 
front  of  the  dragoons,  commenced  his  address,  Te-cum-seh  de- 
clared that  he  could  not  hear  him,  and  requested  him  to  remove 
his  seat  to  an  open  space  near  himself.  The  governor  complied, 
and  in  his  speech  complained  of  the  constant  depredations  and 
murders  which  were  committed  by  the  Indians  of  Tippecanoe  ;  of 
the  refusal  on  their  part  to  give  up  the  criminals ;  and  of  the 
increasing  accumulation  of  force  in  that  quarter,  for  the  avowed 
purpose  of  compelling  the  United  States  to  relinquish  lands,  which 
they  had  fairly  purchased  of  the  rightful  owners.  Te-cum-seh, 
in  his  answer,  denied  that  he  had  afforded  protection  to  the  guilty, 
but  manfully  admitted  his  design  of  forming  a  confederacy  of  all 
the  red  nations  of  that  continent.  He  observed,  that  "  the  system, 
which  the  United  States  pursued  of  purchasing  lands  from  the 
Indians,  he  viewed  as  a  mighty  water,  ready  to  overflow  his  people, 
and  that  the  confederacy  which  he  was  forming  among  the  tribes, 
to  prevent  any  tribe  from  selling  land  without  the  consent  of  the 
others,  was  the  dam  he  was  erecting,  to  resist  this  mighty  water." 
And  he  added,  "  your  great  father,  the  president,  may  sit  over  the 
mountains  and  drink  his  wine,  but  if  he  continue  this  policy,  you 
and  I  will  have  to  meet  on  the  battle  field."  He  also  admitted, 
that  he  was  then  on  his  way  to  the  Creek  nation,  for  the  purpose 
he  had  just  avowed,  and  he  continued  his  journey  two  days  after, 
with  twelve  or  fifteen  of  his  warriors.  Having  visited  the  Creek 
and  other  southern  tribes^  he  crossed  the  Mississippi,  and  continued 
a  northern  course  as  far  as  the  river  Demoins,  whence  he  returned 
to  the  Wabash  by  land.  But  a  sad  reverse  of  fortune  awaited  his 
return  ;  he  found  his  town  consumed,  his  bravest  warriors  slain, 
and  a  large  deposit  of  provisions  destroyed.  On  his  departure, 
the  settlement  at  Tippecanoe  was  left  in  charge  of  his  brother,  the 
prophet,  with  strict  injunctions  to  prevent  all  hostile  incursions,  as 
they  might  lead  to  extremities  before  his  plans  were  matured.    The 




'I  t 

I  I 

■ii  I 




prophet,  however,  wanted  cither  the  inclination  or  the  authority 
to  follow  these  injunctions,  and  the  Americans  assert,  that  murder 
and  rapine  occurred  now  so  frequently,  that  they  were  compelled 
in  their  own  defence,  to  punish  the  delinquents,  Accoi'dingly, 
CJeneral  Harrison  proceeded  with  nearly  a  thousand  men  to  Tippe- 
canoe, and  on  his  approach,  in  November,  181 1,  was  met  by  about 
six  hundred  warriors  ;  a  battle  ensued,  in  which  the  Indians,  de- 
prived by  the  absence  of  their  chief,  of  his  counsel  and  example, 
were  defeated,  but  with  nearly  equal  loss  on  both  sides.  Assured 
by  the  prophet  that  the  American  bullets  would  not  injure  them, 
tliey  rushed  on  the  bayonets  with  their  war  clubs,  and  exposed 
their  persons  Mith  a  fatal  fearlessness.  But  the  propliet  himself 
remained  during  the  battle,  in  security  on  an  adjacent  eminence  j 
he  was  chaunting  a  war  song,  when  information  was  brought  to 
him  that  his  men  were  falling,  "  Let  them  fight  on,  for  my  pre- 
diction will  soon  be  verified,"  was  the  substance  of  his  reply,  and 
he  resumed  his  song  in  a  louder  key  !  ! 

The  hostility  of  Te-cum-seh,  to  those  whom  he  had  ever  con- 
sidered as  the  spoilers  of  his  country,  was,  if  possible,  redoubled  by 
this  severe  act  of  retaliation.  General  Harrison,  in  particular, 
incurred  his  personal  enmity,  and  he  declared  openly  that  he  would 
seek  for  vengeance.  Nor  was  he  backward  in  putting  his  threats 
into  execution.  Early  in  1812,  the  Indians  renewed  their  hostile 
incursions,  but  they  were  now  treated  with  unusual  forbearance,  in 
the  hope  that  they  would  remain  neutral  in  the  war  with  Great 
Britain,  which  the  American  government  well  knew  was  near  at 
hand.  On  its  declaration  in  June,  however,  Te-cum-seh  eagerly 
embraced  the  opportunity  which  it  afforded,  not  only  to  promote 
his  long  meditated  public  views,  but  to  avenge  his  private  injuries, 
and,  hastening  with  his  warriors  to  Upper  Canada,  he  had  soon 
the  gratification  of  witnessing,  at  Detroit,  the  surrender  of  the  4th 
U,  S,  infantry,  (or  heroes  of  Tippecanoe,  as  they  were  then  deno- 
minated,) which  regiment  claimed  the  principal  merit  of  having, 
the  preceding  year,  defeated  his  followers  and  destroyed  his  settle- 
ment. In  the  contest  which  ensued,  with  varying  fortune,  for  the 
preservation  of  Detroit  and  the  wester  districts  of  Upper  Canada, 
Te-cum-seh  was  of  essential  service,  an  lie  was  constantly  engaged 
with  the  enemy,  in  the  neighbourhood,  until  the  autumn  of  1813, 
when  the  defeat  of  the  British  fleet  on  Lake  Erie,  gave  the  Ameri- 
cans an  irresistible  advantage.  To  prevent  the  communication  with 
the  army  on  the  Niagara  being  intercepted  by  a  very  superior  force 


at  murder 

to  Tippe- 
t  by  about 
(Hans,  de- 
l  example. 
ure  them, 
d  exposed 
et  himself 
minence  } 
rought  to 
r  my  pre- 
eply,  and 

ever  con- 

oubled  by 


he  would 

s  threats 

ir  hostile 

ranee,  in 

th  Great 

near  at 




ad  soon 

the  4  th 

n  deno- 


s  settle- 

for  the 



f  1813, 


jn  with 

)r  force 



under  Major-General  Harrison,  the  evacuation  of  Detroit,  Amherst- 
burg,  &c.  became  unavoidable.  Te-cum-seh  at  first  refused  to 
consent  to  any  retrogade  movement,  and  taunted  the  British  com- 
mander. Proctor,  with  promoting  the  destruction  of  the  Indians ; 
but  he  was  finally  prevailed  upon  to  accompany  the  troops  with  his 
warriors.  They  retreated  along  the  banks  of  the  river  Thames,  and 
were  pursued  and  overtaken  near  the  Moravian  village,  eighty  miles 
from  Sandwich,  by  Harrison,  with  about  three  thousand  men.  When 
compelled  to  give  battle,  on  the  ;>th  of  October,  Major-(ieneral 
Proctor  could  only  muster  about  six  hundred  regulars,  and  rather 
more  than  the  same  number  of  Indians.  The  former  were  posted 
in  single  files  in  two  lines,  their  left  resting  on  the  river,  their  right 
on  a  narrow  swamp,  beyond  wliicli  were  the  Indians,  reaching 
obliquely  backwards  to  a  second  and  much  broader  swamp,  so  that 
neither  flank  of  the  allies  could  be  easily  turned.  The  enemy 
commenced  the  attack  with  a  regiment  of  mounted  riflemen,  the 
6lite  of  their  army,  formed  into  two  divisions  of  five  hundred  men 
each,  one  of  which  charged  the  regulars  with  great  impetuosity, 
while  the  latter  advanced  with  a  company  of  foot  against  the 
Indians.  The  regulars,  dissatisfied  by  fancied  or  real  neglect,  and 
dispirited  by  long  continued  exposure  and  privation,  made  but  a 
very  feeble  resistance  ;  their  ranks  were  pierced  and  broken,  and 
being  placed  between  two  fires,  they  immediately  surrendered,  with 
the  trifling  loss  of  twelve  killed  and  twenty-two  wounded.  But 
"  the  contest  with  the  Indians  on  the  left  was  more  obstinate. 
They  reserved  their  fire,  till  the  heads  of  the  columns,  and  the  front 
line  on  foot,  had  approached  within  a  few  paces  of  their  position. 
A  very  destructive  fire  was  then  commenced  by  them,  about  the 
time  the  firing  ceased  between  the  British  and  first  battalion. 
Colonel  Johnson  finding  his  advanced  guard,  composing  the  head 
of  his  column,  nearly  all  cut  down  by  the  first  fire,  and  himself 
severely  wounded,  immediately  ordered  his  columns  to  dismount 
and  come  up  in  line  before  the  enemy,  the  ground  which  they  occu- 
pied being  unfavorable  for  operations  on  horseback.  The  line  was 
promptly  formed  on  foot,  and  a  fierce  conflict  was  then  maintained, 
for  seven  or  eight  minutes,  with  considerable  execution  on  both 
sides  ;  but  the  Indians  had  not  sufficient  firmness  to  sustain  very 
long  a  fire  which  was  close,  and  warm,  and  severely  destructive. 
They  gave  way  and  fled  through  the  brush  into  the  outer  swamp, 
not  however  before  they  bad  learnt  the  total  discomfiture  of  their 
allies,  and  had  lost  by  the  fall  of  Te-cum-seh,  a  chief  in  whom 





I  ! 


(i'li  W 






;  i  ' 


i  i. 






were  united  the  prowess  of  Achilles  and  authority  of  Agamemnon."* 
These  gallant  warriors  did  not,  however,  give  way  until  Te-cum-seh 
was  shot  dead  in  the  act  of  advancing  to.  close  with  ColonelJohnson, 
who,  although  wounded,  continued  on  horseback,  animating  his  men, 
and  they  retired  slowly,  disputing  the  ground  with  much  obstinacy 
for  some  distance.  They  left  thirty-three  slain  on  the  field,  besides 
many  killed  in  the  retreat. 

Te-cum-seh  was  slain  in  his  forty-fourth  year,  and  of  the  many 
Indian  chiefs  who  distinguished  themselves  in  the  wars  of  the 
whites,  he  was  undoubtedly  the  greatest  since  the  days  of  Pontiac.f 
In  early  life  he  was  addicted  to  inebriety,  the  prevailing  vice  of  the 
Indians,  but  his  good  sense  and  resolution  conquered  the  habit, 
and,  in  his  later  years,  he  was  remarkable  for  temperance.  Glory 
became  his  ruling  passion,  and  in  its  acquisition  he  was  careless  of 
wealth,  as,  although  his  presents  and  booty  must  have  been  of  con- 
siderable value,  he  preserved  little  or  nothing  for  himself.  In 
height  he  was  five  feet  ten  inches,  well  formed,  and  capable  of 
enduring  fatigue  in  an  extraordinary  degree.  His  carriage  was 
erec^  and  commanding,  and  there  was  an  air  of  hauteur  in  his 
countenance,  arising  from  an  elevated  pride  of  soul,  which  did  not 
forsake  it  when  life  was  extinct.  He  was  habitually  taciturn,  but 
when  excited,  his  eloquence  was  nervous,  concise,  and  figurative,  as 
will  be  seen  by  the  subjoined  specimens,  suffering  as  they  do  under 
all  the  disadvantages  of  translation.  His  dress  was  plain,  and  he 
was  never  known  to  indulge  in  the  gaudy  decoration  of  his  person, 
which  is  the  common  practice  of  the  Indians.  On  the  day  of  his 
death,  he  wore  a  dressed  deer  skin  coat  and  pantaloons.  He  was 
present  in  almost  every  action  against  the  Americans,  from  the 
period  of  Ilarmer's  defeat,  to  the  battle  of  the  Thames, — was 
several  times  wounded, — and  always  sought  the  hottest  of  the  fire. 
After  the  victory,  his  lifeless  corpse  was  viewed  with  great  interest 
by  the  American  officers,  who  declared  thatthe  contour  of  his  fea- 
tures was  majestic  even  in  death.  And  notwithstanding  it  is  said 
by  an  American  writer,  that  "  some  of  the  Kentuckians  disgraced 
themselves  by  committing  indignities  on  his  dead  body.  He  was 
scalped,  and  otherwise  disfigured. "^ 

*  Anieiican  History. 

t  Mrs.  Grant,  in  lier  "Memoirs  of  an  American  Laily,"  in  tlie  second 
volnme,  describes  tiie  deeds  of  Pondiiic,  as  siic  spells  his  name,  who,  in  17GI, 
waged  war  against  the  Hritish  in  Canada,  and  nearly  captiued  Detroit  by 
surprise.  Before  the  capture  of  Quebec,  by  Wolfe,  in  175»,  his  alliance  was 
anxiously  courted  both  by  the  French  and  English.— Kd. 



5  his  men, 
d,  besides 

the  many 
rs  of  tlie 
ice  of  the 
;he  habit, 
!.  Glory 
areless  of 
:n  of  con- 
self.  In 
apable  of 
•iage  was 
!ur  in  his 
h  did  not 
iturn,  but 
rative,  as 
do  under 
I,  and  he 

ay  of  his 

He  was 
rom  the 
[)s, — was 

the  fire. 


his  fea- 
it  is  said 


He  was 

le  second 
),  in  1701, 
letroit  by 
iance  was 

V.xlract  from    "Hunters  Mrmuirs  of  a  I'njUh'ity  among  the  Indians 
of  North  America." — London,   IS'Jl. 

"  In  the  following  spring,  a  party  of  thirty  hunters  and  six  or 
seven  squaws  started  on  a  visit  to  some  of  their  connections,  who 
remained  at  the  Osage  towns  on  the  Grand  Osage  river,*  taking 
me  with  them.  Our  course  was  up  the  Arkansas  for  a  considerable 
distance  ;  thence  across  the  highlands,  till  we  struck  the  head 
waters  of  the  Grand  Osage  river,  wliich  we  descended,  to  the  village 
belonging  to  Clermont,  or  the  liuilder  of  Towns,  a  celebrated 
Osage  chief.  We  remained  among  the  Grand  Osages,  till  early  in 
the  next  fall.  During  our  stay,  I  saw  a  number  of  white  people, 
who,  from  different  motives,  resorted  to  this  nation  :  among  them, 
was  a  clergyman,  who  preached  several  times  to  the  Indians  through 
an  interpreter.  He  was  the  first  Christian  preacher  that  I  had  ever 
heard  or  seen.  The  Indians  treated  him  with  great  respect,  and 
listened  to  his  discourses  with  profound  attention  ;  but  could  not, 
as  I  heard  them  observe,  comprehend  the  doctrines  he  wished  to 
inculcate.  It  may  be  appropriately  mentioned  here,  that  the  In- 
dians are  accustomed,  in  their  own  debates,  never  to  speak  but  one 
at  a  time  ;  while  all  others,  constituting  the  audience,  invariably 
listen  with  patience  and  attention  till  their  turn  to  speak  arrives. 
This  respect  is  more  particularly  observed  towards  strangers  ;  and 
the  slightest  deviation  from  it  would  be  regarded  by  them  as  rude, 
indecorous,  and  highly  offensive.  It  is  this  trait  in  the  Indian 
character  which  many  of  the  missionaries  mistake  for  a  serious 
impression  made  on  their  minds  ;  and  which  has  led  to  many 
exaggerated  accounts  of  their  conversion  to  Christianity. 

"  Some  of  the  white  people  whom  I  met,  as  before  noticed, 
among  the  Osages,  were  traders,  and  others  were  reputed  to  be 
runners  from  their  Great  Father  beyond  the  great  waters,  to  invite 
the  Indians  to  take  up  the  tomahawk  against  the  settlers.  They 
made  many  long  talks,  and  distributed  many  valuable  presents  j 
but  without  being  able  to  shake  the  resolution  which  the  Osages 
had  formed,  to  preserve  peace  with  their  Great  Father,  the  President. 
Their  determinations  were,  however,  to  undergo  a  more  severe 
trial :  Te-cum-seh,  the  celebrated  Shawanee  warrior  and  chief,  in 
company  with  Francis  the  prophet,  now  made  his  appearance 
among  them. 

*  "  To  understand  this  subject  fully,  it  should  be  borne  in  mind  that  a  part 
of  the  Osages,  not  long  since,  with  the  chiefs  Big  Track  and  White  Hair 
for  their  leaders,  had  separated  from  the  Grand  Osage  nation,  settled  on  the 
Arkansas  river,  aiul  sustained  their  independence. 

I   ■'' 






He  addressed 


in  long, 



pathetic  strains ; 


an  assembly, 

more  numerous 

than  had 


been  witnessed  on 


f  ; 

!  \ 

\  I 





any  former  occasion,  listened  to  him  with  an  intensely  agitated, 
though  profoimdly  respectful  interest  and  attention.  In  fact,  so 
great  was  the  effect  produced  by  Te-cum-seh's  eloquence,  that  the 
chiefs  adjourned  the  council,  shortly  after  he  had  closed  his  ha- 
rjingue  j  nor  did  they  finally  come  to  a  decision  on  the  great 
question  in  debate  for  several  days  afterwards. 

"  I  wish  it  was  in  my  power  to  do  justice  to  the  eloquence  of 
this  distinguished  man  :  but  it  is  utterly  impossible.  The  richest 
colours,  shaded  with  a  master's  pencil,  would  fall  infinitely  short  of 
the  glowing  finish  of  the  original.  The  occasion  and  subject  were 
peculiarly  adapted  to  call  into  action  all  the  powers  of  genuine 
patriotism  ;  and  such  language,  such  gestures,  and  such  feelings 
and  fulness  of  soul  contending  for  utterance,  were  exhibited  by 
this  untutored  native  of  the  forest  in  the  central  wilds  of  America, 
as  no  audience,  I  am  persuaded,  either  in  ancient  or  modern  times, 
ever  before  witnessed, 

"  My  readers  may  think  some  qualification  due  to  this  opinion  j 
but  none  is  necessary.  The  unlettered  Te-cum-seh  gave  extempo- 
raneous utterance  only  to  what  he  felt ;  it  was  a  simple,  but  vehe- 
ment narration  of  the  wrongs  imposed  by  the  white  people  on  the 
Indians,  and  an  exhortation  for  the  latter  to  resist  them.  The 
whole  addressed  to  an  audience  composed  of  individuals  who  had 
been  educated  to  prefer  almost  any  sacrifice  to  that  of  personal 
liberty,  and  even  death  to  the  degradation  of  their  nation  j  and 
who,  on  this  occasion,  felt  the  portraiture  of  Te-cum-seh  but  too 
strikingly  identified  with  their  own  condition,  wrongs,  and  sufferings. 

"  This  discourse  made  an  impression  on  my  mind,  which,  I 
think,  will  last  as  long  as  I  live.  I  cannot  repeat  it  verbatim, 
though  if  I  could,  it  would  be  a  mere  skeleton,  without  the  rounding 
finish  of  its  integuments  :  it  would  only  be  the  shadow  of  the  sub- 
stance J  because  the  gestures,  and  the  interest  and  feelings  excited 
by  the  occasion,  and  which  constitute  the  essentials  of  its  character, 
would  be  altogether  wanting.  Nevertheless,  I  shall,  as  far  as  my 
recollection  serves,  make  the  attempt,  and  trust  to  the  indulgence 
of  my  readers  for  an  apology  for  the  presumptuous  digression. 

"  When  the  Osages  and  distinguished  strangers  had  assembled, 
Te-cum-seh  arose  ;  and  after  a  pause  of  some  minutes,  in  which 
he  surveyed  his  audience  in  a  very  dignified,  though  respectfully 
complaisant  and  sympathizing  manner,  he  commenced  as  follows  : 




ic  strains  ; 
itnessed  on 
y  agitated. 
In  fact,  so 
e,  that  the 
ed  his  ha- 
the  great 

>quence  of 
rhe  richest 
ly  short  of 
bject  were 
)f  genuine 
jh  feelings 
bibited  by 
ern  times, 

I  opinion  j 
but  vehe- 
)le  on  the 
m.     The 
1  who  had 
on }    and 
h  but  too 
which,  I 
the  sub- 
s  excited 
ir  as  my 

n  which 
ollows  : 

"  '  Brothers, — We  all  belong  to  one  family  ;  we  are  all  cliildron 
of  the  Great  Spirit ;  we  walk  in  the  same  path  ;  slake  our  thirst 
at  the  same  spring  ;  and  now  alfuirs  of  the  greatest  concern  lead 
us  to  smoke  the  pipe  around  the  same  council  fire  ! 

"  '  Brothers, — We  are  friends  ;  we  must  assist  each  other  to 
bear  our  burdens.  The  blood  of  many  of  our  fathers  and  brothers 
has  run  like  water  on  the  ground,  to  satisfy  the  avarice  of  the  white 
men.  We,  ourselves,  are  threatened  with  a  great  evil  j  nothing 
will  pacify  tliem  but  the  destruction  of  all  the  red  men. 

"  '  Brothers, — When  the  white  men  first  set  foot  on  our  grounds, 
they  were  hungry ;  they  had  no  place  on  whicli  to  spread  tlieir 
blankets,  or  to  kindle  their  fires.  They  were  feeble  ;  they  could 
do  nothing  for  themselves.  Our  fathers  commiserated  their  distress, 
and  shared  freely  with  them  whatever  the  Great  Spirit  had  given 
his  red  children.  They  gave  them  food  when  hungry,  medicine 
when  sick,  spread  skins  for  them  to  sleep  on,  and  gave  tliem  grounds, 
that  they  might  hunt  and  raise  corn. — Brothers,  the  white  people 
are  like  poisonous  serpents  :  when  chilled,  they  are  feeble  and 
harmless ;  but  invigorate  them  with  warmth,  and  they  sting  their 
benefactors  to  death. 

" '  The  white  people  came  among  us  feeble ;  and  now  that  we 
have  made  them  strong,  they  wish  to  kill  us,  or  drive  us  back,  as 
they  would  wolves  and  panthers. 

"  '  Brothers, — The  white  men  are  not  friends  to  the  Indians  : 
at  first,  they  only  asked  for  land  sufficient  for  a  wigwam ;  now, 
nothing  will  satisfy  them  but  the  whole  of  our  hunting  grounds, 
from  the  rising  to  the  setting  sun. 

"  '  Brothers, — The  white  men  want  more  than  our  hunting 
grounds  ;    they  wish  to  kill  our  old  men,  women,  and  little  ones. 

"  'Brothers, — Many  winters  ago,  there  was  no  land  ;  the  sun 
did  not  rise  and  set :  all  was  darkness.  The  Great  Spirit  made  all 
things.  He  gave  the  white  people  a  home  beyond  the  great  waters. 
He  supplied  these  grounds  with  game,  and  gave  them  to  his  red 
children  ;   and  he  gave  them  strength  and  courage  to  defend  them. 

"  '  Brothers, — My  people  wish  for  peace  ;  the  red  men  all  wish 
for  peace  :  but  where  the  white  people  are,  there  is  no  peace  for 
them,  except  it  be  on  the  bosom  of  our  mother. 

" '  Brothers, — The  white  men  despise  and  cheat  the  Indians ; 
they  abuse  and  insult  them  ;  they  do  not  think  the  red  men  suffi- 
ciently good  to  live. 

"  *  The  red  men  have  borne  many  and  great  injuries  j    they 






oiiglit  to  sulTer  them  no  longer.  My  people  w  ill  not ;  they  are 
determined  on  vengeance  ;  they  have  taken  up  the  tomahawk  ; 
they  will  make  it  fat  with  blood  j  they  will  drink  the  blood  of  the 
white  people. 

"  '  Brothers, — My  people  are  brave  and  numerous  ;  but  the 
white  people  are  too  strong  for  them  alone.  I  wish  you  to  take 
up  the  tomahawk  with  them.  If  we  all  unite,  we  will  cause  the 
rivers  to  stain  the  great  waters  with  their  blood. 

"  'Brothers, — If  you  do  not  unite  with  us,  they  will  first  destroy 
us,  and  then  you  will  fall  an  easy  prey  to  them.  They  have  des- 
troyed many  nations  of  red  men  because  they  were  not  united, 
because  they  were  not  friends  to  each  other. 

"  *  Brothers, — The  white  people  send  runners  amongst  us ;  they 
wish  to  make  us  enemies,  that  they  may  sweep  over  and  desolate 
our  hunting  grounds,  like  devastating  winds,  or  rushing  waters, 

*'  '  Brothers, — Our  Great  Father,  over  the  great  waters,  is  angry 
with  the  white  people,  our  enemies.  lie  will  send  his  brave  war- 
riors against  them  j  he  will  send  us  rifles,  and  whatever  else  we 
want — he  is  our  friend,  and  we  are  his  children. 

"  '  Brothers, — \Mio  are  the  white  people  that  we  should  fear 
them  ?  They  cannot  run  fast,  and  are  good  marks  to  shoot  at  : 
they  are  only  men  ;  our  fathers  have  killed  many  of  them :  we 
are  not  squaws,  and  we  will  stain  the  earth  red  with  their  blood. 

"  '  Brothers, — The  Great  Spirit  is  angry  with  our  enemies  ;  he 
speaks  in  thunder,  and  the  earth  swallows  up  villages,  and  drinks 
up  the  Mississippi,  'i'he  great  waters  will  cover  their  lowlands  5 
their  corn  cannot  grow  ;  and  the  (ireat  Spirit  will  sweep  those  who 
escape  t(»  the  hills  from  the  earth  with  his  terrible  breath. 

"  '  Brothers, — AVe  must  be  united  ;  we  must  smoke  the  same 
pipe  ;  we  must  fight  each  other's  battles  ;  and  more  than  all,  we 
must  love  the  Great  Spirit  :  he  is  for  us  ;  he  will  destroy  our  ene- 
mies, and  make  all  his  red  children  happy.' 

"  On  the  following  day,  Francis  the  prophet  addressed  the  Osages 
in  council  ;  and  although  he  repeated  almost  precisely  the  language 
of  Te-cum-seh,  and  enlarged  considerably  more  on  the  power  and 
disposition  of  th^^  Great  Spirit ;  yet  his  discourse  produced  compa- 
ratively little  efi  ;ct  on  his  audience.  He  was  not  a  favourite 
among  the  Indians ,  and  I  am  of  opinion,  that  he  did  more  injury 
than  benefit  to  the  cause  he  undertook  to  espouse. 

"  After  they  had  concluded,  I  looked  upon  war  as  inevitable  ; 
and  its  consequences  contemplated  the  destruction  of  our  enennes, 



J  they  Are 
tomahawk  ; 
lood  of  the 

;  but  tlie 
r^ou  to  take 
1  cause  the 

and  the  restoration  of  the  Indians  to  their  primitive  rij^iils,  power, 
and  happiness.  Tliere  was  nothing  1  then  so  ardently  desired  as 
that  of  being  a  warrior,  and  I  even  envied  those,  who  were  to  achieve 
these  important  objects,  tlie  fame  and  glory  that  would  rechtimd  as 
a  necessary  result.  In  a  shi)rt  time  afterwards,  however,  the  Osages 
rejected  Te-cum-seh's  proposals,  and  all  these  brilliant  prospects 

rst  destroy 
'  have  des- 
lot  united, 

t  us ;  they 
id  desolate 
i,  is  angry 
•rave  war- 
er  else  we 

lould  fear 
shoot  at  : 
hem  :  we 
mies  ;  he 
nd  drinks 
owlands  ; 
hose  who 

the  same 

in  all,  we 

our  ene- 

le  Osages 
jwer  and 
1  compa- 
fe  injury 

vitable  ; 

Speech  of  Te-ctim-seh,  delivered  on  the  \Sth  September,  ISKi,  before 
the  British  Council  of  H'ar,  at  Amherstburg,  Upper  Canada. 

"  Father,  listen  to  your  children  !  Vou  have  them  now  all 
before  you. 

"  The  war  before  this,  our  British  fatlier  gave  the  hatchet  to  his 
red  children,  when  our  old  chiefs  were  alive.  They  are  now  dead. 
In  that  war  our  father  was  thrown  on  his  back  by  the  Americans, 
and  our  father  took  them  by  the  hand  without  our  knowledge  ;  and 
we  are  afraid  that  our  father  will  do  so  again  at  this  time. 

"The  summer  before  last,  when  I  came  forward  with  my  red 
brethren,  and  was  ready  to  take  up  the  hatchet  in  favor  of  our 
British  father,  we  were  told  not  to  be  in  a  hurry, — that  he  had  not 
yet  determined  to  fight  the  Americans. 

"  Listen  !  When  war  was  declared,  our  father  stood  up  and  gave 
us  the  tomahawk,  and  told  us  that  he  was  then  ready  to  strike  the 
Americans ;  that  he  wanted  our  assistance ;  and  that  he  would 
certainly  get  us  our  lands  back,  which  the  Americans  had  taken 
from  us. 

"  Listen !  You  told  us,  at  that  time,  to  bring  forward  our  families 
to  this  place,  and  we  did  so  ;  and  you  promised  to  take  care  of 
them,  and  that  they  should  want  for  nothing,  while  the  men  would 
go  and  fight  the  enemy  ;  that  we  need  not  trouble  ourselves  about 
the  enemy's  garrisons  ;  that  we  knew  nothing  about  them,  and  that 
our  father  would  attend  to  that  part  of  the  business.  You  also 
told  your  red  children  that  you  would  take  good  care  of  your  gar- 
rison here,  w'hich  made  our  hearts  glad. 

"  Listen  !  When  we  were  last  at  the  Rapids,  it  is  true  we  gave 
you  little  assistance.  It  is  hard  to  fight  people  who  live  like  ground 

Father,  listen  !  Our  fleet  has  gone  out ;  we  know  they  have 
fought ;  we  have  heard  tlie  great  guns ;  but  we  know  nothing  of 
what  has  happened  to  our  father  with  that  arm.  Our  sliips  have 
gone  one  way,  and  we  are  much  astonished  to  see  our  father  tying 

VA    '       ;    t 





!  ', 

J'     * 






up  every  thin^  ami  preparing  to  run  away  the  other,  without  letting 
his  red  chihiren  know  what  liis  intentions  are.  You  always  told 
us  to  remain  here  and  take  care  of  our  lands  ;  it  made  our  hearts 
glad  to  hear  that  was  your  wish.  Our  great  father,  the  king,  is  the 
head,  and  you  represent  him.  You  always  told  us  that  you  would 
never  draw  your  foot  off  Hritish  ground  ;  but  now,  father,  we  see 
you  are  drawing  buck,  and  we  are  sorry  to  see  our  father  doing  so 
without  seeing  tlie  enemy.  We  must  compare  our  father's  conduct 
to  a  fat  dog,  that  carries  its  tail  upon  its  back,  but  when  affrighted, 
it  drops  it  between  its  legs  and  runs  off. 

"  Father,  listen !  The  Americans  have  not  yet  defeated  us  by 
land  ;  neither  are  we  sure  that  tliey  have  done  so  by  water :  we 
therefore  icish  to  rnnain  here  and  fight  our  enemy,  should  they  make 
their  appearance.  If  they  defeat  us,  we  will  then  retreat  with  our 

"At  the  battle  of  the  Rapids,  last  war,  the  Americans  certainly 
defeated  us ;  and,  when  we  retreated  to  our  father's  fort  at  that 
place,  the  gates  were  shut  against  us.  We  were  afraid  that  it  would 
now  be  the  case  ;  but  instead  of  that,  we  now  see  our  British  father 
preparing  to  march  out  of  his  garrison. 

"  Father !  ^'ou  have  got  the  arms  and  ammunition  which  our 
great  father  sent  for  his  red  children.  If  you  have  an  idea  of  going 
away,  give  them  to  us,  and  you  may  go,  and  welcome  for  us.  Our 
lives  are  in  the  hands  of  the  Great  Spirit.  We  are  determined  to 
defend  our  lands,  and  if  it  be  His  will,  we  wish  to  leave  our  bones 
upon  them."  

Extract  froin  Lieutenant  Hall's  Travels. — Vide  ante,  page  144. 

Having  described  the  Six  Nations,  or  Indians  of  the  Grand  River, 
the  author  thus  continues  : — 

"  The  whole  of  the  settlements  are  reckoned  to  furnish  about 
five  hundred  warriors  to  our  government.  These,  if  not  the  best, 
iire  certainly  the  dearest  of  our  allies  :  besides  the  support  of  them- 
selves and  their  families  during  war,  several  thousands  are  expended 
annually  in  clothing  and  nicknacks,  under  the  name  of  presents. 
Every  accidental  loss,  from  failure  of  crops,  or  other  disasters,  they 
are  in  the  habit  of  expecting  sliould  be  made  good  by  the  liberality 
of  their  *  Great  Father,'  whose  means  and  generosity  they  are  well 
disposed  to  consider  as  unbounded  j  an  idea  which  his  agents  are 
little  careful  to  repress.  During  the  late  war  they  behaved  with 
the  cautious  courage  of  German  auxiliaries,  evidently  considering 




lout  letting 
ilways  told 
our  hearts 
:ing,  is  the 
you  would 
er,  we  see 
r  doing  so 
s  conduct 

ted  us  by 

later :    we 

they  make 

with  our 

rt  at  that 

it  would 
ish  father 

hich  our 
of  going 
is.  Our 
nined  to 
ur  bones 

;  144. 
d  River, 

h  about 
he  best, 
»f  them- 
rs,  they 
ire  well 
nts  are 
id  with 

it  their  first  interest  to  spare  thcnnselves,  their  second,  to  serve  their 
father;  a  mode  of  conduct  which  was  nearly  resented  by  tlie  more 
enterprising  warriors  of  the  west,  who  had  taken  up  the  hatchet 
from  a  strong  feeling  of  necessity,  and  hatred  to  the  encroachments 
of  the  Americans.  Among  these,  the  most  distinguished  wa.s 
Te-cum-seh,  a  Shawanee  chieftain,  whose  courage  and  conmiiuuling 
talents  recommended  him,  early  in  the  war,  not  only  to  the  notice, 
but  to  the  personal  esteem,  and  admiration  of  Sir  Isaac  Hrock.* 
Te-cum-seh  perceived  the  necessity  of  a  general  Indian  confederacy, 
as  the  only  permanent  barrier  to  the  dominion  of  the  States. 
What  he  had  tiic  genius  to  conceive,  he  had  the  talents  to  execute  : 
eloquence  and  address,  courage,  penetration,  and  what  in  an  Indian 
is  more  remarkable  than  these,  undeviating  temperance.  Under 
better  auspices,  this  Amphictyonic  league  might  have  been  elVected  ; 
but  after  the  death  of  his  friend  and  patron,  he  found  no  kindred 
spirit  with  whom  to  act  ;  but  stung  with  grief  and  indignation, 
after  upbraiding,  in  the  bitterest  sarcasms,t  the  retreat  of  our  forces, 
he  engaged  an  American  detachment  of  mounted  riflemen,  near  the 
Moravian  village,  and  having  rushed  forward,  singly,  to  encounter 
their  commanding  officer,  whom  he  mistook  for  General  Harrison, 
he  fell  by  a  pistol  ball.  The  exultations  of  the  Americans  on  his 
death,  afford  unerring,  because  unintended,  evidence  of  the  dread 
his  talents  had  inspired.:): 

*  "  The  general,  one  day,  presented  hun  with  the  sash  he  had  worn  on  hia 
own  person.  Te-cum-scli  received  it  with  great  emotion,  and  begged  the 
general  to  consider,  that  if  he  refrained  from  wearing  it  himself,  it  was  from 
an  anxiety  to  prevent  the  jealousy,  which  such  an  honour  conferred  on  a 
young  chieftain  might  excite,  among  the  older  Indian  captains ;  but  that  he 
would  send  it  to  his  family,  to  be  preserved  as  an  eternal  memorial  of  his 
father's  friendship." 

t  " '  I  compare,'  said  he,  speaking  of  the  author  of  this  retreat,  '  our  father 
to  a  fat  white  dog,  who,  in  the  season  of  prosperity  carries  his  tail  erect  on 
his  back,  but  drops  it  betwixt  its  legs  and  Hies  at  the  approach  of  danger.' 
On  another  occasion,  when  by  way  of  pacifying  his  remonstrances  with  a 
metaphor,  in  the  Indian  manner,  our  commander  professed  his  readiness  to 
lay  his  bones  by  his  side,  '  Tell  the  dog,'  said  the  angry  warrior,  '  he  has  too 
much  regard  for  his  carcass  to  lay  his  bones  any  where.' 

t  "The  officer  who  shot  him  was  a  Coloneljohnson,  who  had  been  himself 
severely  wounded  the  moment  before.  Te-cum-seh  bore  a  personal  enmity  to 
General  Harrison,  to  whom  he  attributed  the  slaughter  of  his  family ;  and 
had  vowed  that  when  they  met,  one  of  them  should  be  left  on  the  field. 




I  > 



'    I 

I    j 



"  Tk-ctm-seh  luis  no  j^rave,  but  eagles  dipt 

'I'heir  rav'ning  beaks,  and  drank  his  stout  heart''*  tide, 
Lcavinj^  l»is  bones  to  whiten  where  he  died  : 

His  skin  by  Christian  tomahawks  was  stript 
From  the  bar'd  fibres.* — Impotence  of  pride  ! 

Triumphant  o'er  the  earth-worm,  but  in  vain 
Ueeminj;  th' impassive  spirit  to  deride, 

Which,  nothing  or  immortal,  knows  no  pain  ! 

Might  ye  torment  him  to  this  earth  again, 
That  were  an  agony  :  his  children's  blood 
Delug'd  his  soul,  and  like  a  fiery  flood, 

Scorch'd  up  his  core  of  being.     Then  the  stain 

Of  flight  was  on  him,  and  the  wringing  thought. 
He  should  no  more  the  crimson  hatchet  raise 
Nor  drink  from  kindred  lips  his  song  of  praise  ; 

So  liberty,  he  deemed,  with  life  was  cheaply  bought." 

Extracts  from  "James    MilUury  Occurrences." 

"  The  American  general,  in  expectation  that  one  hundred  and 
fifty  Ohio  volunteers,  under  the  command  of  Captain  Brush,  were 
wailing  at  the  river  llaisoin,  thirty-six  miles  off,  with  a  quantity  of 
provisions  for  the  army,  despatched  INIajor  Vanhorne,  with  two 
hundred  men,  to  meet  and  escort  the  reinforcement  to  its  destina- 
tion. Fortunately,  tlie  major  encountered,  on  his  second  day's 
march,  near  Brownstcvn,  seventy  Indians,  under  the  brave  Te- 
cum-seh,  in  ambuscade.  The  latter  fired,  and,  according  to  the 
American  accounts,  killed  twenty  men,  including  Captains  M'Cul- 
loch,  Bostler,  Gilcrease,  and  Ubry  j  and  wounded  nine.  Te-cum-seh 
and  his  seventy  Indians,  with  the  loss  of  only  one  man  killed,  drove 
these  two  hundred  Americans  before  them,  for  seven  miles,  and 
took  possession  of  the  mail  they  were  escorting. — Vol.  I.  p.  61. 

"  We  must  not  omit  here  to  mention,  that  the  famed  Indian 
warrior,  Te-cum-seh,  buried  his  tomahawk  in  the  head  of  a 
Chippeway  chief,  whom  he  found  actively  engaged  in  massacring 
some  of  Colonel  Dudley's  men.f — Ibid.  p.  201. 

•  "  The  riflemen  are  said  to  have  cut  off  strips  of  his  skin  to  preserve 
as  trophies." 

t  American  troops  who  had  been  taken  prisoners  near  Fort  Meigs,  in  May, 
1813.— Ed. 

i.  i. 




t'«<  titJL", 


dred  and 
isli,  were 
lantity  of 
with   two 
J  destinu- 
nd   day's 
rave  Te- 
?  to  tlie 
s  M'Cul- 
d,  drove 
les,  and 

1  Indian 
id   of  a 

,  in  May, 

"  The  Indian  warriors,  led  l)y  tlie  undaunted  Te-cum-sth,  rushed 
upon  tlie  enemy's  front  line  of  inftinlry,  iind  '  for  a  moment,'  siiys 
the  general,  (Harrison,)  '  made  some  impression  upon  it,'  It  was 
not,  in  sluuf,  till  the  infantry  was  reinforced  by  the  whole  of  (io- 
veru(»r  hhclby's,  and  a  part  of  ( olonel  Johnson's  regiment  ;  nor,  till 
Mie  fall  of  their  lamented  chief,  and  upwards  of  thirty  of  their  war- 
riors, that  the  brave  foresters  retired  fronj  the  field  of  battle.  Had 
the  men  of  the  -list  regiment  at  all  enudated  the  Indians,  the  fate 
of  the  day  might  have  been  changed  ;  or,  did  the  enemy  s  great 
numerical  superiority  render  that  an  improbable  event,  the  Ame- 
rican general  woidd  not,  in  the  very  paragraph  in  which  he  admits 
that  he  contended  with  an  inferiority  of  force,  have  dared  to  claim 
for  his  troops  '  the  palm  of  superior  bravery.' — Ibid.  p.  -S'J, 

"  Let  us  now  ascend  in  the  scale  of  hunuin  beings,  from  a 
'member  of  congress'  to  a  'savage,' — from  Mr.  C'heeves  to  tiie 
late  Indian  warrior,  Te-cum-seh,  It  seems  extraordinary  tiiat 
CJeneral  Harrison  should  have  omitted  to  mention,  in  his  letter, 
the  death  of  a  chief,  whose  fall  contributed  so  largely  to  break 
down  the  Indian  spirit,  and  to  give  peace  and  security  to  the 
whole  north-western  frontier  of  the  United  States.  Te-cum-seh, 
although  he  had  received  a  musket  ball  in  the  left  arm,  was  still 
seeking  the  hottest  of  fire,  when  he  encountered  Colonel  II.  M. 
Johnson,  member  of  congress  for  Kentucky,  Just  as  the  chief, 
having  discharged  his  rifle,  was  rushing  forward  with  his  tomahawk, 
he  received  a  ball  in  the  head  from  the  colonel's  pistol.  Thus  fell 
the  Indian  warrior  Te-cum-seh,  in  the  forty-fourth  year  of  his  age. 
He  was  of  the  Shawanee  tribe  ;  five  feet  ten  inches  high  ;  and,  with 
more  than  the  usual  stoutness,  possessed  all  the  agility  and  perse- 
verance, of  the  Indian  character.  His  carriage  was  dignified  ;  his 
eye  penetrating  ;  his  countenance  which,  even  in  death,  betrayed 
the  indications  of  a  lofty  spirit,  rather  of  the  sterner  cast.  Had  he 
not  possessed  a  certain  austerity  of  manners,  he  could  never  have 
controlled  the  wayward  passions  of  those  who  followed  him  to  bat- 
tle. He  was  of  a  silent  habit ;  but,  when  his  eloquence  became 
roused  into  action  by  the  reiterated  encroachments  of  the  Ameri- 
cans, his  strong  intellect  could  supply  him  with  a  flow  of  oratory, 
that  enabled  him,  as  he  governed  in  the  field,  so  to  prescribe  in  the 
council.  Those  who  consider  that,  in  all  territorial  questions,  the 
ablest  diplomatists  of  the  United  States  are  sent  to  negotiate  with 
the  Indians,  will  readily  appreciate  the  loss  sustained  by  the  latter 
in  the  death  of  their  champion. — Ibid.  pp.  287,  288. 



I  f 

if   '        J! 

^P   ■' 

!  : 








'I  ■' 

>  ; 


"  *  By  whom  are  the  savages  led  ?  '  was  the  question,  for  many 
years,  during  the  wars  between  the  Americans  and  Indians.  The 
name  '  Tc-cum-seh  ! '  was  itself  a  host  on  the  side  of  the  latter ; 
and  the  warrior  chief,  while  he  signalized  himself  in  all,  came  oft" 
victorious  in  most,  of  the  many  actions  in  which  he  had  fought 
and  bled.  The  American  editors,  superadded  to  a  national  dislike  to 
the  Indians,  have  some  special  reasons,  which  we  shall  develope 
presently,  for  blackening  the  character  of  Te-cum-seh.  They  say, 
that  he  neither  gave  nor  accepted  quarter.  His  inveterate  hatred 
to  the  Americans,  considering  them,  as  he  did,  to  have  robbed  his 
forefathers  of  their  territory,  renders  such  a  proceeding,  in  a 
savage,  not  improbable.  European  history,  even  of  modern  date, 
informs  us,  that  the  civilized  soldier  can  go  into  battle  with  a 
similar  determination.  Mr.  Thomson  says  of  Te-cum-sch,  that, 
'  when  he  undertook  an  expedition,  accompanied  by  his  tribe,  he 
would  relinquish  to  them  the  spoil,  though  he  would  never  yield 
the  privilege  of  destroying  the  victim.'  And  yet,  it  was  from  an 
American  publication  that  we  extracted  the  account  of  Te-cum-seh's 
killing  a  brother-chief,  because  the  latter  wanted  to  massacre  an 
American  prisoner.  This  trait  in  Te-cura-seh's  character  is  corro- 
borated by  all  the  British  officers  who  have  served  with  him.  That 
it  did  not,  however,  proceed  from  any  good-will  towards  the  Ame- 
ricans, was  made  known,  in  an  extraordinary  manner,  at  the  taking 
of  Detroit.  After  the  surrender  of  the  American  troops.  General 
Brock  desired  Te-cum-seh  not  to  allow  the  Indians  under  him  to 
ill-treat  the  prisoners.  Te-cum-seh  promptly  replied  :  '  I  despise 
them  too  much  to  meddle  with  them.'  Nor  is  there  a  single  act  of 
violence  charged  to  the  Indians  on  that  occasion.  As  a  proper 
contrast  to  this,  an  American  editor,  describing  a  battle  between 
General  Jackson  and  the  Creek  Indians,  in  March,  1814,  says: 
'  Of  about  one  thousand  Creeks,  only  ten  of  the  men  are  supposed 
to  have  escaped  with  life  :  sixteen  of  the  Creeks,  who  had  hid 
themselves,  were  killed  the  morning  after  the  battle.  The  American 
commander  said,  in  his  despatch,  that  he  was  determined  to  extermi- 
nate the  tribe  ;  of  course,'  proceeds  the  editor,  '  no  quarter  was 
given,  except  to  a  few  women  and  children.' 

*'  Few  officers  in  the  United  States'  service  were  so  able  to  com- 
mand in  the  field,  as  this  famed  Indian  chief.  He  was  an  excel- 
lent judge  of  position  ;  and  not  only  knew,  but  could  point  out, 
the  localities  of  the  whole  country  through  which  ho  had  passed. 
To   what  extent  he  had  travelled  over  the  western  part  of  the 



I,  for  many 
ians,  Tlie 
the  latter; 
1,  came  oft' 
had  fought 
il  dislike  to 
11  develope 

Tliey  say, 
rate  hatred 
robbed  his 
ling,   in  a 
dern  date, 
;le  with  a 
■seh,  that, 
i  tribe,  he 
ever  yield 
s  from  an 
issacre  an 

is  corro- 
im.  That 
the  Ame- 
he  taking 
.  General 
!r  him  to 
'■  despise 
jle  act  of 
a  proper 

4,  says : 

had  hid 
rter  was 

American  continent,  may  be  conceived  from  the  well-known  fact, 
that  he  visited  the  Creek  Indians,  in  the  hopes  of  prevailing  on 
them  to  unite  with  their  northern  brethren,  in  efforts  to  regain 
their  country  as  far  as  the  banks  of  the  Ohio.  His  facility  of 
communicating  the  information  he  had  acquired,  was  thus  displayed 
before  a  concourse  of  spectators.  Previously  to  General  Brock's 
crossing  over  to  Detroit,  he  asked  Te-cum-seh  what  sort  of  a 
country  he  should  have  to  pass  through,  in  case  of  his  proceeding 
further.  Te-cum-seh,  taking  a  roll  of  elm-bark,  and  extending  it 
on  the  ground  by  means  of  four  stones,  drew  forth  his  scalping 
knife,  and,  with  the  point,  presently  etched  upon  the  bark  a  plan 
of  the  country,  its  hills,  woods,  rivers,  morasses,  and  roads  ;  a 
plan  which,  if  not  as  neat,  was,  for  the  purpose  required,  fully  as 
intelligible,  as  if  Arrowsmith  himself  had  prepared  it.  Pleased 
with  this  unexpected  talent  in  Te-cum-seh,  also  with  his  having, 
by  his  characteristic  boldness,  induced  the  Indians,  not  of  his 
immediate  party,  to  cross  the  Detroit,  prior  to  the  embarkation  of 
the  regulars  and  militia.  General  Brock,  as  soon  as  the  business  was 
over,  publicly  took  oft'  his  sash,  and  placed  it  round  the  body  of  the 
chief.  Te-cum-seh  received  the  honor  with  evident  gratification ;  but 
was,  the  next  day,  seen  without  his  sash.  General  Brock,  fearing 
something  had  displeased  the  Indian,  sent  his  interpreter  for  an 
explanation.  The  latter  soon  returned  with  an  account,  that 
Te-cum-seh,  not  wishing  to  wear  such  a  mark  of  distinction,  when 
an  older,  and,  as  he  said,  abler,  warrior  than  himself  was  present, 
had  transferred  the  sash  to  the  Wyandot  chief,  Round-head.  Such 
a  man  was  the  unlettered  'savage'  Te-cum-seh;  and  such  a  man 
have  the  Indians  for  ever  lost.  He  has  left  a  son,  who,  when  his 
father  fell,  was  about  seventeen  years  old,  and  fought  by  his  side. 
The  Prince  Regent,  in  1814,  out  of  respect  to  the  memory  of  the 
old,  sent  out  as  a  present  to  the  young  Te-cum-seh,  a  handsome 
sword.  Unfortunately,  however,  for  the  Indian  cause  and  country, 
faint  are  the  prospects,  that  Te-cum-seh  the  son,  will  ever  equal, 
in  wisdom  or  prowess,  Te-cum-seh  the  father." — Ibid.  pp.  289-293. 

to  com- 
n  excel- 
int  out, 


of  the 

Extracts  from  "  The  Quarterly  Review." — July,  ]  822. 

"Among  the  Indians  that  joined  General  Proctor  from  the  Wa- 
bash, was  the  higly  gifted  and  celebrated  chief,  Te-cum-seh,  who 
united  in  his  person  all  those  heroic  qualities  which  romance  has 
ever  delighted  to  attribute  to  the  'children  of  the  forest,'  and,  with 












them,  intelligence  and  feelings  that  belonged  not  to  the  savage. 
He  possessed  such  influence  among  his  brethren  that  his  presence 
was  an  acquisition  of  the  utmost  importance. — Page  422. 

"  The  situation  of  General  Proctor's  little  army  after  this  disaster* 
is  well  depicted  by  Mr.  James  : — 

"'This  was  a  sad  blow  upon  the  right  division.  As  hope  fled, 
despair  found  its  way  into  the  British  camp.  The  situation  of  the 
men,  it  must  be  owned,  was  deplorable  in  the  extreme.  They  had 
long  been  suffering,  not  only  from  a  scarcity  of  provisions,  but  a 
scarcity  of  money.  Few  of  them  had  received  any  pay  for  the  last 
six  months  :  to  some  indeed  nine  months'  arrears  were  due.  Winter, 
a  Canadian  winter,  was  fast  approaching  ;  and  scarcely  any  of  the 
soldiers  had  blankets,  and  all  were  without  great  coats.  The  severe 
privations  which  they  had  endured  in  the  last,  were  therefore  likely 
to  be  augmented  rather  than  diminished,  in  the  succeeding  winter. 
In  addition  to  all  this,  the  commander  of  the  forces  appeared  un- 
mindful of  their  arduous  exertions.' 

"  Under  such  circumstances  was  the  retreat  to  commence,  which 
had  become  inevitable  to  prevent  the  enemy  from  landing  in  rear 
of  the  troops.  The  reinforcements,  which  might  as  easily  have 
been  sent  up  when  their  arrival  would  have  destroyed  the  enemy, 
were  now  afforded  only  to  increase  the  want  of  provisions.  But,  if 
the  maintenance  of  our  positions  on  the  Detroit  was  impossible, 
the  attempt  to  retreat  from  them  was  big  with  danger,  for  it  was 
foreseen,  that  to  induce  the  Indians  to  retire  with  them,  and  quit 
their  old  haunts,  would  be  attended  with  much  difficulty.  The 
warriors  received  the  proposal  with  the  utmost  indignation,  and 
considered  the  measure  as  a  desertion  of  them.  The  British  com- 
mander was  thus  placed,  with  the  few  troops  which  composed  his 
force,  in  a  most  critical  situation  j  for  there  was  every  reason  to 
expect  that  the  numerous  Indians  would  not  restrain  their  irritated 
feelings  to  a  mere  dissolution  of  the  alliance.  But  a  successful  en- 
deavour was  made  to  convince  Te-cum-seh,  who  had  at  first 
violently  opposed  the  measure,  of  its  unavoidable  necessity  j  and 
his  influence  was  sufficient  to  induce  a  large  proportion  of  his 
nation  to  accompany  the  British  troops  in  their  retrograde  move- 

"  This  important  object  being  gained,  the  requisite  preparations 
for  a  retreat  were  immediately  completed.  The  forts  of  Amherst- 
burgl)  and  Detroit  were  dismantled,  depots  were  formed  on  the  pro- 

'  Tlip  tlofcat  of  tlio  British  stiundron  on  Luke  Erie.— Ei). 


the  savage, 
lis  presence 

lis  disaster* 

s  hope  fled, 
tion  of  the 
They  had 
ions,  but  a 
for  the  last 
3.  Winter, 
any  of  the 
The  severe 
efore  likely 
ing  winter, 
peared  un- 

nce,  which 
ng  in  rear 
asily  have 
he  enemy, 
s.     But,  if 
for  it  was 
,  and  quit 
ty.      The 
tion,   and 
tish  com- 
iposed  his 
reason  to 
r  irritated 
essful  en- 
[1  at  first 
ity  J    and 
on  of  his 
ie  move- 

i  the  pro- 



posed  line  of  movement  up  the  river  Thames,  which  falls  into  Lake 
8t.  Clair,  above  the  Detroit,  and  the  bridges  over  that  river  were 
carefully  repaired  ;  the  heavy  stores,  the  sick,  women  and  children, 
were  sent  to  the  rear  by  the  water  carriage.  On  the  27tli  of  Sep- 
tember, General  Harrison  landed  below  Amherstburgh,  with  his 
army  of  between  five  and  six  thousand  men,  and,  on  the  same  day, 
(Jeneral  Proctor  broke  up  from  his  position  and  slowly  retired  to 
an  advantageous  spot,  near  the  mouth  of  the  Thames,  where  he  had 
determined  to  make  a  temporary  stand.  But  while  the  general,  on 
finding  that  the  enemy  did  not  advance,  had  left  the  troops  in  posi- 
tion, to  examine  with  his  principal  engineer  the  heights  near  the 
Moravian  village,  at  some  distance  in  the  rear,  which  he  intended 
to  fortify  and  occupy  during  the  winter,  the  officer  next  in  command 
withdrew  the  troops  from  their  strong  post  without  orders,  even 
before  the  appearance  of  the  Americans  ;  and  thus  caused  the  loss 
of  the  boats,  containing  the  remnant  of  the  stores  and  artillery  with 
a  guard,  which  could  not  ascend  higher  up  the  river  from  the  nature 
of  the  navigation.  The  general,  on  hastily  rejoining  his  troops, 
found  that  this  unauthorized  measure  had  left  liim  no  alternative 
but  a  battle.  The  Indians  had,  on  the  continued  retreat  of  the 
British,  forsaken  them  in  great  numbers,  and  of  above  three  thou- 
sand, no  more  than  five  hundred  warriors  remained  with  the  brave 
and  faithful  Te-cum-seh.  The  position  chosen  to  await  the  attack 
of  the  American  army  was  covered  on  either  flank  by  the  river 
Thames  and  an  impassable  swamp,  and  was  calculated  to  render 
their  immense  superiority  of  numbers  in  a  great  degree  unavailing. 
Here,  on  the  morning  of  the  5th  of  October,  the  regular  force 
(about  five  hundred  effectives)  were  drawn  up  in  open  files  in  a 
straggling  wood,  which  prevented  any  attack  upon  them  in  regular 
order ;  their  left  secured  by  the  river,  a  gun  flanking  the  road,  and 
their  right  extending  towards  the  Indians,  who  were  posted  where 
the  wood  thickened,  so  as  to  form  a  retiring  angle  with  them,  and 
to  turn  the  enemy's  flank  on  their  advance.  This  disposition  was 
shown  to  Te-cum-seh,  who  expressed  his  satisfaction  at  it  3  and  his 
last  words  to  the  general  were  :  '  Father,  tell  your  young  men  to  be 
firm,  and  all  will  be  well : '  he  then  repaired  to  his  people  and 
harangued  them  before  they  were  formed  in  their  places.  The 
small  band  of  our  regulars,  discouraged  by  their  retreat  and  by  the 
privations  to  which  they  had  been  long  exposed,  gave  way  on  the 
first  advance  of  the  enemy,  and  no  exertion  of  their  commander 
could  rally  theni.      While  they  were  thus  quickly  routed,  'J'e-cuiu- 







I:  hi 



i   ' 

I  J* 




seh  and  his  warriors  had  almost  as  rapidly  repulsed  the  enemy,  and 
the  Indians  continued  to  push  their  advantage,  in  ignorance  of  the 
disaster  of  their  allies,  until  their  heroic  chief  fell  by  a  rifle  ball, 
and  with  him  the  spirit  of  his  followers,  who  were  put  to  flight  and 
pursued  with  unrelenting  slaughter.  The  Americans  showed  their 
respect  for  Te-cum-seh  in  full  as  barbarous  a  manner  as  a  hostile 
tribe  of  his  own  nation  could  have  done  under  the  same  circum- 
stances. The  skin  was  flayed  from  his  lifeless  corpse  and  made 
into  razor  strops,  one  of  which  the  late  Mr.  Clay,  of  Virginia,  a 
member  of  the  American  legislature,  prided  himself  in  possessing. — 
Pages  430-432. 

lemy,  and 
nee  of  the 
.  rifle  ball, 
flight  and 
►wed  their 
3  a  hostile 
e  circum- 
ind  made 
irginia,  a 
sessing. — 





)  I 

The  Le  Mesuriers,  (late  governors,)  of  Aklerney,  and  the  older  brancli  of 
tlie  Tappers,  of  Guernsey,  Imving  been  twice  connected  by  marriage  during 
the  last  century;  John  Tupper  marrying  Margaret  Le  Mesurier,  1730-ni, 
and  William  Le  Mesurier,  son  of  the  Dean  of  Guernsey,  marrying  Jane 
Tupper,  1781 ;  and  Colonel  Tupper  and  his  brothers  being  in  consequence 
relfited  to  Colonel  Le  Mesurier ;  it  may  not  be  deemed  irrelevant  to  include 
in  these  "  Records"  a  life  of  that  gallant  and  lamented  officer,  particularly 
as  it  will  add  to  their  local  interest.  Colonels  Le  Mesurier  and  Tupper  fell 
nearly  at  the  same  age,  and  both  in  command  of  foreign  troops,  although 
the  former  was  a  lieutenant-colonel  in  the  British  service.  The  following 
Memoir  is  extracted,  with  some  slight  revision,  from  the  Sarnian  Monthly 
Magazine  for  July,  1815,  a  work  of  which  only  three  numbers  were  pub- 
lished, and  which  is  now  nearly  out  of  print.— Ed. 

i   ' 






ler  branch  of 
rriage  during- 
•ier,  1730-31, 
irrying  Jane 
nt  to  include 
,  particularly 
1  Tapper  fell 
ps,  although 
he  following 
an  Monthly 
s  were  pub- 

CoLONKL  Havilland   Le  Mksurier  was  of  a  family  which  had 
been  settled  in  the  island  of  Guernsey  from  a  very  early  period  ;  as 
far  back  indeed  as  any  authentic  records  can  be  traced.      The 
branch  to  which  he  belonged  has  now  ( 1 8 1  o )  for  more  than  a  century 
enjoyed  the  government  and  lordship  of  the  neighbouring  island  of 
Alderney,  which  came  to  them  by  intermarriage  with  a  niece  of  Sir 
Edmund  Andros,   to  whom  a  grant  of  the  island  for  a   term   of 
nmety-nine  years  had  been  made  by  Charles  the  Second.     John  Le 
Mesurier,  son  of  John,  the  husband  of  Anne  Andros,  in  the  early 
part  of  his  present  Majesty's  reign,  having  surrendered  the  existing 
patent,  obtained  a  new  grant  for  ninety-nine  years,  whicli  is  now 
possessed  by  another  John,  his  grandson  and  heir.*     Havilland  Le 
Mesurier,t   the  father  of  the  colonel,  was  a  younger  son  of  that 
John,  by  whom  the  patent  was  n  aewed,  and  is  well  known  by  the 
ability  and  integrity  with  which  he  discharged  the  office  of  commis- 
sary-general in  the  north  of  Germany,  in  the  years  1 795  and  I  796  ■ 
and,  afterwards,  in  the  year  1798,  in  the  southern  department  of 
England  j  and,  lastly,  in  the  years  1801  and  1802,  in  Egypt  and 
the  Mediterranean. 

The  subject  of  this  article  was  educated  at  Salisbury  and  ^Vin- 
chester,  and,  being  destined  for  commercial  pursuits,  was  sent  to 
Jierlm  to  acquire  the  German  language.  Here,  however,  the  sight 
of  the  grand  reviews,  and  all  the  military  pomp  which  was  kept^up 
at  that  court,  had  such  an  effect  upon  the  young  man  that  he  wrote 
to  his  father,  earnestly  entreating  to  be  allowed  to  enter  into  the 
army ;  for  which  he  said  he  had  always  felt  the  strongest  predilec- 

*  The  prcsen 
government  in  1821  or  25.— E 

t  Major-General  Le  Mesiirier,  who  disposed  of  his  patent 


t  Brother  of  the  late  Paul  Le  Mesurier,  Escj.  M.  P.-Eu. 












*  ? 

'    (i 



lion,  but  had  checked  hiinselt",  in  deference  to  what  he  knew  had 
been  phmned  o\it  for  him.  There  were  circumstances  which  so 
decidedly  proved  the  truth  of  this  statement,  that  his  parents, 
tiiougli  with  the  greatest  reluctance,  acceded  to  his  wishes  ;  the 
more  readily,  however,  from  the  confidence  which  his  father  enter- 
tained, that  the  claims  which  he  hail  established,  in  the  course  of 
his  service,  would  enable  him  to  procure  advancement  for  his  son  : 
nor  was  he  disappointed,  for  in  January,  1801,  an  ensign's  commis- 
sion in  the  staft'  corps  was  obtained  for  him.  This,  however,  as 
soon  as  the  destination  of  Sir  Ralph  Abercrombie's  expedition  was 
ascertained,  he  quitted  for  a  lieutenancy,  by  purchase,  in  the 
'20th  regiment  of  foot ;  and  he  lost  no  time  in  embarking  in  a  mer- 
chant ship,  in  the  hope  of  immediately  seeing  active  service  in  the 
face  of  an  enemy,  in  which  however  he  did  not  succeed  on  account 
of  the  general  peace  in  that  year. 

The  company  to  which  Lieutenant  Le  Mesurier  belonged,  having 
been  recruited  from  the  militia,  was  reduced  at  the  peace,  but  his 
royal  highness  tlie  commander  in  chief  immediately  transferred  him 
to  the  83d  regiment  on  full  pay,  in  which  he  served  till  August, 
1 803,  when  lie  ^vas  admitted  into  the  college  at  High  -Wycomb, 
where  he  soon  distinguished  himself  by  his  application  and  talents. 
In  consequence,  he,  together  with  INIr.  (afterwards  captain)  Brad- 
ford, a  fellow  collegian  and  friend,  obtained  leave  to  travel,  for  the 
purpose  of  perfecting  himself  in  the  German  language,  and  getting 
an  insight  into  foreign  tactics.  They  were  advised  to  fix  at  Kiel, 
in  liolstein,  where  they  remained  during  the  winter. 

In  the  summer  following  he  passed  his  final  examination  at  High- 
AVycomb,  with  the  greatest  credit,  being  highly  complimented  by 
the  Board,  and  further  told  that  they  "  should  press  on  the  consi- 
deration of  the  Supreme  Board  his  perfect  competency  to  the 
discharge  of  the  duties  of  assistant  quartermaster  general." 
Having,  in  the  month  of  September,  obtained  a  captain's  commis- 
sion in  the  21st  regiment,  he  soon  after  joined  his  corps,  then  in 
Ireland,  where  he  remained  until  the  month  of  March  following ; 
when,  being  summoned  to  London,  on  account  of  the  sudden  and 
much  lamented  death  of  his  father.  General  Brownrigg,  in  pursuance 
of  a  promise  made  to  the  deceased,  gave  him  an  appointment  as 
assistant  quartermaster  general :  and  he  served  on  the  coasts  of 
Kent  and  Sussex,  making  surveys  and  discharging  the  other  duties 
of  that  office,  until  the  end  of  the  year  1807  ;  when,  it  being  stated 
that  the  regiment  wanted  officers,  he  was  ordered  to  join,  carrying 

:  knew  had 
5  which  so 
is  parents, 
ishes  ;  the 
ther  enter- 

I  course  of 
)r  his  son  : 
's  commis- 
owever,  as 
;dition  was 
,se,  in  the 
f  in  a  mer- 
vice  in  the 
Dn  account 

;edj  having 
ce,  but  his 
iferred  him 

II  August, 
nd  talents, 
ain)  Brad- 
,^el,  for  the 
nd  getting 
ix  at  Kiel, 

n  at  High- 

nented  by 

the  consi- 

^y   to  the 

s  commis- 
s,  then  in 
bllowing  j 

dden  and 
titment  as 

coasts  of 
ler  duties 
ing  stated 




with  him,  however,  the  most  perfect  approbation  of  his  .services 
from  the  quartermaster  general.  Here  he  remained  only  a  short 
time,  having,  through  the  intercs*^  of  Sir  James  Saumare/,  with  the 
adjutant  general,  been  appointe  n  the  staff  of  that  department  in 
the  expedition  which  sailed  under  Sir  John  Moore,  for  Sweden. 
With  it  he  returned,  and  proceeded  to  Portugal  in  the  same  capacity. 
And  here,  on  his  first  approaching  the  coast  of  the  Peninsula, 
he  received  the  unwelcome  news  of  the  death  of  his  friend, 
Captain  Bradford.  Of  this  he  spoke  as  a  soldier  should  d(»  :  "  I 
am,"  he  writes,  "  much  less  affected  by  his  loss  than  if  it  had  taken 
place  under  other  circumstances.  If  it  be  God's  pleasure  that  I  fall 
in  the  course  of  my  present  service,  I  could  certainly  wish  to  meet 
my  fate  at  the  close  of  some  great  day,  which  should  stamp  lasting 
glory  on  the  Jiritish  arms.  Jiut  I  have  gayer  hopes,  and  look  for- 
ward to  a  happy  reunion  with  the  dear  friends  1  have  left  behind." 
He  did  indeed  once  again  meet  those  friends, —  but  it  was  only  to 
return  to  a  service  where  he  met  that  fate  which  he  had  th\is 
marked  out  for  himself !  During  the  campaign  he  neglected  no 
means  to  acquire  both  the  Portuguese  and  Spanish  languages,  in 
which  he  finally  succeeded  ;  but  he  mentioned,  as  a  proof,  (among 
others)  of  the  bigotry  of  the  Spaniards,  and  their  aversion  to  the 
heretics,  who  were  fighting  their  battles,  that  when  in  Salamanca, 
an  university  where  there  must  have  been  many  poor  scholars, 
he  could  not  procure  one  to  give  him  lessons  on  any  terms. 
At  the  battle  of  Lugo  he  had  some  very  narrow  escapes,  and  at 
Corunna  had  his  horse  shot  under  him.  Upon  his  return  to  Eng- 
land with  the  troops,  he  made  some  efforts  to  purchase  a  majority, 
but  was  diverted  from  this  by  the  prospect  of  procuring  a  nomina- 
tion among  the  officers  who  were  to  be  sent  out  with  General 
Beresford  to  discipline  the  Portuguese  troops.  This  appointment, 
however,  only  followed  him  to  the  Peninsula,  for  which  he  em- 
barked in  the  middle  of  April,  1809,  still  as  captain  on  the  staff  in 
the  quartermaster-general's  department.  His  majority  was  dated 
April  20th  ;  and  it  carried  with  it  the  further  step  of  a  lieutenant- 
colonelcy  in  the  Portuguese  service. 

Having  thus  attained  that  first  great  step,  to  which  every  military 
man  looks  up,  as  materially  altering  his  situation,  he  could  now 
indulge  the  hope,  that  in  the  command  of  a  corps  he  should  soon 
secure  to  himself  that  distinction  which  is  desired  by  all,  and  by 
none,  perhaps,  more  than  it  was  by  him.  Nor  was  it  long  before 
that  hope  was  realized.     At  first,  indeed,  he  had  considerable  difli- 




'  J  M 

■'  ;( 

;   I 

(^    V 

:        h'l} 

rl    . 

culties,  and  much  that  was  unpleasant,  to  encounter.  He  was 
attaclied  to  the  1  1th  Portuguese  regiment  as  a  supernumerary,  and 
thus  was  little  better  than  a  cypher.  They  were  left,  after  the 
French  had  retreated,  at  Chavea,  in  most  miserable  quarters.  In 
this  town,  "  not  a  fowl,  or  an  ounce  of  flesh  meat,  except  pork, 
not  a  grain  of  tea,  coffee,  or  chocolate,  was  to  be  had  at  any  rate  ; 
and  even  baf(?n,  salt  fish,  and  vegetables,  were  at  such  a  price,  that 
few  officers  could  purchase  them  :"  even  fruit  (this  was  on  the  29th 
of  May)  could  hardly  be  procured.  lie  had  no  Englishman  within 
fifty  miles,  except  his  servant  and  two  or  three  sick  soldiers ;  so 
that  his  intercourse  was  only  with  the  officers  of  his  regiment,  who 
were  nacurally  jealous  of  him.  In  this  interval,  it  being  thought  of 
importance  to  ascertain  the  position  and  motions  of  the  French,  he 
offered  himself  to  General  Silveira,  and  was  sent  by  him  into  CJal- 
licia  on  a  mission  to  the  jNIarquis  de  la  Uomana,  who  received  him 
with  great  distinction,  and  proposed,  through  him,  a  plan  of  attack 
on  the  enemy,  by  the  joint  for  'is  of  the  Spaniards  and  I'ortuguesc. 
This,  however,  could  not  be  i^'P.rried  into  execution,  as  Silveira  had 
the  most  positive  orders  not  to  pass  the  frontier.  Having  now 
been  promoted  to  the  lieutenant-colonelcy  of  the  regiment,  and  the 
colonel  (who  was  old  and  inefficient)  being  called  away  on  the  23d 
t»f  July,  so  that  he  was  left  commanding  officer ;  he  set  about  the 
disciplining  of  the  corps  in  good  earnest.  It  was  in  a  wretched 
state  in  every  rei-pect ;  the  officers  old  and  stiff,  and  stupid  for  the 
most  part ;  and  oi  tl;e  men  from  two  hundred  to  four  hundred  on 
the  sick  list.  The  general  hospital  was  in  such  a  dreadful  state, 
that  the  men  concealed  their  complaints,  that  they  might  not  be 
sent  there.  With  great  difficulty  he  established  a  regimental  hospi- 
tal ;  and,  with  the  help  of  a  very  intelligent  adjutant,  who,  he  said, 
had  more  of  the  Englishman  in  him  than  any  Portuguese  he  ever 
met  with,  he  soon  made  considerable  progress  ;  so  much  so,  that, 
when  inspected  by  Major-General  Hamilton  on  the  21st  October, 
at  Torres  TS'ovas,  and  by  Marshal  Beresford  on  the  23d  of  Decem- 
ber, he  received  the  most  flattering  marks  of  approbation ;  the 
marshal  assuring  him  that  the  brigade  (for  the  13th  regiment  had 
also  been  put  under  his  command)  was  in  no  respect  inferior  to  any 
that  he  had  seen,  and  directed  him  to  issue  a  brigade  order  to  that 
eflect.  He  was  further  charged  with  making  the  promotion  for 
both  regiments,  which  sufficiently  shewed  the  very  great  confidence 
reposed  in  him  by  the  marshal  :  it  extended  to  one  lieutenant- 
colonel,   two  majors,   eleven  captains,   and  sixteen   ensigns, — an 

COLONE       LK     MEHl    ilER. 


He  was 
lerary,  ami 
,  after  the 
arters.     In 
;cept  pork, 
t  any  rate  ; 
price,  that 
)n  the  29th 
man  within 
)ldiers ;    so 
iment,  who 
thought  of 
French,  lie 
n  into  (.ial- 
ceivetl  him 
in  of  attack 
!)ilveira  had 
[aving  now 
int,  and  the 
on  the  23d 
t  about  the 
a  wretched 
ipid  for  the 
lundred  on 
fidful  state, 
ght  not  be 
;ntal  hospi- 
lo,  he  said, 
3se  he  ever 
:h  so,  that, 
St  October, 
of  Decem- 
ation ;    the 
;iment  had 
rior  to  any 
der  to  that 
motion  for 
signs, — an 

extent  of  patronage  at  which  <t' himself  emed  a-^  'niched,  p  rticu- 
larly   as  he  had    before  been   allowed   to   nan  .,    maji       four 

captains,  four  lieutenants,  and  one  ensign,  in  >  uwn  n  jnent. 
Indeed,  his  merit  cannot  be  sulliciently  estima<  .  with(»iu  .uhling 
the  circumstance  that  he  alone,  of  all  the  comm.iiiiicrs  *>(  I'ortu- 
guese corps,  had  not,  up  to  that  time,  had  the  assistance  of  any 
one  (even  non-commissioned)  IJritish  ollicer.  In  the  13th  regi- 
ment there  was  only  one  captain,  by  whom  indeed  he  was  perfectly 
well  seconded.  In  fact,  he  had  very  early,  or  rather  from  the  very 
beginning,  discovered  the  good  qualities  of  the  I'ortuguese,  and 
declared  his  persuasion  that  they  would  make,  as  they  have  turned 
out  to  be,  excellent  soldiers.  He  had  by  this  time  gained  the  confi- 
dence and  affection  of  both  ofiicers  and  men,  and  went  on  improving 
theni,  until,  in  the  judgment  of  the  general  officers  who  reviewed 
them,  they  were  become  equal  in  appearance  to  most  liritish  regi- 

Towards  the  end  of  April,  1 S 1 1,  he  was  recommended  by  Marshal 
lieresford  to  be  I'ortuguese  INIilitary  Secretary  t:o  Lord  Wellington, 
and  arrived  at  head  quarters  the  day  before  the  battle  of  Fuente 
d'Onore.  Here  he  found  himself,  suddenly,  in  the  charge  made  by 
(leneral  Stewart  with  the  Nth  dragoons  j  and  afterwards  perceiving 
the  7th  I'ortuguese  regiment,  which  had  been  ordered  to  cover 
General  Houston's  retreat,  without  a  field  officer,  he  dismounted, 
and  took  the  command  of  the  left  wing ;  and,  having  taken  post  in 
a  rocky  ground,  maintained  himself  as  long  as  was  necessary,  losing 
eight  or  ten  out  of  eighty  men,  and  having  his  arm  grazed  by  a 
musket  ball.  Some  time  after  this,  being  rather  disappointed  as  to 
the  nature  of  the  situation  in  which  he  was  placed,  he  solicited, 
and,  after  some  delay  obtained,  leave  to  return  to  his  regiment, 
which  he  did  towards  the  end  of  Jiuic.  He  found  it  a  prey  to 
internal  animosities  and  dissensions,  owing  to  his  successors  having 
been  transported  into  some  acts  of  violence  by  the  ill  conduct  of 
certain  of  the  Portuguese  officers,  which  had  set  them  and  the 
British  at  variance.  By  Colonel  Le  Mesurier,  however,  harmony 
and  order  were  quickly  restored,  and  all  parties  reconciled.  He 
had  felt  some  apprehension  lest  his  quitting  Lord  Wellington  should 
have  operated  unfavourably  for  him  in  respect  to  his  promotion  in 
our  service  ;  but  he  was  relieved  from  it  by  his  commission  of 
British  licut. -colonel  coming  out  on  the  3d  of  October.  This  was 
followed  by  his  being  selected,  in  the  middle  of  March  following,  to 
rommand  the  fortress  of  Almeida,  at  a  time  when  Marmont's  move- 





In  1 1 



nients  in  the  north  excited  consideruble  aliirm  for  the  safely  of  that 
place.  On  this  occasion  lie  received  the  most  flattering  compli- 
ments from  Lord  ^^'ellington,  as  well  as  from  Sir  Thomas  (Jraham 
and  Sir  Kowhind  Hill;  and  his  Lordship  further  promised  to  re- 
commend for  an  cnsignry  a  younger  brother  of  i<is,  who  had  lately 
come  out  as  clerk  in  the  commissariat,  having  been  prevailed  up«)n 
by  him  to  relinquish  that  employment  and  embrace  the  more  activi' 
duties  of  a  military  life.  No  time  was  lost,  immediately  on  his  arrival, 
in  repairing  the  fortifications,  and  disciplining  the  garrison,  which 
consisted  of  new-raised  militia.  IJut,  so  completely  had  the  place 
l)een  dismantled,  and  so  insuthcient  was  this  handful  of  raw  troops 
for  any  serious  defence,  that,  upon  iNIarmont's  appearing  before  it, 
every  one  gave  it  up  as  lost.  He,  however,  shewed  such  a  counte- 
nance, having  prevailed  upon  his  men  to  accompany  him  in  two 
sallies,  and  skirmish  with  some  of  the  more  advanced  troops,  that 
the  enemy  gave  him  credit  for  being  stronger  than  he  was,  and 
desisted  from  any  attempt  upon  the  place.  The  manner  in  which 
he  proceeded  from  that  time  in  repairing  the  fortifications,  disci- 
plining the  garrison,  and  discharging  all  his  other  duties,  drew 
repeated  commendations  from  Lord  Wellington  and  Sir  ^^'illiam 
Beresford.  He  was  equally  beloved  by  the  inhabitants  of  Almeida 
and  by  the  troops.  But  all  this  did  not  satisfy  him  :  he  was  impa- 
tient under  this  state  of  comparative  inaction,  and  anxiously  longed 
to  share  "  the  dangers,  the  toils,  and  the  honors  of  his  companions  " 
in  the  field.  In  an  evil  hour,  as  his  friends  must  consider  it,  his 
repeated  solicitations  to  return  to  regimental  duty  prevailed  j  and 
he  was  appointed  on  the  18th  of  May  to  the  command  of  the  12th 
Portuguese  regiment,  which  he  joined  soon  after  :  and  which  he 
found  even  superior  to  his  own  beloved  14th.  By  them  indeed  he 
was  still  beloved,  for  it  happened,  that  in  their  line  of  march,  the 
two  corps  met;  and  as  he  passed  the  column  on  horseback,  the 
cheering  was  universal,  and  seemed,  as  he  said,  "  really  enthusi- 
astic." He  wrote  of  it  with  great  feeling.  Indeed  he  had  laboured 
hard  to  resume  his  situation  in  that  corps,  of  which  he  always  spoke 
with  great  affection.  Some  time  after  he  joined  the  main  army  in 
the  Pyrenees,  where  he  was  destined  to  meet  that  death  which  he 
appeared  so  bent  to  encounter.  Only  a  few  days  before  the  battle, 
he  obtained  that  step  in  the  Portuguese  service,  which  he  had  for 
some  time  expected,  being  made  full  cohmel ;  but,  whether  of  the  1 2th 
or  the  11th,  he  had  not  ascertained.  He  v.baerved,  that  "between 
the  two  his  expectations  were  balanced ;  and  not  only  his  cxpecla- 

I  \  \ 


COLONEL    LE    MESUlllEll, 


ly  of  that 
g  conipli- 
s  (i  rah  am 
iscd  to  re- 
had  lately 
iiiled  upon 
ore  active 
lis  arrival, 
on,  which 
the  place 
•aw  troops 
;  before  it, 
a  countc- 
m  in  two 
oops,  that 
was,  and 
r  in  which 
ons,  disci- 
ties,  drew 
r  ^^'illiam 
•f  Almeida 
was  impa- 
sly  longed 
panions  " 
er  it,  his 
iled  ;   and 
the  12th 
which  he 
indeed  he 
larch,  the 
Jack,  the 
ays  spoke 
army  in 
which  he 
he  battle, 
le  had  for 
f  the  12th 

tions, but  his  hopes;  for,  indeed,  the  I2ih  had  taught  him  that 
there  might  be  even  better  soldiers  than  his  favourite  Algarvians. — 
In  the  world,"  he  added,  "  there  are  not  such  soldiers  as  the  I'ortu- 
guese  :  an  opinion  which  is  every  day  gaining  proselytes."  This 
letter,  however,  dated  on  the  2.")th  of  July,  bore  evident  marks  of  a 
depressi(m  of  spirits.  lie  had  lately  been  treated  somewhat  harshly  in 
a  discussion,  in  which  he  had  laboured  to  obtain  justice  for  his  men, 
who  had  not  been  duly  served  with  their  rations  ;  and  he  had  just 
received  the  account  of  a  failure  in  his  endeavours  to  obtain  some 
advantage  for  that  brother  whom  he  had  induced  to  enter  the  army, 
and  who  had  lost  his  right  arm  by  a  cannon  shot  at  the  battle  of 
Salamanca.  He  showed  himself  greatly  hurt  at  this,  and  concluded 
with  saying,  "  Some  persons  suppose,  from  the  cessation  of  firing, 
St.  Sebastian  has  surrendered.  If  the  siege  continue,  I  shall  endea- 
vour to  obtain  leave  to  visit  the  trenches.  I  never  was  in  a  finer 
humour  to  volunteer  for  a  storming  party,  as,  if  I  succeeded,  I  should 
perhaps  be  able  to  carry  my  brother's  point ;  and  really,  to  carry 
it,  I  would  give  not  only  the  chance  of  life,  but  perhaps  Hfe  itself." 

These  and  many  other  circumstances  have  made  his  death  pe- 
culiarly affecting  to  his  near  connexions  and  friends.  They  would 
almost  justify  the  idea  that  he  had  thrown  away  his  life  :  but  the 
fact  does  not  warrant  any  such  surmise.  His  corps  had  scarcely 
entered  into  action,  on  the  28th  of  .July,  1813,*  when  a  musket 
shot  penetrated  the  back  part  of  his  head  (or  his  temples,  accord- 
ing to  some  accounts)  and  passed  out  at  his  eye,  and  he  fell  sense- 
less j  nor  did  he  ever  afterwards  utter  a  word,  or  shew  that  he  was 
sensible,  though  he  lived  till  the  31st.  By  some  strange  chance,  he 
was  stated  in  the  Ga/ette  only  simply  as  wounded  ;  so  that  his 
friends  were  tantalized  for  more  than  three  weeks  before  they  ob- 
tained certain  accounts  of  his  fate. 

When  to  the  above  particulars  is  added  that  he  was  little  more 
than  thirty  years  of  age  when  he  died,  it  will  not  be  thought  exager- 
ation  to  say,  that  Colonel  Le  Mesurier  was  an  officer  of  uncommon 
promise,  and  superior  military  talents  and  acquirements.  His  zeal 
for  the  service  was  unbounded  ;  there  was  no  fatigue,  or  privation, 
or  danger,  to  which  he  did  not  cheerfully  submit.  His  attention  to 
his  men  was  unceasing.  A  strict  disciplinarian,  he  felt  himself 
boujid,  even  on  that  account,  to  study  particularly  the  interests  and 

*  The  battle  of  the  Pyrenees,  near  Painpchina,  in  whicli  Soult  was  de- 
feated with  great  loss,  in  his  successive  attempts  to  raise  the  siege  of  hi- 
•Sebastian  and  the  blockade  of  Panipchuia.— Eu. 

I   ; 




the  comforts  of  those,  whom  he  commanded.  They  had,  therefore, 
every  indulgence  which  was  compatible  with  discipline  j  and  this 
made  them  both  orderly  and  contented.  In  him  there  was  neither 
selfishness  nor  concealment.  There  was  never  a  being  more  ho- 
nourable, or  high-spirited  and  generous  ;  more  kind-hearted  or 
liberal.  Warm  as  he  was  in  his  temper,  he  harboured  no  resent- 
ment, even  against  those,  who,  he  thought,  had  dealt  most  hardly 
with  him.  To  his  merits  Marshal  lieresford  bore  testimony  in  his 
general  orders  of  August  Iltli :  "  The  death  of  Colonel  Havilland 
Le  Mesurier,"  he  said,  "  will  be  felt  by  the  service,  as  well  as  by 
all,  who  enjoyed  his  acquaintance."  Indeed,  that  such  a  man  should 
be  deeply  regretted  by  his  friends,  cannot  be  wondered  at.  But  the 
same  Almighty  power,  which  deprived  them  of  him,  will  vouchsafe 
them  humble  and  dutiful  submission  to  his  decrees.  His  will  be 
done  ! 

Colonel  Le  Mesurier,  in  the  year  1809,  published  a  translation 
of  La  Trille's  Art  of  War,  with  notes  ;  which  has  great  merit.  He 
was  also  employed  by  Marshal  Beresford  to  draw  up  regulations 
and  instructions  for  the  Portuguese  army,  which  only  waited  for  the 
Marshal's  final  sanction  to  be  put  to  the  press. 


i   I 

Printed  by  S.  liarbet,  (Jtwrmeii. 

,  therefore, 

; ;   and  this 

vas  neither 

more  ho- 

■hearted  or 

no  resent- 

lost  hardly 

lony  in  his 


well  as  by 

lan  should 

.    But  the 


lis  will  be 

lerit.  He 
ted  for  the